Blood Pressure

Last Updated: July 19, 2023

Blood pressure is the force that blood exerts on blood vessels as it circulates. High blood pressure (hypertension) and low blood pressure (hypotension) can each lead to a variety of health issues.


Blood pressure (BP) refers to the force that blood exerts on the blood vessels as it circulates through your body. It plays a central role in heart health: cardiovascular disease risk is strongly associated with an increase in blood pressure, even when BP is within normal range.[1][2]

As your blood pressure increases, it strains your blood vessels and heart. If it remains too high (hypertension), this can increase your risk for heart attacks, strokes, vascular diseases, eye damage, kidney disease, and more.

As your BP drops, the pressure on the blood vessel walls decreases. If it remains too low (hypotension), you may not get enough oxygen to critical parts of your body, such as the brain and heart.

There are multiple risk factors that can contribute to the development of high blood pressure.

  • Age: As you age, blood pressure tends to go up.
  • Family history: Nearly 100 genetic variations have been associated with high blood pressure. While a family history of high BP raises your risk, the exact pattern of genetic inheritance is not known.
  • Lifestyle: Too much sodium (salt), insufficient potassium, not enough exercise, excessive alcohol intake, and smoking can all contribute to high blood pressure.
  • Race/ethnicity: Black adults experience high blood pressure more frequently.
  • Sex: Prior to age 55, males are more likely to develop high blood pressure. After 55, females are more likely to develop it.
  • Weight: People who carry too much fat have an increased risk of high blood pressure.

How are blood pressure levels assessed?

Blood pressure is most commonly measured using a blood pressure monitor or gauge (where a cuff is placed around your upper arm). It can be measured either in a single sitting or via ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) over 24 hours with a leave-on cuff. The latter is likely to be more accurate and result in fewer anomalous measurements since blood pressure can naturally fluctuate throughout the day.

Blood pressure is reported in two numbers; e.g., 120/80 mmHg (millimeters of mercury — a unit of pressure).

  • The first number, systolic blood pressure, tells us how much pressure your blood is exerting against the arterial walls when your heart contracts.
  • The second number, diastolic blood pressure, signifies how much pressure your blood is exerting when the heart is relaxed and refilling with blood.

Blood pressure measurements are generally divided into the five categories below.

Blood pressure category cutoffs (mmHg)

Low blood pressure
Normal blood pressure
Elevated blood pressure
Stage 1 hypertension
Stage 2 hypertension

Adapted from Whelton et al. Hypertension. 2018.[3]

In adults 65 or older, a blood pressure goal of 125–130 systolic and <80 diastolic is recommended.

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  1. ^The content of this page was partially adapted from MedlinePlus of the National Library of Medicine
  2. ^Pei D, Chen YL, Tang SH, Wu CZ, Lin JD, Chang YL, Hsu CH, Wang CY, Wang K, Wang JYRelationship of blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk factors in normotensive middle-aged menMedicine (Baltimore).(2011 Sep)
  3. ^Whelton PK, Carey RM, Aronow WS, Casey DE Jr, Collins KJ, Dennison Himmelfarb C, DePalma SM, Gidding S, Jamerson KA, Jones DW, MacLaughlin EJ, Muntner P, Ovbiagele B, Smith SC Jr, Spencer CC, Stafford RS, Taler SJ, Thomas RJ, Williams KA Sr, Williamson JD, Wright JT Jr2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice GuidelinesHypertension.(2018 Jun)
  4. ^Peti-Peterdi J, Harris RCMacula densa sensing and signaling mechanisms of renin releaseJ Am Soc Nephrol.(2010 Jul)
  5. ^Appel LJ, Brands MW, Daniels SR, Karanja N, Elmer PJ, Sacks FM, American Heart AssociationDietary approaches to prevent and treat hypertension: a scientific statement from the American Heart AssociationHypertension.(2006 Feb)
  6. ^National High Blood Pressure Education ProgramThe Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure
  7. ^Tielemans SM, Altorf-van der Kuil W, Engberink MF, Brink EJ, van Baak MA, Bakker SJ, Geleijnse JMIntake of total protein, plant protein and animal protein in relation to blood pressure: a meta-analysis of observational and intervention studiesJ Hum Hypertens.(2013 Sep)
  8. ^Rebholz CM, Friedman EE, Powers LJ, Arroyave WD, He J, Kelly TNDietary protein intake and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trialsAm J Epidemiol.(2012 Oct 1)
  9. ^Fekete ÁA, Giromini C, Chatzidiakou Y, Givens DI, Lovegrove JAWhey protein lowers blood pressure and improves endothelial function and lipid biomarkers in adults with prehypertension and mild hypertension: results from the chronic Whey2Go randomized controlled trialAm J Clin Nutr.(2016 Dec)
  10. ^Whelton PK, Carey RM, Aronow WS, Casey DE Jr, Collins KJ, Dennison Himmelfarb C, DePalma SM, Gidding S, Jamerson KA, Jones DW, MacLaughlin EJ, Muntner P, Ovbiagele B, Smith SC Jr, Spencer CC, Stafford RS, Taler SJ, Thomas RJ, Williams KA Sr, Williamson JD, Wright JT Jr2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults: Executive Summary: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice GuidelinesHypertension.(2018 Jun)
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  92. Licorice - Sigurjonsdottir HA, Manhem K, Axelson M, Wallerstedt SSubjects with essential hypertension are more sensitive to the inhibition of 11 beta-HSD by liquoriceJ Hum Hypertens.(2003 Feb)
  93. Clary sage - Seol GH, Lee YH, Kang P, You JH, Park M, Min SSRandomized Controlled Trial for Salvia sclarea or Lavandula angustifolia: Differential Effects on Blood Pressure in Female Patients with Urinary Incontinence Undergoing Urodynamic ExaminationJ Altern Complement Med.(2013 Jan 29)
  94. Astaxanthin - Yoshida H, Yanai H, Ito K, Tomono Y, Koikeda T, Tsukahara H, Tada NAdministration of natural astaxanthin increases serum HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin in subjects with mild hyperlipidemiaAtherosclerosis.(2010 Apr)
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  97. Ephedrine - Coffey CS, Steiner D, Baker BA, Allison DBA randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial of a product containing ephedrine, caffeine, and other ingredients from herbal sources for treatment of overweight and obesity in the absence of lifestyle treatmentInt J Obes Relat Metab Disord.(2004 Nov)
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  99. Kefir - Ghizi ACdS et alKefir improves blood parameters and reduces cardiovascular risks in patients with metabolic syndromePharmaNutrition.()
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  101. Citrulline - Benjamin Wax, Andreas N Kavazis, William LuckettEffects of Supplemental Citrulline-Malate Ingestion on Blood Lactate, Cardiovascular Dynamics, and Resistance Exercise Performance in Trained MalesJ Diet Suppl.(2016)
  102. Rose Essential Oil - Hongratanaworakit TRelaxing effect of rose oil on humansNat Prod Commun.(2009 Feb)
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  104. Saffron - Tayebe Kermani, Maedeh Zebarjadi, Hassan Mehrad-Majd, Seyed-Reza Mirhafez, Maryam Shemshian, Faezeh Ghasemi, Elham Mohammadzadeh, Seyed Hadi Mousavi, Abdolreza Norouzy, Toktam Moghiman, Akram Sadeghi, Gordon Ferns, Amir Avan, Elaheh Mahdipour, Majid Ghayour-MobarhanAnti-Inflammatory Effect of Crocus sativus on Serum Cytokine Levels in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo- Controlled TrialCurr Clin Pharmacol.(2017)
  105. Vitamin B3 - Kelly JJ, Lawson JA, Campbell LV, Storlien LH, Jenkins AB, Whitworth JA, O'Sullivan AJEffects of nicotinic acid on insulin sensitivity and blood pressure in healthy subjectsJ Hum Hypertens.(2000 Sep)
  106. Cannabis - R J Mathew, W H Wilson, D F Humphreys, J V Lowe, K E WietheRegional cerebral blood flow after marijuana smokingJ Cereb Blood Flow Metab.(1992 Sep)
  107. Conjugated Linoleic Acid - M F Engberink, J M Geleijnse, A J Wanders, I A BrouwerThe effect of conjugated linoleic acid, a natural trans fat from milk and meat, on human blood pressure: results from a randomized crossover feeding studyJ Hum Hypertens.(2012 Feb)
  108. Ephedrine - Astrup A, Lundsgaard C, Madsen J, Christensen NJEnhanced thermogenic responsiveness during chronic ephedrine treatment in manAm J Clin Nutr.(1985 Jul)
  109. Pycnogenol - Enseleit F, Sudano I, Périat D, Winnik S, Wolfrum M, Flammer AJ, Fröhlich GM, Kaiser P, Hirt A, Haile SR, Krasniqi N, Matter CM, Uhlenhut K, Högger P, Neidhart M, Lüscher TF, Ruschitzka F, Noll GEffects of Pycnogenol on endothelial function in patients with stable coronary artery disease: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over studyEur Heart J.(2012 Jul)
  110. Conjugated Linoleic Acid - Raff M, Tholstrup T, Sejrsen K, Straarup EM, Wiinberg NDiets rich in conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid have no effect on blood pressure and isobaric arterial elasticity in healthy young menJ Nutr.(2006 Apr)
  111. Caffeine - Del Coso J, Salinero JJ, Gonzalez-Millan C, Abian-Vicen J, Perez-Gonzalez BDose response effects of a caffeine-containing energy drink on muscle performance: a repeated measures designJ Int Soc Sports Nutr.(2012 May 8)
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  113. Spirulina - Miczke A, Szulińska M, Hansdorfer-Korzon R, Kręgielska-Narożna M, Suliburska J, Walkowiak J, Bogdański PEffects of spirulina consumption on body weight, blood pressure, and endothelial function in overweight hypertensive Caucasians: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trialEur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci.(2016)
  114. Creatine - Weiss BA, Powers MECreatine supplementation does not impair the thermoregulatory response during a bout of exercise in the heatJ Sports Med Phys Fitness.(2006 Dec)
  115. Ketogenic Diet - Parker N Hyde, Teryn N Sapper, Christopher D Crabtree, Richard A LaFountain, Madison L Bowling, Alex Buga, Brandon Fell, Fionn T McSwiney, Ryan M Dickerson, Vincent J Miller, Debbie Scandling, Orlando P Simonetti, Stephen D Phinney, William J Kraemer, Sarah A King, Ronald M Krauss, Jeff S VolekDietary carbohydrate restriction improves metabolic syndrome independent of weight lossJCI Insight.(2019 Jun 20)
  116. Whey Protein - Pal S, Ellis VAcute effects of whey protein isolate on blood pressure, vascular function and inflammatory markers in overweight postmenopausal womenBr J Nutr.(2011 May)
  117. Citrulline - Ochiai M, Hayashi T, Morita M, Ina K, Maeda M, Watanabe F, Morishita KShort-term effects of L-citrulline supplementation on arterial stiffness in middle-aged menInt J Cardiol.(2012 Mar 8)
  118. Citrulline - Figueroa A, Trivino JA, Sanchez-Gonzalez MA, Vicil FOral L-citrulline supplementation attenuates blood pressure response to cold pressor test in young menAm J Hypertens.(2010 Jan)
  119. Roselle - Herrera-Arellano A, Miranda-Sánchez J, Avila-Castro P, Herrera-Alvarez S, Jiménez-Ferrer JE, Zamilpa A, Román-Ramos R, Ponce-Monter H, Tortoriello JClinical effects produced by a standardized herbal medicinal product of Hibiscus sabdariffa on patients with hypertension. A randomized, double-blind, lisinopril-controlled clinical trialPlanta Med.(2007 Jan)
  120. Fish Oil - Morgan WA, Raskin P, Rosenstock JA comparison of fish oil or corn oil supplements in hyperlipidemic subjects with NIDDMDiabetes Care.(1995 Jan)
  121. Theanine - Peter J Rogers, Jessica E Smith, Susan V Heatherley, C W Pleydell-PearceTime for tea: mood, blood pressure and cognitive performance effects of caffeine and theanine administered alone and togetherPsychopharmacology (Berl).(2008 Jan)
  122. Garlic - Veena Dhawan, Sanjay JainGarlic supplementation prevents oxidative DNA damage in essential hypertensionMol Cell Biochem.(2005 Jul)
  123. Nitrate - Gilchrist M, Winyard PG, Aizawa K, Anning C, Shore A, Benjamin NEffect of dietary nitrate on blood pressure, endothelial function, and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetesFree Radic Biol Med.(2013 Feb 7)
  124. Cissus Quadrangularis - Richard J Bloomer, Tyler M Farney, Cameron G McCarthy, Sang-Rok LeeCissus quadrangularis reduces joint pain in exercise-trained men: a pilot studyPhys Sportsmed.(2013 Sep)
  125. Vegan Diet - Persio D Lopez, Eder H Cativo, Steven A Atlas, Clive RosendorffThe Effect of Vegan Diets on Blood Pressure in Adults: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled TrialsAm J Med.(2019 Jul)
  126. Vitamin B2 - Wilson CP, Ward M, McNulty H, Strain JJ, Trouton TG, Horigan G, Purvis J, Scott JMRiboflavin offers a targeted strategy for managing hypertension in patients with the MTHFR 677TT genotype: a 4-y follow-upAm J Clin Nutr.(2012 Mar)
  127. Dill - Mansouri M, Nayebi N, Keshtkar A, Hasani-Ranjbar S, Taheri E, Larijani BThe effect of 12 weeks Anethum graveolens (dill) on metabolic markers in patients with metabolic syndrome; a randomized double blind controlled trialDaru.(2012 Oct 4)
  128. Theanine - Ai Yoto, Mao Motoki, Sato Murao, Hidehiko YokogoshiEffects of L-theanine or caffeine intake on changes in blood pressure under physical and psychological stressesJ Physiol Anthropol.(2012 Oct 29)
  129. Cocoa Extract - Shiina Y, Funabashi N, Lee K, Murayama T, Nakamura K, Wakatsuki Y, Daimon M, Komuro IAcute effect of oral flavonoid-rich dark chocolate intake on coronary circulation, as compared with non-flavonoid white chocolate, by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography in healthy adultsInt J Cardiol.(2009 Jan 24)
  130. Maca - Tsuyoshi Takewaka, Kiyoshi HaraClinical Effect of Oral Administration of Maca (Lepidium meyenii) Extract on Japanese Peri-Menopausal Women Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled StudyInt J Biomed Sci.()
  131. Fish Oil - Simão AN, Lozovoy MA, Bahls LD, Morimoto HK, Simão TN, Matsuo T, Dichi IBlood pressure decrease with ingestion of a soya product (kinako) or fish oil in women with the metabolic syndrome: role of adiponectin and nitric oxideBr J Nutr.(2012 Feb 8)
  132. Inositol - Maeba R, Hara H, Ishikawa H, Hayashi S, Yoshimura N, Kusano J, Takeoka Y, Yasuda D, Okazaki T, Kinoshita M, Teramoto TMyo-inositol treatment increases serum plasmalogens and decreases small dense LDL, particularly in hyperlipidemic subjects with metabolic syndromeJ Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo).(2008 Jun)
  133. Paleolithic Diet - Barbara Frączek, Aleksandra Pięta, Adrian Burda, Paulina Mazur-Kurach, Florentyna TyrałaPaleolithic Diet-Effect on the Health Status and Performance of Athletes?Nutrients.(2021 Mar 21)
  134. Coenzyme Q10 - Zhang P, Yang C, Guo H, Wang J, Lin S, Li H, Yang Y, Ling WTreatment of coenzyme Q10 for 24 weeks improves lipid and glycemic profile in dyslipidemic individualsJ Clin Lipidol.(2018 Mar - Apr)
  135. Arginine - Monti LD, Setola E, Lucotti PC, Marrocco-Trischitta MM, Comola M, Galluccio E, Poggi A, Mammì S, Catapano AL, Comi G, Chiesa R, Bosi E, Piatti PMEffect of a long-term oral l-arginine supplementation on glucose metabolism: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialDiabetes Obes Metab.(2012 Oct)
  136. Citrulline - Casonatto J, et alCitrulline malate supplementation might potentiate post-exercise hypotension in hypertensives: A 24-hour analysisSci Sport.()
  137. Ginkgo Biloba - Wimpissinger B, Berisha F, Garhoefer G, Polak K, Schmetterer LInfluence of Ginkgo biloba on ocular blood flowActa Ophthalmol Scand.(2007 Jun)
  138. Melatonin - Nishiyama K, Yasue H, Moriyama Y, Tsunoda R, Ogawa H, Yoshimura M, Kugiyama KAcute effects of melatonin administration on cardiovascular autonomic regulation in healthy menAm Heart J.(2001 May)
  139. Nattokinase - Kim JY, Gum SN, Paik JK, Lim HH, Kim KC, Ogasawara K, Inoue K, Park S, Jang Y, Lee JHEffects of nattokinase on blood pressure: a randomized, controlled trialHypertens Res.(2008 Aug)
  140. Pycnogenol - Liu X, Wei J, Tan F, Zhou S, Würthwein G, Rohdewald PPycnogenol, French maritime pine bark extract, improves endothelial function of hypertensive patientsLife Sci.(2004 Jan 2)
  141. Cocoa Extract - Engler MB, Engler MM, Chen CY, Malloy MJ, Browne A, Chiu EY, Kwak HK, Milbury P, Paul SM, Blumberg J, Mietus-Snyder MLFlavonoid-rich dark chocolate improves endothelial function and increases plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adultsJ Am Coll Nutr.(2004 Jun)
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  144. Vegan Diet - Joshua Gibbs, Eleanor Gaskin, Chen Ji, Michelle A Miller, Francesco P CappuccioThe effect of plant-based dietary patterns on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled intervention trialsJ Hypertens.(2021 Jan)
  145. Tetradecyl Thioacetic Acid - Reidar J Pettersen, Mohamed Salem, Jon Skorve, Rune J Ulvik, Rolf K Berge, Jan Erik NordrehaugPharmacology and safety of tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA): phase-1 studyJ Cardiovasc Pharmacol.(2008 Apr)
  146. Hesperidin - Rizza S, Muniyappa R, Iantorno M, Kim JA, Chen H, Pullikotil P, Senese N, Tesauro M, Lauro D, Cardillo C, Quon MJCitrus polyphenol hesperidin stimulates production of nitric oxide in endothelial cells while improving endothelial function and reducing inflammatory markers in patients with metabolic syndromeJ Clin Endocrinol Metab.(2011 May)
  147. African Mango - Ngondi JL, Oben JE, Minka SRThe effect of Irvingia gabonensis seeds on body weight and blood lipids of obese subjects in CameroonLipids Health Dis.(2005 May 25)
  148. Kava - Cropley M, Cave Z, Ellis J, Middleton RWEffect of kava and valerian on human physiological and psychological responses to mental stress assessed under laboratory conditionsPhytother Res.(2002 Feb)
  149. L-Carnitine - Munji Choi, Seongmin Park, Myoungsook LeeL-Carnitine's Effect on the Biomarkers of Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled TrialsNutrients.(2020 Sep 12)
  150. OMAD And 20:4 Intermittent Fasting - Sutton EF, Beyl R, Early KS, Cefalu WT, Ravussin E, Peterson CMEarly Time-Restricted Feeding Improves Insulin Sensitivity, Blood Pressure, and Oxidative Stress Even without Weight Loss in Men with PrediabetesCell Metab.(2018 Jun 5)
  151. Fish Oil - Rizza S, Tesauro M, Cardillo C, Galli A, Iantorno M, Gigli F, Sbraccia P, Federici M, Quon MJ, Lauro DFish oil supplementation improves endothelial function in normoglycemic offspring of patients with type 2 diabetesAtherosclerosis.(2009 Oct)
  152. Spirulina - Jesús Martínez-Sámano, Adriana Torres-Montes de Oca, Oscar Ivan Luqueño-Bocardo, Patricia V Torres-Durán, Marco A Juárez-OropezaSpirulina maxima Decreases Endothelial Damage and Oxidative Stress Indicators in Patients with Systemic Arterial Hypertension: Results from Exploratory Controlled Clinical TrialMar Drugs.(2018 Dec 8)
  153. Fish Oil - Krebs JD, Browning LM, McLean NK, Rothwell JL, Mishra GD, Moore CS, Jebb SAAdditive benefits of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and weight-loss in the management of cardiovascular disease risk in overweight hyperinsulinaemic womenInt J Obes (Lond).(2006 Oct)
  154. Citrulline - Alexei Wong, Oksana Chernykh, Arturo FigueroaChronic l-citrulline supplementation improves cardiac sympathovagal balance in obese postmenopausal women: A preliminary reportAuton Neurosci.(2016 Jul)
  155. Spirulina - Sajjad Moradi, Mehdi Zobeiri, Awat Feizi, Cain C T Clark, Mohammad Hassan EntezariThe effects of spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) supplementation on anthropometric indices, blood pressure, sleep quality, mental health, fatigue status and quality of life in patients with ulcerative colitis: A randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trialInt J Clin Pract.(2021 Jun 9)
  156. Cocoa Extract - Mogollon JA, Bujold E, Lemieux S, Bourdages M, Blanchet C, Bazinet L, Couillard C, Noël M, Dodin SBlood pressure and endothelial function in healthy, pregnant women after acute and daily consumption of flavanol-rich chocolate: a pilot, randomized controlled trialNutr J.(2013 Apr 8)
  157. Curcumin - Amin F, Islam N, Anila N, Gilani AHClinical efficacy of the co-administration of Turmeric and Black seeds (Kalongi) in metabolic syndrome - a double blind randomized controlled trial - TAK-MetS trialComplement Ther Med.(2015 Apr)
  158. Red Clover Extract - Howes JB, Sullivan D, Lai N, Nestel P, Pomeroy S, West L, Eden JA, Howes LGThe effects of dietary supplementation with isoflavones from red clover on the lipoprotein profiles of post menopausal women with mild to moderate hypercholesterolaemiaAtherosclerosis.(2000 Sep)
  159. Cocoa Extract - Ottaviani JI, Balz M, Kimball J, Ensunsa JL, Fong R, Momma TY, Kwik-Uribe C, Schroeter H, Keen CLSafety and efficacy of cocoa flavanol intake in healthy adults: a randomized, controlled, double-masked trialAm J Clin Nutr.(2015 Dec)
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  161. Cannabis - R D Steadward, M SinghThe effects of smoking marihuana on physical performanceMed Sci Sports.(Winter 1975)
  162. Citrulline - Juliano Casonatto, Daniel Massaharu Enokida, Kamila GrandolfiInter-Individual Responses to Citrulline Malate Oral Supplementation on Post-Exercise Hypotension in Hypertensives: A 24-Hour AnalysisArq Bras Cardiol.(2019 Jul 10)
  163. Whey Protein - Vatani DS, Golzar FAChanges in antioxidant status and cardiovascular risk factors of overweight young men after six weeks supplementation of whey protein isolate and resistance trainingAppetite.(2012 Aug 10)
  164. Apple Cider Vinegar - Kondo T, Kishi M, Fushimi T, Ugajin S, Kaga TVinegar intake reduces body weight, body fat mass, and serum triglyceride levels in obese Japanese subjectsBiosci Biotechnol Biochem.(2009 Aug)
  165. Curcumin - Khajehdehi P, Zanjaninejad B, Aflaki E, Nazarinia M, Azad F, Malekmakan L, Dehghanzadeh GROral supplementation of turmeric decreases proteinuria, hematuria, and systolic blood pressure in patients suffering from relapsing or refractory lupus nephritis: a randomized and placebo-controlled studyJ Ren Nutr.(2012 Jan)
  166. Garlic - Ried K, Frank OR, Stocks NPAged garlic extract reduces blood pressure in hypertensives: a dose-response trialEur J Clin Nutr.(2013 Jan)
  167. Paleolithic Diet - Mohammad Hassan Sohouli, Somaye Fatahi, Abolfazl Lari, Mojtaba Lotfi, Maryam Seifishahpar, Mihnea-Alexandru Găman, Seyedeh Tayebeh Rahideh, Saud K AlBatati, Abdullah M AlHossan, Sara A Alkhalifa, Sara A Alomar, Ahmed Abu-ZaidThe effect of paleolithic diet on glucose metabolism and lipid profile among patients with metabolic disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trialsCrit Rev Food Sci Nutr.(2021 Jan 25)
  168. Soy Protein - Maedeh Moradi, Elnaz Daneshzad, Leila AzadbakhtThe Effects of Isolated Soy Protein, Isolated Soy Isoflavones and Soy Protein Containing Isoflavones on Serum Lipids in Postmenopausal Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-AnalysisCrit Rev Food Sci Nutr.(2019 Dec 20)
  169. L-Tyrosine - Thomas J, Lockwood P, Singh, A, Patricia, DTyrosine Improves Working Memory in a Multitasking EnvironmentPharmacol Biochem.()
  170. Fish Oil - Campbell F, Dickinson HO, Critchley JA, Ford GA, Bradburn MA systematic review of fish-oil supplements for the prevention and treatment of hypertensionEur J Prev Cardiolog.(2012 Jan 30)
  171. 1,3-Dimethylamylamine - Bloomer RJ, Harvey IC, Farney TM, Bell ZW, Canale REEffects of 1,3-dimethylamylamine and caffeine alone or in combination on heart rate and blood pressure in healthy men and womenPhys Sportsmed.(2011 Sep)
  172. Saffron - Milajerdi A, Jazayeri S, Hashemzadeh N, Shirzadi E, Derakhshan Z, Djazayeri A, Akhondzadeh SThe effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) hydroalcoholic extract on metabolic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A triple-blinded randomized clinical trialJ Res Med Sci.(2018 Feb 20)
  173. Rose Hip - Andersson U, Berger K, Högberg A, Landin-Olsson M, Holm CEffects of rose hip intake on risk markers of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over investigation in obese personsEur J Clin Nutr.(2012 May)
  174. Pycnogenol - Zibadi S, Rohdewald PJ, Park D, Watson RRReduction of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with type 2 diabetes by Pycnogenol supplementationNutr Res.(2008 May)
  175. Alpha-Lipoic Acid - Sola S, Mir MQ, Cheema FA, Khan-Merchant N, Menon RG, Parthasarathy S, Khan BVIrbesartan and lipoic acid improve endothelial function and reduce markers of inflammation in the metabolic syndrome: results of the Irbesartan and Lipoic Acid in Endothelial Dysfunction (ISLAND) studyCirculation.(2005 Jan 25)
  176. Ketogenic Diet - Phillips SA, Jurva JW, Syed AQ, Syed AQ, Kulinski JP, Pleuss J, Hoffmann RG, Gutterman DDBenefit of low-fat over low-carbohydrate diet on endothelial health in obesityHypertension.(2008 Feb)
  177. Conjugated Linoleic Acid - Diaz ML, Watkins BA, Li Y, Anderson RA, Campbell WWChromium picolinate and conjugated linoleic acid do not synergistically influence diet- and exercise-induced changes in body composition and health indexes in overweight womenJ Nutr Biochem.(2008 Jan)
  178. Fish Oil - L Axelrod, J Camuso, E Williams, K Kleinman, E Briones, D SchoenfeldEffects of a Small Quantity of omega-3 Fatty Acids on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in NIDDM. A Randomized, Prospective, Double-Blind, Controlled StudyDiabetes Care.(1994 Jan)
  179. Astaxanthin - Nakagawa K, Kiko T, Miyazawa T, Carpentero Burdeos G, Kimura F, Satoh A, Miyazawa TAntioxidant effect of astaxanthin on phospholipid peroxidation in human erythrocytesBr J Nutr.(2011 Jun)
  180. Mango - Shirley F Evans, Maureen Meister, Maryam Mahmood, Heba Eldoumi, Sandra Peterson, Penelope Perkins-Veazie, Stephen L Clarke, Mark Payton, Brenda J Smith, Edralin A LucasMango supplementation improves blood glucose in obese individualsNutr Metab Insights.(2014 Aug 28)
  181. Citrulline - Joaquin U Gonzales, Andrea Raymond, John Ashley, Youngdeok KimDoes l-citrulline supplementation improve exercise blood flow in older adults?Exp Physiol.(2017 Dec 1)
  182. Kefir - Ezgi Bellikci-Koyu, Banu Pınar Sarer-Yurekli, Yakut Akyon, Fadime Aydin-Kose, Cem Karagozlu, Ahmet Gokhan Ozgen, Annika Brinkmann, Andreas Nitsche, Koray Ergunay, Engin Yilmaz, Zehra BuyuktuncerEffects of Regular Kefir Consumption on Gut Microbiota in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome: A Parallel-Group, Randomized, Controlled StudyNutrients.(2019 Sep 4)
  183. Ashwagandha - Choudhary D, Bhattacharyya S, Joshi KBody Weight Management in Adults Under Chronic Stress Through Treatment With Ashwagandha Root Extract: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled TrialJ Evid Based Complementary Altern Med.(2017 Jan)
  184. Red Clover Extract - Howes JB, Bray K, Lorenz L, Smerdely P, Howes LGThe effects of dietary supplementation with isoflavones from red clover on cognitive function in postmenopausal womenClimacteric.(2004 Mar)
  185. Psyllium - Pal S, Khossousi A, Binns C, Dhaliwal S, Radavelli-Bagatini SThe effects of 12-week psyllium fibre supplementation or healthy diet on blood pressure and arterial stiffness in overweight and obese individualsBr J Nutr.(2012 Mar)
  186. OMAD And 20:4 Intermittent Fasting - B D Horne, J B Muhlestein, D L Lappé, H T May, J F Carlquist, O Galenko, K D Brunisholz, J L AndersonRandomized cross-over trial of short-term water-only fasting: metabolic and cardiovascular consequencesNutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis.(2013 Nov)
  187. Psyllium - de Bock M, Derraik JG, Brennan CM, Biggs JB, Smith GC, Cameron-Smith D, Wall CR, Cutfield WSPsyllium supplementation in adolescents improves fat distribution & lipid profile: a randomized, participant-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trialPLoS One.(2012)
  188. Vitamin B2 - Wilson CP, McNulty H, Ward M, Strain JJ, Trouton TG, Hoeft BA, Weber P, Roos FF, Horigan G, McAnena L, Scott JMBlood pressure in treated hypertensive individuals with the MTHFR 677TT genotype is responsive to intervention with riboflavin: findings of a targeted randomized trialHypertension.(2013 Jun)
  189. Vegan Diet - Amir Abbasnezhad, Ebrahim Falahi, Michael J Gonzalez, Parivash Kavehi, Faezeh Fouladvand, Razieh ChoghakhoriEffect of Different Dietary Approaches Compared With a Regular Diet on Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-AnalysisDiabetes Res Clin Pract.(2020 May)
  190. Bacopa Monnieri - Luke A Downey, James Kean, Fiona Nemeh, Angela Lau, Alex Poll, Rebecca Gregory, Margaret Murray, Johanna Rourke, Brigit Patak, Matthew P Pase, Andrea Zangara, Justine Lomas, Andrew Scholey, Con StoughAn acute, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study of 320 mg and 640 mg doses of a special extract of Bacopa monnieri (CDRI 08) on sustained cognitive performancePhytother Res.(2013 Sep)
  191. Curcumin - Santos-Parker JR, Strahler TR, Bassett CJ, Bispham NZ, Chonchol MB, Seals DRCurcumin supplementation improves vascular endothelial function in healthy middle-aged and older adults by increasing nitric oxide bioavailability and reducing oxidative stressAging (Albany NY).(2017 Jan 3)
  192. Licorice - Decio Armanini, Mee Jung Mattarello, Cristina Fiore, Guglielmo Bonanni, Carla Scaroni, Paola Sartorato, Mario PalermoLicorice reduces serum testosterone in healthy womenSteroids.(Oct-Nov 2004)
  193. Astaxanthin - Mashhadi NS, Zakerkish M, Mohammadiasl J, Zarei M, Mohammadshahi M, Haghighizadeh MHAstaxanthin improves glucose metabolism and reduces blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitusAsia Pac J Clin Nutr.(2018)
  194. Panax Ginseng - Rhee MY, Kim YS, Bae JH, Nah DY, Kim YK, Lee MM, Kim HYEffect of Korean red ginseng on arterial stiffness in subjects with hypertensionJ Altern Complement Med.(2011 Jan)
  195. Taurine - Beyranvand MR, Khalafi MK, Roshan VD, Choobineh S, Parsa SA, Piranfar MAEffect of taurine supplementation on exercise capacity of patients with heart failureJ Cardiol.(2011 May)
  196. Vitamin E - Economides PA, Khaodhiar L, Caselli A, Caballero AE, Keenan H, Bursell SE, King GL, Johnstone MT, Horton ES, Veves AThe effect of vitamin E on endothelial function of micro- and macrocirculation and left ventricular function in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patientsDiabetes.(2005 Jan)
  197. Cocoa Extract - Verawati Sudarma, Sri Sukmaniah, Parlindungan SiregarEffect of dark chocolate on nitric oxide serum levels and blood pressure in prehypertension subjectsActa Med Indones.(2011 Oct)
  198. Paleolithic Diet - Ehsan Ghaedi, Mohammad Mohammadi, Hamed Mohammadi, Nahid Ramezani-Jolfaie, Janmohamad Malekzadeh, Mahdieh Hosseinzadeh, Amin Salehi-AbargoueiEffects of a Paleolithic Diet on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled TrialsAdv Nutr.(2019 Jul 1)
  199. Cocoa Extract - Muniyappa R, Hall G, Kolodziej TL, Karne RJ, Crandon SK, Quon MJCocoa consumption for 2 wk enhances insulin-mediated vasodilatation without improving blood pressure or insulin resistance in essential hypertensionAm J Clin Nutr.(2008 Dec)
  200. Tribulus Terrestris - Kamenov Z, Fileva S, Kalinov K, Jannini EAEvaluation of the efficacy and safety of Tribulus terrestris in male sexual dysfunction-A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trialMaturitas.(2017 May)
  201. ECA - Daly PA, Krieger DR, Dulloo AG, Young JB, Landsberg LEphedrine, caffeine and aspirin: safety and efficacy for treatment of human obesityInt J Obes Relat Metab Disord.(1993 Feb)
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  204. Ashwagandha - Chengappa KNR, Brar JS, Gannon JM, Schlicht PJAdjunctive Use of a Standardized Extract of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) to Treat Symptom Exacerbation in Schizophrenia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled StudyJ Clin Psychiatry.(2018 Jul 10)
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  206. Coleus Forskohlii - Madhavi Jagtap, H M Chandola, B RavishankarClinical efficacy of Coleus forskohlii (Willd.) Briq. (Makandi) in hypertension of geriatric populationAyu.(2011 Jan)
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  214. Saffron - Safarinejad MR, Shafiei N, Safarinejad SA prospective double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study of the effect of saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) on semen parameters and seminal plasma antioxidant capacity in infertile men with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermiaPhytother Res.(2011 Apr)
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  220. Cocoa Extract - Grassi D, Necozione S, Lippi C, Croce G, Valeri L, Pasqualetti P, Desideri G, Blumberg JB, Ferri CCocoa reduces blood pressure and insulin resistance and improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in hypertensivesHypertension.(2005 Aug)
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  222. Cannabis - Aronow W, Cassidy JEffect of smoking marihuana and of a high-nicotine cigarette on angina pectoris Clin Pharm.()
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  229. 16:8 Intermittent Fasting - Grant M Tinsley, M Lane Moore, Austin J Graybeal, Antonio Paoli, Youngdeok Kim, Joaquin U Gonzales, John R Harry, Trisha A VanDusseldorp, Devin N Kennedy, Megan R CruzTime-restricted feeding plus resistance training in active females: a randomized trialAm J Clin Nutr.(2019 Sep 1)
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  234. Benfotiamine - Alkhalaf A, Klooster A, van Oeveren W, Achenbach U, Kleefstra N, Slingerland RJ, Mijnhout GS, Bilo HJ, Gans RO, Navis GJ, Bakker SJA double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial on benfotiamine treatment in patients with diabetic nephropathyDiabetes Care.(2010 Jul)
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  244. Spirulina - Patricia V Torres-Duran, Aldo Ferreira-Hermosillo, Marco A Juarez-OropezaAntihyperlipemic and antihypertensive effects of Spirulina maxima in an open sample of Mexican population: a preliminary reportLipids Health Dis.(2007 Nov 26)
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  248. Ginkgo Biloba - Chung HS, Harris A, Kristinsson JK, Ciulla TA, Kagemann C, Ritch RGinkgo biloba extract increases ocular blood flow velocityJ Ocul Pharmacol Ther.(1999 Jun)
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  256. Microlactin - Sharpe SJ, Gamble GD, Sharpe DNCholesterol-lowering and blood pressure effects of immune milkAm J Clin Nutr.(1994 Apr)
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  263. Pyruvate - Stanko RT, Reynolds HR, Lonchar KD, Arch JEPlasma lipid concentrations in hyperlipidemic patients consuming a high-fat diet supplemented with pyruvate for 6 wkAm J Clin Nutr.(1992 Nov)
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  266. Tetradecyl Thioacetic Acid - Løvås K, Røst TH, Skorve J, Ulvik RJ, Gudbrandsen OA, Bohov P, Wensaas AJ, Rustan AC, Berge RK, Husebye ESTetradecylthioacetic acid attenuates dyslipidaemia in male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, possibly by dual PPAR-alpha/delta activation and increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidationDiabetes Obes Metab.(2009 Apr)
  267. Panax Ginseng - Park BJ, Lee YJ, Lee HR, Jung DH, Na HY, Kim HB, Shim JYEffects of Korean Red Ginseng on Cardiovascular Risks in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome: a Double-blind Randomized Controlled StudyKorean J Fam Med.(2012 Jul)
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  269. Cannabis - Merritt JC, Crawford WJ, Alexander PC, Anduze AL, Gelbart SS