Whey Protein

Last Updated: September 28 2022

The protein in cow’s milks is 80% casein and 20% whey protein. Whey protein powder is extremely popular due to its high digestibility and well-researched benefits for both muscle gain and fat loss.

Whey Protein is most often used for

What is whey protein?

Whey protein is a collection of proteins found in whey, a byproduct of cheesemaking. When a coagulant (usually renin) is added to milk, the curds (casein) and whey separate; whey protein is the water-soluble part of milk. As a supplement, it’s sold as dry powders with various levels of processing that affect how concentrated a source of protein they are and how fast they’re absorbed.

What are the benefits of whey protein?

It’s a high quality, well-absorbed source of protein that’s very useful for hitting targeted daily protein goals. Its benefits extend to the benefits of increased protein intake in general, such as augmenting muscle gain in conjunction with resistance training, limiting muscle loss during low-calorie diets, and modestly limiting fat gain during periods of excessive calorie intake. These effects aren’t exclusive to whey protein but it will likely be more effective than most other protein sources per gram.

What are whey protein’s side effects and drawbacks?

Whey does not harm the liver or kidneys, but it can exacerbate pre-existing damage. People with damaged livers or kidneys should exercise caution when increasing protein intake quickly without the guidance of a doctor. See more: can eating too much protein be bad for you?

What else is Whey Protein known as?
Note that Whey Protein is also known as:
  • whey
  • whey concentrate
  • whey isolate
  • whey hydrolysate
  • hydrolyzed whey
  • whey protein powder
Whey Protein should not be confused with:
Dosage information

To determine your optimal intake, you can use our Protein Intake Calculator, which is based on the evidence presented in our Optimal Protein Intake Guide.

Supplements Demystified: Get Our Unbiased, Evidence-Based Guide

Examine Database: Whey Protein
What works and what doesn't?

Unlock the full potential of Examine

Get started

Don't miss out on the latest research

Frequently asked questions

Other FAQs

2.^Abd El-Fattah AM, Abd Rabo FH, El-Dieb SM, El-Kashef HAChanges in composition of colostrum of Egyptian buffaloes and Holstein cowsBMC Vet Res.(2012 Mar 5)
3.^Zhang H, Yao J, Zhao D, Liu H, Li J, Guo MChanges in chemical composition of Alxa bactrian camel milk during lactationJ Dairy Sci.(2005 Oct)
4.^Morin DE, Rowan LL, Hurley WL, Braselton WEComposition of milk from llamas in the United StatesJ Dairy Sci.(1995 Aug)
5.^Adkins Y, Zicker SC, Lepine A, Lönnerdal BChanges in nutrient and protein composition of cat milk during lactationAm J Vet Res.(1997 Apr)
6.^Jenness RThe composition of human milkSemin Perinatol.(1979 Jul)
8.^Conti A, Napolitano L, Cantisani AM, Davoli R, Dall'Olio SBovine beta-lactoglobulin H: isolation by preparative isoelectric focusing in immobilized pH gradients and preliminary characterizationJ Biochem Biophys Methods.(1988 Jun-Jul)
9.^Godovac-Zimmermann J, Krause I, Baranyi M, Fischer-Frühholz S, Juszczak J, Erhardt G, Buchberger J, Klostermeyer HIsolation and rapid sequence characterization of two novel bovine beta-lactoglobulins I and JJ Protein Chem.(1996 Nov)
10.^Godovac-Zimmermann J, Krause I, Buchberger J, Weiss G, Klostermeyer HGenetic variants of bovine beta-lactoglobulin. A novel wild-type beta-lactoglobulin W and its primary sequenceBiol Chem Hoppe Seyler.(1990 Mar)
11.^Sousa GT, Lira FS, Rosa JC, de Oliveira EP, Oyama LM, Santos RV, Pimentel GDDietary whey protein lessens several risk factors for metabolic diseases: a reviewLipids Health Dis.(2012 Jul 10)
12.^Heine WE, Klein PD, Reeds PJThe importance of alpha-lactalbumin in infant nutritionJ Nutr.(1991 Mar)
14.^Carter DC, Ho JXStructure of serum albuminAdv Protein Chem.(1994)
15.^Keogh JB, Woonton BW, Taylor CM, Janakievski F, Desilva K, Clifton PMEffect of glycomacropeptide fractions on cholecystokinin and food intakeBr J Nutr.(2010 Jul)
16.^Kissileff HR, Pi-Sunyer FX, Thornton J, Smith GPC-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin decreases food intake in manAm J Clin Nutr.(1981 Feb)
17.^Pi-Sunyer X, Kissileff HR, Thornton J, Smith GPC-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin decreases food intake in obese menPhysiol Behav.(1982 Oct)
19.^Legrand D, Pierce A, Elass E, Carpentier M, Mariller C, Mazurier JLactoferrin structure and functionsAdv Exp Med Biol.(2008)
20.^Duarte DC, Nicolau A, Teixeira JA, Rodrigues LRThe effect of bovine milk lactoferrin on human breast cancer cell linesJ Dairy Sci.(2011 Jan)
22.^Ballard KD, Bruno RS, Seip RL, Quann EE, Volk BM, Freidenreich DJ, Kawiecki DM, Kupchak BR, Chung MY, Kraemer WJ, Volek JSAcute ingestion of a novel whey-derived peptide improves vascular endothelial responses in healthy individuals: a randomized, placebo controlled trialNutr J.(2009 Jul 22)
23.^Ballard KD, Kupchak BR, Volk BM, Mah E, Shkreta A, Liptak C, Ptolemy AS, Kellogg MS, Bruno RS, Seip RL, Maresh CM, Kraemer WJ, Volek JSAcute effects of ingestion of a novel whey-derived extract on vascular endothelial function in overweight, middle-aged men and womenBr J Nutr.(2012 Jun 13:1-12)
24.^Cabanos C, Ekyo A, Amari Y, Kato N, Kuroda M, Nagaoka S, Takaiwa F, Utsumi S, Maruyama NHigh-level production of lactostatin, a hypocholesterolemic peptide, in transgenic rice using soybean A1aB1b as carrierTransgenic Res.(2012 Nov 6)
28.^Izumi H, Kosaka N, Shimizu T, Sekine K, Ochiya T, Takase MBovine milk contains microRNA and messenger RNA that are stable under degradative conditionsJ Dairy Sci.(2012 Sep)
29.^Oddy WH, Halonen M, Martinez FD, Lohman IC, Stern DA, Kurzius-Spencer M, Guerra S, Wright ALTGF-beta in human milk is associated with wheeze in infancyJ Allergy Clin Immunol.(2003 Oct)
30.^Hering NA, Andres S, Fromm A, van Tol EA, Amasheh M, Mankertz J, Fromm M, Schulzke JDTransforming growth factor-ß, a whey protein component, strengthens the intestinal barrier by upregulating claudin-4 in HT-29/B6 cellsJ Nutr.(2011 May)
34.^Sekhar RV, Patel SG, Guthikonda AP, Reid M, Balasubramanyam A, Taffet GE, Jahoor FDeficient synthesis of glutathione underlies oxidative stress in aging and can be corrected by dietary cysteine and glycine supplementationAm J Clin Nutr.(2011 Sep)
35.^Bounous G, Gervais F, Amer V, Batist G, Gold PThe influence of dietary whey protein on tissue glutathione and the diseases of agingClin Invest Med.(1989 Dec)
36.^Lands LC, Iskandar M, Beaudoin N, Meehan B, Dauletbaev N, Berthiuame YDietary supplementation with pressurized whey in patients with cystic fibrosisJ Med Food.(2010 Feb)
37.^Lands LC, Grey V, Smountas AA, Kramer VG, McKenna DLymphocyte glutathione levels in children with cystic fibrosisChest.(1999 Jul)
38.^Grey V, Mohammed SR, Smountas AA, Bahlool R, Lands LCImproved glutathione status in young adult patients with cystic fibrosis supplemented with whey proteinJ Cyst Fibros.(2003 Dec)
41.^Wang RIs H2S a stinky remedy for atherosclerosisArterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol.(2009 Feb)
43.^Jha S, Calvert JW, Duranski MR, Ramachandran A, Lefer DJHydrogen sulfide attenuates hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury: role of antioxidant and antiapoptotic signalingAm J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol.(2008 Aug)
45.^Yang G, Wu L, Jiang B, Yang W, Qi J, Cao K, Meng Q, Mustafa AK, Mu W, Zhang S, Snyder SH, Wang RH2S as a physiologic vasorelaxant: hypertension in mice with deletion of cystathionine gamma-lyaseScience.(2008 Oct 24)
46.^Jain SK, Bull R, Rains JL, Bass PF, Levine SN, Reddy S, McVie R, Bocchini JALow levels of hydrogen sulfide in the blood of diabetes patients and streptozotocin-treated rats causes vascular inflammationAntioxid Redox Signal.(2010 Jun 1)
47.^Ishigami M, Hiraki K, Umemura K, Ogasawara Y, Ishii K, Kimura HA source of hydrogen sulfide and a mechanism of its release in the brainAntioxid Redox Signal.(2009 Feb)
48.^Shibuya N, Tanaka M, Yoshida M, Ogasawara Y, Togawa T, Ishii K, Kimura H3-Mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase produces hydrogen sulfide and bound sulfane sulfur in the brainAntioxid Redox Signal.(2009 Apr)
50.^Cai WJ, Wang MJ, Moore PK, Jin HM, Yao T, Zhu YCThe novel proangiogenic effect of hydrogen sulfide is dependent on Akt phosphorylationCardiovasc Res.(2007 Oct 1)
51.^Wang Y, Zhao X, Jin H, Wei H, Li W, Bu D, Tang X, Ren Y, Tang C, Du JRole of hydrogen sulfide in the development of atherosclerotic lesions in apolipoprotein E knockout miceArterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol.(2009 Feb)
52.^Whiteman M, Gooding KM, Whatmore JL, Ball CI, Mawson D, Skinner K, Tooke JE, Shore ACAdiposity is a major determinant of plasma levels of the novel vasodilator hydrogen sulphideDiabetologia.(2010 Aug)
53.^Carunchia Whetstine ME, Croissant AE, Drake MACharacterization of dried whey protein concentrate and isolate flavorJ Dairy Sci.(2005 Nov)
57.^von Berg A, Koletzko S, Filipiak-Pittroff B, Laubereau B, Grübl A, Wichmann HE, Bauer CP, Reinhardt D, Berdel D; German Infant Nutritional Intervention Study GroupCertain hydrolyzed formulas reduce the incidence of atopic dermatitis but not that of asthma: three-year results of the German Infant Nutritional Intervention StudyJ Allergy Clin Immunol.(2007 Mar)
58.^Pennings B, Boirie Y, Senden JM, Gijsen AP, Kuipers H, van Loon LJWhey protein stimulates postprandial muscle protein accretion more effectively than do casein and casein hydrolysate in older menAm J Clin Nutr.(2011 May)
59.^Buckley JD, Thomson RL, Coates AM, Howe PR, DeNichilo MO, Rowney MKSupplementation with a whey protein hydrolysate enhances recovery of muscle force-generating capacity following eccentric exerciseJ Sci Med Sport.(2010 Jan)
63.^McDonough FE, Hargrove RE, Mattingly WA, Posati LP, Alford JAComposition and properties of whey protein concentrates from ultrafiltrationJ Dairy Sci.(1974 Dec)
66.^Mishima Y, Amano Y, Takahashi Y, Mishima Y, Moriyama N, Miyake T, Ishimura N, Ishihara S, Kinoshita YGastric emptying of liquid and solid meals at various temperatures: effect of meal temperature for gastric emptyingJ Gastroenterol.(2009)
67.^Lorient D, Linden GDephosphorylation of bovine casein by milk alkaline phosphataseJ Dairy Res.(1976 Feb)
69.^Mahé S, Roos N, Benamouzig R, Davin L, Luengo C, Gagnon L, Gaussergès N, Rautureau J, Tomé DGastrojejunal kinetics and the digestion of {15N}beta-lactoglobulin and casein in humans: the influence of the nature and quantity of the proteinAm J Clin Nutr.(1996 Apr)
72.^Boirie Y, Dangin M, Gachon P, Vasson MP, Maubois JL, Beaufrère BSlow and fast dietary proteins differently modulate postprandial protein accretionProc Natl Acad Sci U S A.(1997 Dec 23)
73.^Tipton KD, Elliott TA, Cree MG, Wolf SE, Sanford AP, Wolfe RRIngestion of casein and whey proteins result in muscle anabolism after resistance exerciseMed Sci Sports Exerc.(2004 Dec)
74.^Reitelseder S, Agergaard J, Doessing S, Helmark IC, Lund P, Kristensen NB, Frystyk J, Flyvbjerg A, Schjerling P, van Hall G, Kjaer M, Holm LWhey and casein labeled with L-{1-13C}leucine and muscle protein synthesis: effect of resistance exercise and protein ingestionAm J Physiol Endocrinol Metab.(2011 Jan)
77.^Murakami M, Tonouchi H, Takahashi R, Kitazawa H, Kawai Y, Negishi H, Saito TStructural analysis of a new anti-hypertensive peptide (beta-lactosin B) isolated from a commercial whey productJ Dairy Sci.(2004 Jul)
83.^Sipola M, Finckenberg P, Santisteban J, Korpela R, Vapaatalo H, Nurminen MLLong-term intake of milk peptides attenuates development of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive ratsJ Physiol Pharmacol.(2001 Dec)
85.^Hodgson JM, Zhu K, Lewis JR, Kerr D, Meng X, Solah V, Devine A, Binns CW, Woodman RJ, Prince RLLong-term effects of a protein-enriched diet on blood pressure in older womenBr J Nutr.(2012 Jun)
90.^Gentilcore D, Hausken T, Meyer JH, Chapman IM, Horowitz M, Jones KLEffects of intraduodenal glucose, fat, and protein on blood pressure, heart rate, and splanchnic blood flow in healthy older subjectsAm J Clin Nutr.(2008 Jan)
92.^Holmer-Jensen J, Karhu T, Mortensen LS, Pedersen SB, Herzig KH, Hermansen KDifferential effects of dietary protein sources on postprandial low-grade inflammation after a single high fat meal in obese non-diabetic subjectsNutr J.(2011 Oct 19)
93.^Koenen RR, von Hundelshausen P, Nesmelova IV, Zernecke A, Liehn EA, Sarabi A, Kramp BK, Piccinini AM, Paludan SR, Kowalska MA, Kungl AJ, Hackeng TM, Mayo KH, Weber CDisrupting functional interactions between platelet chemokines inhibits atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic miceNat Med.(2009 Jan)
94.^Mortensen LS, Hartvigsen ML, Brader LJ, Astrup A, Schrezenmeir J, Holst JJ, Thomsen C, Hermansen KDifferential effects of protein quality on postprandial lipemia in response to a fat-rich meal in type 2 diabetes: comparison of whey, casein, gluten, and cod proteinAm J Clin Nutr.(2009 Jul)
96.^Kanda A, Morifuji M, Fukasawa T, Koga J, Kanegae M, Kawanaka K, Higuchi MDietary Whey Protein Hydrolysates Increase Skeletal Muscle Glycogen Levels via Activation of Glycogen Synthase in MiceJ Agric Food Chem.(2012 Oct 31)
98.^Fei YJ, Sugawara M, Liu JC, Li HW, Ganapathy V, Ganapathy ME, Leibach FHcDNA structure, genomic organization, and promoter analysis of the mouse intestinal peptide transporter PEPT1Biochim Biophys Acta.(2000 Jun 21)
99.^Chitapanarux T, Tienboon P, Pojchamarnwiputh S, Leelarungrayub DOpen-labeled pilot study of cysteine-rich whey protein isolate supplementation for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis patientsJ Gastroenterol Hepatol.(2009 Jun)
100.^Rains JL, Jain SKOxidative stress, insulin signaling, and diabetesFree Radic Biol Med.(2011 Mar 1)
101.^Dröge WOxidative stress and ageing: is ageing a cysteine deficiency syndromePhilos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci.(2005 Dec 29)
102.^Haber CA, Lam TK, Yu Z, Gupta N, Goh T, Bogdanovic E, Giacca A, Fantus IGN-acetylcysteine and taurine prevent hyperglycemia-induced insulin resistance in vivo: possible role of oxidative stressAm J Physiol Endocrinol Metab.(2003 Oct)
103.^Blouet C, Mariotti F, Mikogami T, Tome D, Huneau JFMeal cysteine improves postprandial glucose control in rats fed a high-sucrose mealJ Nutr Biochem.(2007 Aug)
104.^Blouet C, Mariotti F, Azzout-Marniche D, Mathé V, Mikogami T, Tomé D, Huneau JFDietary cysteine alleviates sucrose-induced oxidative stress and insulin resistanceFree Radic Biol Med.(2007 Apr 1)
106.^Diniz YS, Rocha KK, Souza GA, Galhardi CM, Ebaid GM, Rodrigues HG, Novelli Filho JL, Cicogna AC, Novelli ELEffects of N-acetylcysteine on sucrose-rich diet-induced hyperglycaemia, dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in ratsEur J Pharmacol.(2006 Aug 14)
111.^Kaneto H, Kajimoto Y, Miyagawa J, Matsuoka T, Fujitani Y, Umayahara Y, Hanafusa T, Matsuzawa Y, Yamasaki Y, Hori MBeneficial effects of antioxidants in diabetes: possible protection of pancreatic beta-cells against glucose toxicityDiabetes.(1999 Dec)
113.^Abrahão VNourishing the dysfunctional gut and whey proteinCurr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care.(2012 Sep)
114.^Liu X, Murali SG, Holst JJ, Ney DMWhey protein potentiates the intestinotrophic action of glucagon-like peptide-2 in parenterally fed ratsAm J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol.(2009 Nov)
115.^Ten Have GA, Engelen MP, Soeters PB, Deutz NEAbsence of post-prandial gut anabolism after intake of a low quality protein mealClin Nutr.(2012 Apr)
116.^Benjamin J, Makharia G, Ahuja V, Anand Rajan KD, Kalaivani M, Gupta SD, Joshi YKGlutamine and whey protein improve intestinal permeability and morphology in patients with Crohn's disease: a randomized controlled trialDig Dis Sci.(2012 Apr)
117.^Bortolotti M, Maiolo E, Corazza M, Van Dijke E, Schneiter P, Boss A, Carrel G, Giusti V, Lê KA, Quo Chong DG, Buehler T, Kreis R, Boesch C, Tappy LEffects of a whey protein supplementation on intrahepatocellular lipids in obese female patientsClin Nutr.(2011 Aug)
118.^Elattar G, Saleh Z, El-Shebini S, Farrag A, Zoheiry M, Hassanein A, El-Ghannam M, Shendy S, El-Dabaa E, Zahran NThe use of whey protein concentrate in management of chronic hepatitis C virus - a pilot studyArch Med Sci.(2010 Oct)
119.^Hamad EM, Taha SH, Abou Dawood AG, Sitohy MZ, Abdel-Hamid MProtective effect of whey proteins against nonalcoholic fatty liver in ratsLipids Health Dis.(2011 Apr 13)
120.^Haraguchi FK, Silva ME, Neves LX, dos Santos RC, Pedrosa MLWhey protein precludes lipid and protein oxidation and improves body weight gain in resistance-exercised ratsEur J Nutr.(2011 Aug)
121.^Poortmans JR, Dellalieux ODo regular high protein diets have potential health risks on kidney function in athletesInt J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab.(2000 Mar)
122.^Friedman AN, Ogden LG, Foster GD, Klein S, Stein R, Miller B, Hill JO, Brill C, Bailer B, Rosenbaum DR, Wyatt HRComparative effects of low-carbohydrate high-protein versus low-fat diets on the kidneyClin J Am Soc Nephrol.(2012 Jul)
124.^Cornish SM, Candow DG, Jantz NT, Chilibeck PD, Little JP, Forbes S, Abeysekara S, Zello GAConjugated linoleic acid combined with creatine monohydrate and whey protein supplementation during strength trainingInt J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab.(2009 Feb)
125.^Kasiske BL, Cleary MP, O'Donnell MP, Keane WFEffects of carbohydrate restriction on renal injury in the obese Zucker ratAm J Clin Nutr.(1986 Jul)
127.^Kontessis P, Jones S, Dodds R, Trevisan R, Nosadini R, Fioretto P, Borsato M, Sacerdoti D, Viberti GRenal, metabolic and hormonal responses to ingestion of animal and vegetable proteinsKidney Int.(1990 Jul)
128.^Kontessis PA, Bossinakou I, Sarika L, Iliopoulou E, Papantoniou A, Trevisan R, Roussi D, Stipsanelli K, Grigorakis S, Souvatzoglou ARenal, metabolic, and hormonal responses to proteins of different origin in normotensive, nonproteinuric type I diabetic patientsDiabetes Care.(1995 Sep)
129.^Wiseman MJ, Hunt R, Goodwin A, Gross JL, Keen H, Viberti GCDietary composition and renal function in healthy subjectsNephron.(1987)
130.^PULLMAN TN, ALVING AS, DERN RJ, LANDOWNE MThe influence of dietary protein intake on specific renal functions in normal manJ Lab Clin Med.(1954 Aug)
131.^Brändle E, Sieberth HG, Hautmann REEffect of chronic dietary protein intake on the renal function in healthy subjectsEur J Clin Nutr.(1996 Nov)
133.^Skov AR, Toubro S, Bülow J, Krabbe K, Parving HH, Astrup AChanges in renal function during weight loss induced by high vs low-protein low-fat diets in overweight subjectsInt J Obes Relat Metab Disord.(1999 Nov)
136.^Ambühl PMProtein intake in renal and hepatic diseaseInt J Vitam Nutr Res.(2011 Mar)
138.^Citraro R, Scicchitano F, De Fazio S, Raggio R, Mainardi P, Perucca E, De Sarro G, Russo EPreclinical activity profile of a-lactoalbumin, a whey protein rich in tryptophan, in rodent models of seizures and epilepsyEpilepsy Res.(2011 Jun)
140.^Errichiello L, Pezzella M, Santulli L, Striano S, Zara F, Minetti C, Mainardi P, Striano PA proof-of-concept trial of the whey protein alfa-lactalbumin in chronic cortical myoclonusMov Disord.(2011 Dec)
141.^Rusu D, Drouin R, Pouliot Y, Gauthier S, Poubelle PEA bovine whey protein extract can enhance innate immunity by priming normal human blood neutrophilsJ Nutr.(2009 Feb)
142.^Migliore-Samour D, Roch-Arveiller M, Tissot M, Jazziri M, Keddad K, Giroud JP, Jollès PEffects of tripeptides derived from milk proteins on polymorphonuclear oxidative and phosphoinositide metabolismsBiochem Pharmacol.(1992 Aug 18)
144.^Wong KF, Middleton N, Montgomery M, Dey M, Carr RIImmunostimulation of murine spleen cells by materials associated with bovine milk protein fractionsJ Dairy Sci.(1998 Jul)
146.^Wong CW, Seow HF, Husband AJ, Regester GO, Watson DLEffects of purified bovine whey factors on cellular immune functions in ruminantsVet Immunol Immunopathol.(1997 May)
150.^Kennedy RS, Konok GP, Bounous G, Baruchel S, Lee TDThe use of a whey protein concentrate in the treatment of patients with metastatic carcinoma: a phase I-II clinical studyAnticancer Res.(1995 Nov-Dec)
151.^Kanwar JR, Palmano KP, Sun X, Kanwar RK, Gupta R, Haggarty N, Rowan A, Ram S, Krissansen GW'Iron-saturated' lactoferrin is a potent natural adjuvant for augmenting cancer chemotherapyImmunol Cell Biol.(2008 Mar-Apr)
153.^Roseanu A, Florian PE, Moisei M, Sima LE, Evans RW, Trif MLiposomalization of lactoferrin enhanced its anti-tumoral effects on melanoma cellsBiometals.(2010 Jun)
155.^Xu XX, Jiang HR, Li HB, Zhang TN, Zhou Q, Liu NApoptosis of stomach cancer cell SGC-7901 and regulation of Akt signaling way induced by bovine lactoferrinJ Dairy Sci.(2010 Jun)
156.^Li D, Sakashita S, Morishita Y, Kano J, Shiba A, Sato T, Noguchi MBinding of lactoferrin to IGBP1 triggers apoptosis in a lung adenocarcinoma cell lineAnticancer Res.(2011 Feb)
158.^Kozu T, Iinuma G, Ohashi Y, Saito Y, Akasu T, Saito D, Alexander DB, Iigo M, Kakizoe T, Tsuda HEffect of orally administered bovine lactoferrin on the growth of adenomatous colorectal polyps in a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trialCancer Prev Res (Phila).(2009 Nov)
159.^Tsuda H, Kozu T, Iinuma G, Ohashi Y, Saito Y, Saito D, Akasu T, Alexander DB, Futakuchi M, Fukamachi K, Xu J, Kakizoe T, Iigo MCancer prevention by bovine lactoferrin: from animal studies to human trialBiometals.(2010 Jun)
160.^Gibbons JA, Kanwar RK, Kanwar JRLactoferrin and cancer in different cancer modelsFront Biosci (Schol Ed).(2011 Jun 1)
161.^Dillon EL, Basra G, Horstman AM, Casperson SL, Randolph KM, Durham WJ, Urban RJ, Diaz-Arrastia C, Levine L, Hatch SS, Willis M, Richardson G, Sheffield-Moore MCancer cachexia and anabolic interventions: a case reportJ Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle.(2012 May 15)
162.^Deutz NE, Safar A, Schutzler S, Memelink R, Ferrando A, Spencer H, van Helvoort A, Wolfe RRMuscle protein synthesis in cancer patients can be stimulated with a specially formulated medical foodClin Nutr.(2011 Dec)
164.^Hulmi JJ, Tannerstedt J, Selänne H, Kainulainen H, Kovanen V, Mero AAResistance exercise with whey protein ingestion affects mTOR signaling pathway and myostatin in menJ Appl Physiol.(2009 May)
165.^Hulmi JJ, Kovanen V, Selänne H, Kraemer WJ, Häkkinen K, Mero AAAcute and long-term effects of resistance exercise with or without protein ingestion on muscle hypertrophy and gene expressionAmino Acids.(2009 Jul)
166.^Bunn JA, Buford TW, Serra MC, Kreider RB, Willoughby DSProtein and Amino Acid Supplementation Does Not Alter Proteolytic Gene Expression following ImmobilizationJ Nutr Metab.(2011)
167.^Moore DR, Atherton PJ, Rennie MJ, Tarnopolsky MA, Phillips SMResistance exercise enhances mTOR and MAPK signalling in human muscle over that seen at rest after bolus protein ingestionActa Physiol (Oxf).(2011 Mar)
168.^Biolo G, Tipton KD, Klein S, Wolfe RRAn abundant supply of amino acids enhances the metabolic effect of exercise on muscle proteinAm J Physiol.(1997 Jul)
170.^Burd NA, West DW, Moore DR, Atherton PJ, Staples AW, Prior T, Tang JE, Rennie MJ, Baker SK, Phillips SMEnhanced amino acid sensitivity of myofibrillar protein synthesis persists for up to 24 h after resistance exercise in young menJ Nutr.(2011 Apr 1)
171.^Yang Y, Breen L, Burd NA, Hector AJ, Churchward-Venne TA, Josse AR, Tarnopolsky MA, Phillips SMResistance exercise enhances myofibrillar protein synthesis with graded intakes of whey protein in older menBr J Nutr.(2012 Feb 7:1-9)
172.^Moore DR, Robinson MJ, Fry JL, Tang JE, Glover EI, Wilkinson SB, Prior T, Tarnopolsky MA, Phillips SMIngested protein dose response of muscle and albumin protein synthesis after resistance exercise in young menAm J Clin Nutr.(2009 Jan)
173.^Levenhagen DK, Carr C, Carlson MG, Maron DJ, Borel MJ, Flakoll PJPostexercise protein intake enhances whole-body and leg protein accretion in humansMed Sci Sports Exerc.(2002 May)
174.^Hoffman JR, Ratamess NA, Tranchina CP, Rashti SL, Kang J, Faigenbaum ADEffect of protein-supplement timing on strength, power, and body-composition changes in resistance-trained menInt J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab.(2009 Apr)
175.^Kerksick CM, Rasmussen CJ, Lancaster SL, Magu B, Smith P, Melton C, Greenwood M, Almada AL, Earnest CP, Kreider RBThe effects of protein and amino acid supplementation on performance and training adaptations during ten weeks of resistance trainingJ Strength Cond Res.(2006 Aug)
176.^Andersen LL, Tufekovic G, Zebis MK, Crameri RM, Verlaan G, Kjaer M, Suetta C, Magnusson P, Aagaard PThe effect of resistance training combined with timed ingestion of protein on muscle fiber size and muscle strengthMetabolism.(2005 Feb)
178.^Weisgarber KD, Candow DG, Vogt E SMWhey Protein Before and During Resistance Exercise Has No Effect on Muscle Mass and Strength in Untrained Young AdultsInt J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab.(2012 Jul 4)
180.^Candow DG, Chilibeck PD, Facci M, Abeysekara S, Zello GAProtein supplementation before and after resistance training in older menEur J Appl Physiol.(2006 Jul)
182.^Dangin M, Guillet C, Garcia-Rodenas C, Gachon P, Bouteloup-Demange C, Reiffers-Magnani K, Fauquant J, Ballèvre O, Beaufrère BThe rate of protein digestion affects protein gain differently during aging in humansJ Physiol.(2003 Jun 1)
183.^Dideriksen KJ, Reitelseder S, Petersen SG, Hjort M, Helmark IC, Kjaer M, Holm LStimulation of muscle protein synthesis by whey and caseinate ingestion after resistance exercise in elderly individualsScand J Med Sci Sports.(2011 Dec)
185.^Esmarck B, Andersen JL, Olsen S, Richter EA, Mizuno M, Kjaer MTiming of postexercise protein intake is important for muscle hypertrophy with resistance training in elderly humansJ Physiol.(2001 Aug 15)
186.^Jordan LY, Melanson EL, Melby CL, Hickey MS, Miller BFNitrogen balance in older individuals in energy balance depends on timing of protein intakeJ Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci.(2010 Oct)
187.^Tipton KD, Rasmussen BB, Miller SL, Wolf SE, Owens-Stovall SK, Petrini BE, Wolfe RRTiming of amino acid-carbohydrate ingestion alters anabolic response of muscle to resistance exerciseAm J Physiol Endocrinol Metab.(2001 Aug)
189.^Levenhagen DK, Gresham JD, Carlson MG, Maron DJ, Borel MJ, Flakoll PJPostexercise nutrient intake timing in humans is critical to recovery of leg glucose and protein homeostasisAm J Physiol Endocrinol Metab.(2001 Jun)
190.^Hoffman JR, Ratamess NA, Tranchina CP, Rashti SL, Kang J, Faigenbaum ADEffect of a proprietary protein supplement on recovery indices following resistance exercise in strength/power athletesAmino Acids.(2010 Mar)
192.^Ratamess NA, Kraemer WJ, Volek JS, Rubin MR, Gómez AL, French DN, Sharman MJ, McGuigan MM, Scheett T, Häkkinen K, Newton RU, Dioguardi FThe effects of amino acid supplementation on muscular performance during resistance training overreachingJ Strength Cond Res.(2003 May)
193.^Nosaka K, Sacco P, Mawatari KEffects of amino acid supplementation on muscle soreness and damageInt J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab.(2006 Dec)
194.^Shimomura Y, Yamamoto Y, Bajotto G, Sato J, Murakami T, Shimomura N, Kobayashi H, Mawatari KNutraceutical effects of branched-chain amino acids on skeletal muscleJ Nutr.(2006 Feb)
195.^Bouthegourd JC, Roseau SM, Makarios-Lahham L, Leruyet PM, Tomé DG, Even PCA preexercise alpha-lactalbumin-enriched whey protein meal preserves lipid oxidation and decreases adiposity in ratsAm J Physiol Endocrinol Metab.(2002 Sep)
196.^Lorenzen J, Frederiksen R, Hoppe C, Hvid R, Astrup AThe effect of milk proteins on appetite regulation and diet-induced thermogenesisEur J Clin Nutr.(2012 May)
197.^Hackney KJ, Bruenger AJ, Lemmer JTTiming protein intake increases energy expenditure 24 h after resistance trainingMed Sci Sports Exerc.(2010 May)
198.^Baer DJ, Stote KS, Paul DR, Harris GK, Rumpler WV, Clevidence BAWhey protein but not soy protein supplementation alters body weight and composition in free-living overweight and obese adultsJ Nutr.(2011 Aug)
200.^Zhou J, Keenan MJ, Losso JN, Raggio AM, Shen L, McCutcheon KL, Tulley RT, Blackman MR, Martin RJDietary whey protein decreases food intake and body fat in ratsObesity (Silver Spring).(2011 Aug)
201.^Lam SM, Moughan PJ, Awati A, Morton HRThe influence of whey protein and glycomacropeptide on satiety in adult humansPhysiol Behav.(2009 Jan 8)
202.^Luhovyy BL, Akhavan T, Anderson GHWhey proteins in the regulation of food intake and satietyJ Am Coll Nutr.(2007 Dec)
203.^Abou Samra R, Keersmaekers L, Brienza D, Mukherjee R, Mace KEffect of different protein sources on satiation and short-term satiety when consumed as a starterNutr J.(2011 Dec 23)
205.^Poppitt SD, Proctor J, McGill AT, Wiessing KR, Falk S, Xin L, Budgett SC, Darragh A, Hall RSLow-dose whey protein-enriched water beverages alter satiety in a study of overweight womenAppetite.(2011 Apr)
206.^Astbury NM, Stevenson EJ, Morris P, Taylor MA, Macdonald IADose-response effect of a whey protein preload on within-day energy intake in lean subjectsBr J Nutr.(2010 Dec)
207.^Frestedt JL, Zenk JL, Kuskowski MA, Ward LS, Bastian EDA whey-protein supplement increases fat loss and spares lean muscle in obese subjects: a randomized human clinical studyNutr Metab (Lond).(2008 Mar 27)
209.^Rennie MJ, Wackerhage H, Spangenburg EE, Booth FWControl of the size of the human muscle massAnnu Rev Physiol.(2004)
210.^Cuthbertson D, Smith K, Babraj J, Leese G, Waddell T, Atherton P, Wackerhage H, Taylor PM, Rennie MJAnabolic signaling deficits underlie amino acid resistance of wasting, aging muscleFASEB J.(2005 Mar)
215.^Dangin M, Boirie Y, Garcia-Rodenas C, Gachon P, Fauquant J, Callier P, Ballèvre O, Beaufrère BThe digestion rate of protein is an independent regulating factor of postprandial protein retentionAm J Physiol Endocrinol Metab.(2001 Feb)
218.^Haraguchi FK, Pedrosa ML, Paula H, Santos RC, Silva MEEvaluation of biological and biochemical quality of whey proteinJ Med Food.(2010 Dec)
220.^Baer DJ, Stote KS, Paul DR, Harris GK, Rumpler WV, Clevidence BAWhey protein but not soy protein supplementation alters body weight and composition in free-living overweight and obese adultsJ Nutr.(2011 Aug)
221.^Candow DG, Burke NC, Smith-Palmer T, Burke DGEffect of whey and soy protein supplementation combined with resistance training in young adultsInt J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab.(2006 Jun)
224.^Breen L, Philp A, Witard OC, Jackman SR, Selby A, Smith K, Baar K, Tipton KDThe influence of carbohydrate-protein co-ingestion following endurance exercise on myofibrillar and mitochondrial protein synthesisJ Physiol.(2011 Aug 15)
225.^Koopman R, Wagenmakers AJ, Manders RJ, Zorenc AH, Senden JM, Gorselink M, Keizer HA, van Loon LJCombined ingestion of protein and free leucine with carbohydrate increases postexercise muscle protein synthesis in vivo in male subjectsAm J Physiol Endocrinol Metab.(2005 Apr)
226.^Koopman R, Verdijk LB, Beelen M, Gorselink M, Kruseman AN, Wagenmakers AJ, Kuipers H, van Loon LJCo-ingestion of leucine with protein does not further augment post-exercise muscle protein synthesis rates in elderly menBr J Nutr.(2008 Mar)
227.^Koopman R, Verdijk L, Manders RJ, Gijsen AP, Gorselink M, Pijpers E, Wagenmakers AJ, van Loon LJCo-ingestion of protein and leucine stimulates muscle protein synthesis rates to the same extent in young and elderly lean menAm J Clin Nutr.(2006 Sep)
228.^Churchward-Venne TA, Burd NA, Mitchell CJ, West DW, Philp A, Marcotte GR, Baker SK, Baar K, Phillips SMSupplementation of a suboptimal protein dose with leucine or essential amino acids: effects on myofibrillar protein synthesis at rest and following resistance exercise in menJ Physiol.(2012 Jun 1)
229.^Rodondi A, Ammann P, Ghilardi-Beuret S, Rizzoli RZinc increases the effects of essential amino acids-whey protein supplements in frail elderlyJ Nutr Health Aging.(2009 Jun)
230.^Chevalley T, Hoffmeyer P, Bonjour JP, Rizzoli REarly serum IGF-I response to oral protein supplements in elderly women with a recent hip fractureClin Nutr.(2010 Feb)
233.^Pettersson-Kastberg J, Mossberg AK, Trulsson M, Yong YJ, Min S, Lim Y, O'Brien JE, Svanborg C, Mok KHalpha-Lactalbumin, engineered to be nonnative and inactive, kills tumor cells when in complex with oleic acid: a new biological function resulting from partial unfoldingJ Mol Biol.(2009 Dec 18)
235.^Svensson M, Håkansson A, Mossberg AK, Linse S, Svanborg CConversion of alpha-lactalbumin to a protein inducing apoptosisProc Natl Acad Sci U S A.(2000 Apr 11)
236.^Permyakov SE, Knyazeva EL, Leonteva MV, Fadeev RS, Chekanov AV, Zhadan AP, Håkansson AP, Akatov VS, Permyakov EAA novel method for preparation of HAMLET-like protein complexesBiochimie.(2011 Sep)
237.^Hakansson AP, Roche-Hakansson H, Mossberg AK, Svanborg CApoptosis-like death in bacteria induced by HAMLET, a human milk lipid-protein complexPLoS One.(2011 Mar 10)
238.^Svensson M, Düringer C, Hallgren O, Mossberg AK, Håkansson A, Linse S, Svanborg CHamlet--a complex from human milk that induces apoptosis in tumor cells but spares healthy cellsAdv Exp Med Biol.(2002)
239.^Permyakov SE, Knyazeva EL, Khasanova LM, Fadeev RS, Zhadan AP, Roche-Hakansson H, Håkansson AP, Akatov VS, Permyakov EAOleic acid is a key cytotoxic component of HAMLET-like complexesBiol Chem.(2012 Jan 1)
241.^Pettersson J, Mossberg AK, Svanborg Calpha-Lactalbumin species variation, HAMLET formation, and tumor cell deathBiochem Biophys Res Commun.(2006 Jun 23)
242.^Brinkmann CR, Thiel S, Larsen MK, Petersen TE, Jensenius JC, Heegaard CWPreparation and comparison of cytotoxic complexes formed between oleic acid and either bovine or human a-lactalbuminJ Dairy Sci.(2011 May)
244.^Fast J, Mossberg AK, Svanborg C, Linse SStability of HAMLET--a kinetically trapped alpha-lactalbumin oleic acid complexProtein Sci.(2005 Feb)
245.^Khan S, Casadio YS, Lai CT, Prime DK, Hepworth AR, Trengove NJ, Hartmann PEInvestigation of Short-term Variations in Casein and Whey Proteins in Breast Milk of Term MothersJ Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr.(2012 Aug)
246.^Liao Y, Alvarado R, Phinney B, Lönnerdal BProteomic characterization of human milk whey proteins during a twelve-month lactation periodJ Proteome Res.(2011 Apr 1)
248.^Kucia M, Langhammer M, Görs S, Albrecht E, Hammon HM, Nürnberg G, Metges CCHigh-protein diet during gestation and lactation affects mammary gland mRNA abundance, milk composition and pre-weaning litter growth in miceAnimal.(2011 Feb)