About Us

We're an independent and unbiased encyclopedia on supplementation and nutrition.

Mission Statement

Examine analyzes and summarizes the latest scientific research to help you be healthier.

What Is Examine?

Examine is the largest database of nutrition and supplement research on the Internet. Founded in early 2011, our mission is to analyze the full body of evidence to help you make healthy choices. As an educational organization, we are not affiliated with any supplement or food company, nor are any members of our research team.

All of our evidence summaries are fully referenced, on topics ranging from popular supplements like fish oil and vitamin D to the more controversial nutrition topics like soy or saturated fat.

We also take an evidence-based approach to common questions our readers ask, such as the optimum amount of daily protein, and the evidence (or lack thereof) for common nutrition myths and fads such as detoxes.

At Examine, we’re not here to tell you what to do. Instead, we simply tell you what the evidence says. And in cases where the research is mixed, we make that clear, too.

How is Examine funded?

Examine is an entirely independent organization, and does not accept any money from outside sources.

For the vast majority of nutrition websites, revenue is directly proportional to pageviews or products sold—whether they be supplement bottles or diet plans. Thus, rather than an evenhanded and thorough interpretation of the evidence, for many websites, sensationalism sells (read more on sensationalism).

Rather, 100% of our revenue is generated from additional research syntheses that we sell to both health professionals and laypeople. All of the information on the website is freely accessible; these additional informational products are meant for those looking for added depth and step-by-step instructions.

We do not allow:

  • Donors
  • Sponsors
  • Consulting clients
  • Advertisements
  • Affiliations

We have a very strict no-gift policy for our staff members. Even books that are sent our way are simply deposited into recycling.

Praise and Accolades

Our work has been shared by, quoted in, and used by organizations including:

New York Times | Washington Post | BBC | medpagetoday | Men’s Health | The Guardian | Forbes

FastCompany chose us as one of the most innovative companies in health and fitness, and Men’s Fitness named us a game-changer in the world of nutrition.

Professionals also turn to us when they need unbiased and trustworthy nutrition info.

How and why did Examine start?

Examine is our answer to a fundamental problem: given that nutrition science is incredibly complex and constantly evolving, how can you separate the wheat from the chaff? If a website cites a study, how do you know it’s not cherry-picked or, on the flipside, methodologically flawed?

For more, see Our Story.

In other words, who can you trust to be completely objective?

How do you know who to trust?

We decided to address this problem by building a systematic and objective database, free from advertising or industry partnerships. We never start with an objective, like low-carb or high-carb, pro-supplement or anti-supplement. Rather, we simply report on all the evidence that’s been published. We also regularly update a page on our mistakes in order to be as transparent as possible.

For more, see Our Mistakes.

Our Team


The editors of Examine perform the primary job of collating scientific research into a cohesive picture.


Kamal Patel, MBA, MPH, PhD(c) in Nutrition

Kamal Patel is co-founder and director of Examine. He holds two master’s degrees from the Johns Hopkins University, in business and in public health, and is on hiatus from a PhD in nutrition for which he’s investigated the link between diet and chronic pain. He’s published peer-reviewed articles on vitamin D and calcium, as well as on a variety of clinical research topics. He’s also been involved in research on fructose and liver health, on nutrition in low-income areas, and on mindfulness meditation.

Gregory Lopez, MA in Molecular Biophysics, PharmD

Gregory Lopez is editor in chief for Examine and for our Study Deep Dives, available to Examine Members. He obtained his master’s degree in molecular biophysics from the Johns Hopkins University, and his doctor of pharmacy degree from the University of Maryland, Baltimore. In his spare time, Greg pursues interests in meditation, psychology, philosophy, and swing dancing.

Bill Willis, PhD in Biomedical Science

An avid member of the fitness industry for the past score years, Bill Willis is a postdoctoral fellow at the Ohio State University, where he’s researching the role of metabolic stress in the control of protein synthesis and inflammation.


Researchers are tasked with poring over primary research and helping collate it.

Michael Hull MSc in Human Nutrition - Senior Research Manager

Michael received a BSc in exercise science with a minor in nutrition from George Mason University (where he mentored under GMU’s resident sports dietitian, Deanna Busteed, MS, RD, CSSD), then an MSc in human nutrition from McGill University. His master’s thesis examined how modifiable lifestyle factors can potentially predict vitamin D status. As a full-time senior researcher at Examine, he primarily writes and updates the Supplement Guides, maintains the company’s database of supplement studies, and blogs about various health topics. When not working for Examine, he enjoys finding ways of using technology to further science communication.

Nick Milazzo MSc in Medical Science, MPH(c)

Nick completed his undergraduate degree at Middlebury College, where he studied chemistry and biochemistry. He then went to the University of Vermont and received a master’s degree in medical science. He is fascinated by the art and science of human improvement, especially as seen through the lenses of medicine, nutrition, fitness, and mindfulness. His Examine duties include analyzing research and overseeing the company’s Study Summaries. In his spare time, Nick enjoys playing guitar, travelling, and playing chess.

Wyatt Brown

Searching for ways to improve his health and frequently confused by the conflicting messages from publications and popular authors, Wyatt dove head first into the scientific research and became fascinated by its logic and methods. Contributing to his most respected website has only intensified his interest and motivated him to pursue an education in nutrition.

Rachel Hathcock BSN, RN

After receiving her BSN, Rachel became a registered nurse and certified research associate. She worked in a variety of clinical settings (with a special focus on emergency medicine), while also managing phase IV research projects and manuscript publications. Outside of work, you might find her trail running, reading a book, or singing a Disney song.

Alexandra Venger BSc in nutrition and dietetics, RD

Alex graduated from the University of Western Ontario with an honours bachelor of science degree in nutrition and dietetics. She is a Registered Dietitian and firm believer in providing credible evidence-based nutrition advice. She enjoys lifting weights (not even at the gym, just randomly) and loves pizza so much that she got a tattoo of it.

Meredith Yetter

From managing a supplement store in the late 1990s to blogging about health and fitness in the 2000s, Meredith has been a bit of a nutrition autodidact for over twenty years. She subscribes to way too many health-related newsletters and Facebook groups. A lover of PubMed rabbit holes, Meredith is in the process of investigating some of her family members’ undiagnosed chronic conditions. When she isn’t lifting weights in her basement, Meredith is parenting two sons, caring for a flock of chickens, and taking long walks with her dog. Her husband’s career has given her family the opportunity to live in the most beautiful parts of the United States. She currently resides in Jackson, Wyoming.


Reviewers are topical-experts who frequently contributed their expertise and knowledge to help ensure that all information presented on Examine is accurate and properly nuanced.

Rob Stenstrom, MD, PhD, completed his medical training at McMaster University and Family and Emergency Medicine residency at the University of Ottawa. He also holds a PhD in Epidemiology and Biostatistics from McGill University.

He has been the Research Director for the Department of Emergency Medicine at St. Paul’s Hospital since 2005, and is a Clinical Assistant Professor of Medicine at the University of British Columbia. He is a member of the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians Critical Care Committee, and has been involved in the development of guidelines for the use of therapeutic hypothermia post-cardiac arrest and the management and treatment of severe sepsis in the emergency department. Research interests include severe sepsis and septic shock in the emergency department, MRSA and bacterial resistance, pneumonia, HIV point-of-care testing, and skin and soft tissue infections in the emergency department.

Pablo Sanchez Soria , PhD received his doctoral degree in Pharmacology & Toxicology, and his bachelor's degree with a double major in Nutritional Sciences and Microbiology from the University of Arizona. He works as a toxicologist evaluating the relationship between chemical exposures and disease. He has research experience in the fields of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, as well as virology, and plant biology, bringing with him a unique set of expertise to the team. Pablo enjoys weightlifting and taking part in multiple recreational sports and outdoor activities. While earning his bachelor's degree, he was a competitive cyclist, at the local, regional and national levels. He also enjoys spending time wrenching and tweaking his car to compete in track racing events as the occasional weekend warrior.

Cassandra Forsythe, PhD, RD, received her doctorate in kinesiology from the University of Connecticut, and completed her dietetic internship at UMass Amherst, both in 2009. She works as a nutrition educator and weight loss coach and is the author of two popular books for women: "The New Rules of Lifting for Women", co-authored with Lou Schuler and Alwyn Cosgrove, and "Women's Health Perfect Body Diet". She has been featured in Women's Health and Men's Health, and made appearances on The Biggest Loser. She is a Registered Dietitian (RD), certified as a Strength and Conditioning Specialist (CSCS) from the National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA), and is a Certified Sports Nutritionist (CISSN) through the International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN).

Why can you trust Examine?

When it comes to information on science and health, trust is paramount. There are simply too many studies, too many data points, and too many facets of disease and wellness.

It is impossible for one person to parse and make sense of all this information.

Yet we don’t want you to trust us just because we tell you to. Trust is earned. We aim to earn your trust by emphasizing objectivity and transparency. Our content is rigorously referenced, and not in the common Internet fashion of citing only the papers that support a given argument. Rather, we cite both sides of important topics, and don’t go beyond what studies actually report (in other words, we don’t overinterpret findings to support a particular viewpoint).

We’re able to do this because all of our research staff is required to have no connections to supplement or food companies, and staff members regularly meet to discuss research ethics and study interpretation. We are not gurus, and we don’t pretend to have all the answers. Nobody does - that’s why science is so fun!

100% independent

When it comes to Examine, what you see is what you get.

Our fundamental truth is that we are 100% independent. Nobody working at Examine has any conflict of interest - no questionable funding, no suspect affiliations, and no relationships with manufacturers. All the content is generated by our staff, not outsiders.

We are the Switzerland of health and nutrition.

Full Disclosure

Examine is an unbiased nutrition and supplement resource. We are not influenced by commercial interests, product manufacturers, or any other organization, and we do not advertise or promote products or brands. Examine does not accept donations, third-party funding, or sponsorship of any kind. One hundred percent of our revenue is generated through our three information guides and subscriptions - you can see the full list under How is Examine funded?

And that’s what makes Examine. so unique and reliable: we only sell information. It doesn’t benefit us to hype up any supplement—that’s not what we’re selling. We’re selling you evidence-based analysis. Nothing more, nothing less.

100% transparent and referenced

Every statement we make is fully referenced—often many times over. The Examine website is comprised of millions of published words, and with over 60,000 unique references, every single claim is cited.

Not only that, we let you see the history of our pages as we’ve updated them over the years. Our information is all public so you can double-check any of our work.

We do not believe in a “just trust us” mentality - we show our work.

See Our Mistakes page for more.

We are not gurus

One of the biggest issues online is that a single person may be thought to have the solutions to everything about your health. A cult of personality is formed around these gurus.

The reality is that your health is incredibly complex; humans are in fact most complex machines on Earth. It is outright impossible for one person to know and have all the solutions.

This is why we have a team of diverse backgrounds - to ensure that we traverse the full breadth and depth of health to help you get the truth.

Science is difficult; we don’t pretend we have all the answers

If there’s one thing that sets us apart from gurus it’s that we rarely have universal answers.

This can, admittedly, be frustrating. But science is incredibly nuanced. Most studies are done on very specific subsets of populations - for example, 20 post-menopausal women who have arthritis. The issue is - how do you take a conclusion from such a group and apply it to the population?

This is what makes us reliable - we don’t claim to have the single solution for you. Instead, we simply offer you what the science tells us, and help you make the best decision for you.

We have an editorial policy that outlines our approach to creating content and fixing any errors.


Customer Support

Debbie Young

After a career in the beauty industry, Debbie found herself immersed in the world of health and fitness due to a health issue. Blogging and guest blogging led to new friendships, including with Sol and Kamal. At the time, she worked in customer support for online health companies but longed to support real science based on solid research. Examine has been the perfect fit as she loves helping out both our incredible team and our customers. When not working, she can be found walking Malcolm the wonder dog or training for her next 5k race in the wilds of Southern California.

Director of Strategy

Sol Orwell has a different story than most. Dabbling in web development while still in high school, he found he had a knack for building websites that were both useful and popular. He incorporated his first business while still studying computer engineering at the University of Toronto.

In his mid-20s, he opted to retire, freeing up time to do what he wanted, when he wanted. Transforming from fat to fit, he began to investigate the whys and hows behind nutrition, health, and fitness. It was this research that led to Examine, the culmination of thousands of hours of research into anatomy and nutrition.


Jernon Magcalas is in love with technology and adventure. He started in e-commerce platform and is now part of the tech team at Examine, where he makes sure everything functions as expected. When not working, he’s out exploring places — he loves traveling.

Copy Editor

Pierre-Alexandre Sicart AA in English, PhD in French Literature

Pierre-Alexandre holds doctoral degrees from the University of Toulouse II and New York University. At NYU, he was MVP then captain of the Taekwondo Club, president of the Karate Club, and founder of the Martial Arts Club. After graduation, he wrote a grammar book, then found himself working as assistant professor of French in Taiwan. After some years enjoying the best foods in Asia, he moved back to France to freelance as a writer, translator, and copy editor. He joined Examine in 2015 and is now the company’s resident copy editor.

Copy Editor

Dmitri Barvinok graduated with a bachelor’s degree in journalism from Michigan State University. He is passionate about fighting misinformation in the media and works to bridge the gap between science writing and journalism. He is a recreational strongman and enjoys pressing heavy objects overhead.


Helena Wu BS in Biology

Helena has long been fascinated by the human body and its ability to adapt to all kinds of stimuli. She received a BS in biology from Duke University. Along the way, she gained an interest in entrepreneurship, especially in the fitness industry, set a few national records in the USA in powerlifting, and even had the chance to step onto an F-15E fighter jet. She is currently studying toward a Master of Management in clinical informatics — what she likes to call the intersection of healthcare, IT, and business — at Duke University School of Medicine. Helena loves traveling, especially to natural and scenic locales, and listens to lots of K-pop on her gym playlist.

Advisory Board

We are humbled by the amount of support we've received since our founding. A few individuals have been especially helpful in our continued evolution; these are the people we turn to whenever we have a question that needs answering.

Gillian Mandich finished her doctoral studies at Western University in Health and Rehabilitation Science with the International Centre for Health Innovation Research at the Richard Ivey School of Business. Gillian Mandich's research examined health promotion, specifically physical activity, childhood obesity, nutrition, sustainable happiness, and diabetes. Prior to her PhD studies, Gillian worked in public health at the Middlesex-London Health Unit and received her Master's degree from Western University.

Tavis Piattoly, MS, RD, LDN is co-founder and Director of Sports Nutrition education for My Sports Dietitian, an online sports nutrition education company that helps High School and College Athletes through the guidance of a Licensed Sports Dietitian.

He is the Sports Dietitian and Nutrition Consultant for Tulane University Athletic Department, Tulane Institute of Sports Medicine’s NFL Players Association Brain and Body program, Fairchild Sports Performance in Houston, and Traction Center for Sports Excellence. He was the Sports Dietitian for the New Orleans Saints from 2006-2013 and New Orleans Pelicans from 2008-2013. He’s been fortunate to work with training expert Mackie Shilstone and designed the nutrition programs for boxing champions Bernard Hopkins and Roy Jones Jr. along with working with Olympic, NFL, MLB, and NBA athletes to various college and high school programs.

Bryan Chung, MD, PhD is a methodologist who improves people’s relationship with science

After obtaining his MSc from McGill University in Rehabilitation Science in Biomechanics, he went on to earn his PhD at the Sport Medicine Centre at the University of Calgary, focusing on research methods and biostatistics in musculoskeletal health, followed by his MD, also at the University of Calgary. He completed his residency training in Plastic Surgery at Dalhousie University in Nova Scotia and his fellowship in Hand Surgery at NYU. He is currently in practice as a plastic and reconstructive surgeon. Bryan is a research methodologist who has won research awards at both international sport medicine and plastic surgery meetings. He sits on the editorial board for the Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine and is a peer-reviewer for several journals, as well as the Cochrane Collaboration, which publishes the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

Brad Pilon, MSc is one of the world's most sought after intermittent fasting advocates. His book Eat Stop Eat continues to be one of the best selling books on intermittent fasting on the internet.

He received his Bachelor of Science in Applied Human Nutrition and his master's degree in Human Biology and Nutritional Science, where his main area of interest was the effect of short periods of fasting on human metabolism. His book Eat Stop Eat is the result of this research. Brad has also spent over 7 years working in Research and Development in the sports supplement industry. During this time he helped design multiple clinical trials and create dozens of popular bodybuilding supplements, and is listed as an author on multiple patents involving methods to increase muscle mass and decrease body fat.

Through appearing on national television, speaking at national scientific conferences and his book Eat Stop Eat, Brad has helped millions of people become aware of the amazing health benefits that can be achieved by simply taking an occasional break from eating and by taking a practical approach to nutrition and exercise.

Lou Schuler is a National Magazine Award-winning journalist and editorial director of the Personal Trainer Development Center. He’s the former fitness editor for both Men's Fitness and Men's Health, as well as the author of many popular nutrition and fitness books, including the New Rules of Lifting series, which he wrote with Alwyn Cosgrove.

Emma-Leigh Synnott, MBBS graduated in medicine from Sydney University, and is currently undertaking specialist physician training in Rehabilitation Medicine. She is a certified Sports Nutrition Specialist with the International Society of Sports Nutrition, and is an accredited Australian Strength and Conditioning Association Level 1 Strength and Conditioning Coach.

Since 2005, Emma-Leigh has run a performance and lifestyle consulting service, providing an integrated, balanced and sustainable approach to training, diet and lifestyle, whilst optimizing physical performance, body composition, and health. Her other experience includes observation in the Biochemistry and Nutrition Labs at the University of Sydney, and assisting in research at the Diabetes and Obesity Unit of the Garvan Institute of Medical Research. Prior to studying medicine, Emma-Leigh completed a degree in Veterinary Science (Hon I, and awarded the University Medal), and a Certificate III in Fitness.

Peter J. Woolf PhD's research spans the fields of machine learning, bioinformatics, biological engineering, and biostatistics. He has authored over 30 peer reviewed scientific articles. Dr. Woolf received his PhD in chemical engineering from the University of Michigan, followed by postdoctoral work in developmental biology and biological engineering at Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dr. Woolf was a faculty member in chemical and bioengineering at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, until in 2010 he left to found two companies, Foodwiki and ExtraorDNA.

This document was last updated on February 17, 2021.

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