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About Us

We're an independent and unbiased encyclopedia on supplementation and nutrition.

Mission Statement

Examine analyzes and summarizes the latest scientific research to help you be healthier.

What Is Examine?

Examine is the largest database of nutrition and supplement research on the Internet. Founded in early 2011, our mission is to analyze the full body of evidence to help you make healthy choices. As an educational organization, we are not affiliated with any supplement or food company, nor are any members of our research team.

All of our evidence summaries are fully referenced, on topics ranging from popular supplements like fish oil and vitamin D to the more controversial nutrition topics like soy or saturated fat.

We also take an evidence-based approach to common questions our readers ask, such as the optimum amount of daily protein, and the evidence (or lack thereof) for common nutrition myths and fads such as detoxes.

At Examine, we’re not here to tell you what to do. Instead, we simply tell you what the evidence says. And in cases where the research is mixed, we make that clear, too.

How is Examine funded?

Examine is an entirely independent organization, and does not accept any money from outside sources.

For the vast majority of nutrition websites, revenue is directly proportional to pageviews or products sold—whether they be supplement bottles or diet plans. Thus, rather than an evenhanded and thorough interpretation of the evidence, for many websites, sensationalism sells (read more on sensationalism).

Rather, 100% of our revenue is generated from additional research syntheses that we sell to both health professionals and laypeople. All of the information on the website is freely accessible; these additional informational products are meant for those looking for added depth and step-by-step instructions.

We do not allow:

  • Donors
  • Sponsors
  • Consulting clients
  • Advertisements
  • Affiliations

We have a very strict no-gift policy for our staff members. Even books that are sent our way are simply deposited into recycling.




Praise and Accolades

Our work has been shared by, quoted in, and used by organizations including:

New York Times | Washington Post | BBC | medpagetoday | Men’s Health | The Guardian | Forbes

FastCompany chose us as one of the most innovative companies in health and fitness, and Men’s Fitness named us a game-changer in the world of nutrition.

Professionals also turn to us when they need unbiased and trustworthy nutrition info.

How and why did Examine start?

Examine is our answer to a fundamental problem: given that nutrition science is incredibly complex and constantly evolving, how can you separate the wheat from the chaff? If a website cites a study, how do you know it’s not cherry-picked or, on the flipside, methodologically flawed?

For more, see Our Story.

In other words, who can you trust to be completely objective?

How do you know who to trust?

We decided to address this problem by building a systematic and objective database, free from advertising or industry partnerships. We never start with an objective, like low-carb or high-carb, pro-supplement or anti-supplement. Rather, we simply report on all the evidence that’s been published. We also regularly update a page on our mistakes in order to be as transparent as possible.

For more, see Our Mistakes.

Our Team

Editors

The editors of Examine perform the primary job of collating scientific research into a cohesive picture.

Director

Kamal Patel, MBA, MPH, PhD(c) in nutrition


Kamal is cofounder and director of Examine. He holds two master’s degrees from Johns Hopkins University, in business and in public health, and is on hiatus from a PhD in nutrition for which he investigated links between diet and chronic pain. He’s published peer-reviewed articles on vitamin D and calcium, as well as on a variety of clinical research topics. He’s also been involved in research on fructose and liver health, on nutrition in low-income areas, and on mindfulness meditation.

Gregory Lopez, MA in molecular biophysics, PharmD


Gregory Lopez is editor in chief for Examine and for our Study Deep Dives, available to Examine Members. He obtained his master’s degree in molecular biophysics from the Johns Hopkins University and his doctor of pharmacy degree from the University of Maryland, Baltimore. In his spare time, Greg pursues interests in meditation, psychology, philosophy, and swing dancing.

Researchers

Researchers are tasked with poring over primary research and helping collate it.

Bill Willis, PhD in biomedical science


An avid member of the fitness industry for the past score years, Bill is a postdoctoral fellow at the Ohio State University, where he’s researching the role of metabolic stress in the control of protein synthesis and inflammation.

Nick Milazzo, MSc in medical science, MPH


After studying chemistry and biochemistry at Middlebury College as an undergraduate, Nick earned a master’s degrees in medical science and public health from the University of Vermont. He is fascinated by the art and science of human improvement, especially as seen through the lenses of medicine, nutrition, fitness, and mindfulness. His Examine duties include analyzing research data and leading the team of researchers working on the Study Summaries. In his spare time, Nick practices Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu and plays chess and the guitar.

Wyatt Brown


Searching for ways to improve his health and frequently confused by the conflicting messages from publications and popular authors, Wyatt dove head first into the scientific research and became fascinated by its logic and methods. Contributing to his most respected website has only intensified his interest and motivated him to pursue an education in nutrition. His other interests are too many to count and go through cycles, but music and the natural world are common themes.

Rachel Hathcock, BSN, RN


After receiving her BSN, Rachel became a registered nurse and certified research associate. She worked in a variety of clinical settings (with a special focus on emergency medicine), while also managing phase IV research projects and manuscript publications. Outside of work, you might find her trail running, reading a book, or singing a Disney song.

Antonis Damianou, MSc


Having worked as a personal trainer, online coach, and fitness writer for a decade, Antonis is especially interested in the art and science of optimizing body composition, maximizing physical performance, and maintaining good health. After three years of working as a part-time researcher for Examine, he has gone on to become a full-time team member. When he is not geeking out over the latest nutrition and supplementation research, Antonis enjoys hitting the weights, taking nature walks in his sunny home country of Cyprus, and playing video games.

Daniel Feldman, RD, MS in human nutrition, NASM CPT


Dan is a registered dietitian and personal trainer, with a bachelor of science in dietetics and a master of science in human nutrition. When he’s not analyzing nutrition research for Examine or helping others improve their diet and exercise habits, you can find him jamming on the piano or the acoustic guitar, or telling everyone how cool his dog is.

Meredith Yetter


From managing a supplement store in the late 1990s to blogging about health and fitness in the late 2000s, Meredith has been a bit of a nutrition autodidact for over twenty years. She subscribes to way too many health-related newsletters and Facebook groups. A lover of PubMed rabbit holes, Meredith is in the process of investigating some of her family members’ undiagnosed chronic conditions. When she isn’t lifting weights in her basement, Meredith is parenting two sons, caring for a flock of chickens, and taking long walks with her dog. Her husband’s career has given her family the opportunity to live in the most beautiful parts of the United States.

Gabrielle Fundaro, BS in exercise, sport, and health education; PhD in human nutrition, foods, and exercise


Gabrielle completed a BS in exercise, sport, and health education before earning her PhD in human nutrition, foods, and exercise at Virginia Tech by studying the effects of probiotics on metabolism and inflammation.

After four years as an assistant professor of exercise science, she left academia to work full-time as a nutrition coach and international speaker. She also started a lifestyle-coaching telehealth business and, with fellow nutrition coach Shannon Beer, authored a series of articles intended to enhance coaching practices and promote industry conversations by bridging ideological gaps with shared meaning and deeper understanding of how and why people change. This article series led to the development of an integrative coaching framework and ongoing webinar series. Four years later, she transitioned to running her telehealth business full-time and began writing for Examine, aligning herself with her mission to help people live authentically and make informed decisions.

Gabrielle loves to spend time in the Arizona mountains, hit the weights, and train her smarty-pants Australian Shepherd, Shay.

Michael Murray, RDN, CSCS, CISSN


Mike is a registered dietitian, certified strength and conditioning specialist, and sports nutritionist with a bachelor of science in nutrition from La Salle University. After years of being led astray by popular bro-scientists in the fitness industry, Mike became engrossed in scientific research to optimize his progress as a bodybuilder and help others achieve their health and body-composition goals. Outside of work, you can find him lifting weights in his basement or cleaning plate after plate at an all-you-can-eat sushi buffet.

Morgan Pfiffner, MS in Nutrition


An interest in understanding the relationship between diet and disease led Morgan to obtain a bachelor’s degree in chemistry and a master’s degree in nutrition. He is propelled by a passion for the science of health and often struggles to balance a desire for definitive answers with his natural skepticism. He lives in the Pacific Northwest, where his hobbies include traversing forests and making music.

Louie Neri, BSN candidate


Louie has long struggled with chronic illnesses that doctors could neither explain nor cure. His desire to improve his own health led to his passion for learning the intricacies of medicine and nutrition science. Currently a BSN student at UT Health San Antonio, Louie plans to pursue a PhD in Nursing Science. On top of his studies, he’s an Undergraduate Research Scholar at the Audie Murphy VA Hospital, where his research focuses on how nutrition and exercise can improve health and functionality in the geriatric population. When he isn't nerding out on all things nutrition, you can find him figuring out the best ways to make coffee or diving deep into the world of philosophy.

Lucas Roldos, MSc, PhD(c) in human nutrition


Lucas is coordinating a clinical trial involving phytochemicals, gut microbiota, and skin health for his PhD in nutrition at McGill University, where he also coordinates a soccer league and works as a teaching assistant. He believes that education and behavioral change benefit both the self (by improving mindfulness, exercise, nutrition, and sleep) and other people (by promoting responsible social and environmental behaviors). If he’s not discussing a new study or woodworking, he’s probably walking his pup, playing sports, trying to repurpose trash, or yelling at children for littering.

Thomas Reichhart, MSc in biochemistry, PhD(c) in biomolecular technology


Thomas, a former natural bodybuilder, received his BSc and MSc in biochemistry from Goethe University Frankfurt. After a deep dive into biomedical research at a leading MedTech company, he moved to Vienna to pursue a PhD in biomolecular technology. As part of his doctoral research, he’s currently engineering enzymes to use as biocatalysts for implantable glucose sensors. Outside of work, he can be found enjoying a game of recreational chess and a cup of Ethiopian coffee in a Viennese café.

Copy Editors

Copy editors ensure the accuracy, consistency, and clarity of writing by honing the details of grammar, wording, and construction.

Molly Gregas, PhD in biomedical engineering with a minor in biophysics


Molly’s wide-ranging interests in science and communication stem from growing up in a family of writers, teachers, and athletes, which led to participation in team sports, music, and dance and an interest in math and science. She earned her PhD in biomedical engineering with a secondary concentration in biophysics from Duke University while also auditing classes in the dance department and spent several years in research before immersing herself in a variety of science-related communication, publishing, and outreach initiatives.

Working as a STEM editor for academic authors and publishers allowed her to merge her various skill sets and contribute to improving research communication. She enjoys the gratifying process of making highly technical information accessible and readable for a broader audience. Outside of work, she stubbornly insists on her pursuit of a quiet renaissance life in a time of loud specialization.

Pierre-Alexandre Sicart, AA in English, PhD in French Literature


Pierre-Alexandre holds doctoral degrees from the University of Toulouse II and New York University. At NYU, he was MVP then captain of the Taekwondo Club, president of the Karate Club, and founder of the Martial Arts Club. After graduation, he wrote a grammar book, then found himself working as assistant professor of French in Taiwan. After some years enjoying the best foods in Asia, he moved back to France to freelance as a writer, translator, and copy editor. He joined Examine in 2015 and is now the company’s resident copy editor.

Dmitri Barvinok, BA in journalism


Dmitri Barvinok graduated with a bachelor’s degree in journalism from Michigan State University. He is passionate about fighting misinformation in the media and works to bridge the gap between science writing and journalism. He is a recreational strongman and enjoys pressing heavy objects overhead.

Jennifer Hoffner, BA in communications/advertising


Jenn earned her degree in copywriting (“communications/advertising”) at Rowan University but soon realized that, rather than creating content, she preferred channeling her OCD to make other people’s writing the best it could be. She started out by copyediting books and health magazines before working as a copy editor for a marketing department. After years spent helping peddle trendy diets and advice, she was happy to make her way back to integrity and true science by joining Examine. Her passion for health research comes from her body being a living illustration of Murphy’s Law: her multiple medical anomalies have made her want to explore health issues on a deeper level.

Reviewers

Reviewers are topical-experts who frequently contributed their expertise and knowledge to help ensure that all information presented on Examine is accurate and properly nuanced.

Rob Stenstrom, MD, PhD, completed his medical training at McMaster University and Family and Emergency Medicine residency at the University of Ottawa. He also holds a PhD in Epidemiology and Biostatistics from McGill University.

He has been the Research Director for the Department of Emergency Medicine at St. Paul’s Hospital since 2005, and is a Clinical Assistant Professor of Medicine at the University of British Columbia. He is a member of the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians Critical Care Committee, and has been involved in the development of guidelines for the use of therapeutic hypothermia post-cardiac arrest and the management and treatment of severe sepsis in the emergency department. Research interests include severe sepsis and septic shock in the emergency department, MRSA and bacterial resistance, pneumonia, HIV point-of-care testing, and skin and soft tissue infections in the emergency department.

Pablo Sanchez Soria, PhD, received his doctoral degree in Pharmacology & Toxicology, and his bachelor's degree with a double major in Nutritional Sciences and Microbiology from the University of Arizona. He works as a toxicologist evaluating the relationship between chemical exposures and disease. He has research experience in the fields of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, as well as virology, and plant biology, bringing with him a unique set of expertise to the team. Pablo enjoys weightlifting and taking part in multiple recreational sports and outdoor activities. While earning his bachelor's degree, he was a competitive cyclist, at the local, regional and national levels. He also enjoys spending time wrenching and tweaking his car to compete in track racing events as the occasional weekend warrior.

Cassandra Forsythe, PhD, RD, received her doctorate in kinesiology from the University of Connecticut, and completed her dietetic internship at UMass Amherst, both in 2009. She works as a nutrition educator and weight loss coach and is the author of two popular books for women: "The New Rules of Lifting for Women", co-authored with Lou Schuler and Alwyn Cosgrove, and "Women's Health Perfect Body Diet". She has been featured in Women's Health and Men's Health, and made appearances on The Biggest Loser. She is a Registered Dietitian (RD), certified as a Strength and Conditioning Specialist (CSCS) from the National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA), and is a Certified Sports Nutritionist (CISSN) through the International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN).



Why can you trust Examine?

When it comes to information on science and health, trust is paramount. There are simply too many studies, too many data points, and too many facets of disease and wellness.

It is impossible for one person to parse and make sense of all this information.

Yet we don’t want you to trust us just because we tell you to. Trust is earned. We aim to earn your trust by emphasizing objectivity and transparency. Our content is rigorously referenced, and not in the common Internet fashion of citing only the papers that support a given argument. Rather, we cite both sides of important topics, and don’t go beyond what studies actually report (in other words, we don’t overinterpret findings to support a particular viewpoint).

We’re able to do this because all of our research staff is required to have no connections to supplement or food companies, and staff members regularly meet to discuss research ethics and study interpretation. We are not gurus, and we don’t pretend to have all the answers. Nobody does - that’s why science is so fun!

100% independent

When it comes to Examine, what you see is what you get.

Our fundamental truth is that we are 100% independent. Nobody working at Examine has any conflict of interest - no questionable funding, no suspect affiliations, and no relationships with manufacturers. All the content is generated by our staff, not outsiders.

We are the Switzerland of health and nutrition.

Full Disclosure

Examine is an unbiased nutrition and supplement resource. We are not influenced by commercial interests, product manufacturers, or any other organization, and we do not advertise or promote products or brands. Examine does not accept donations, third-party funding, or sponsorship of any kind. One hundred percent of our revenue is generated through our three information guides and subscriptions - you can see the full list under How is Examine funded?

And that’s what makes Examine. so unique and reliable: we only sell information. It doesn’t benefit us to hype up any supplement—that’s not what we’re selling. We’re selling you evidence-based analysis. Nothing more, nothing less.

100% transparent and referenced

Every statement we make is fully referenced—often many times over. The Examine website is comprised of millions of published words, and with over 60,000 unique references, every single claim is cited.

Not only that, we let you see the history of our pages as we’ve updated them over the years. Our information is all public so you can double-check any of our work.

We do not believe in a “just trust us” mentality - we show our work.

See Our Mistakes page for more.

We are not gurus

One of the biggest issues online is that a single person may be thought to have the solutions to everything about your health. A cult of personality is formed around these gurus.

The reality is that your health is incredibly complex; humans are in fact most complex machines on Earth. It is outright impossible for one person to know and have all the solutions.

This is why we have a team of diverse backgrounds - to ensure that we traverse the full breadth and depth of health to help you get the truth.

Science is difficult; we don’t pretend we have all the answers

If there’s one thing that sets us apart from gurus it’s that we rarely have universal answers.

This can, admittedly, be frustrating. But science is incredibly nuanced. Most studies are done on very specific subsets of populations - for example, 20 post-menopausal women who have arthritis. The issue is - how do you take a conclusion from such a group and apply it to the population?

This is what makes us reliable - we don’t claim to have the single solution for you. Instead, we simply offer you what the science tells us, and help you make the best decision for you.

We have an editorial policy that outlines our approach to creating content and fixing any errors.

Support

Calla Lee, Graphic designer & user-experience researcher, BDes in visual communication, MDes in strategic foresight & innovation


Calla started her career as a visual designer, but she quickly became fascinated by the world of systems design, futures design, and design research methods. Her fascination for how things connect and change has allowed her to work in a variety of sectors, notably the food, cannabis, non-profit, and sustainability sectors. She uses her background in graphic design to visualize everything from social media posts to complex system maps.


Calla loves all things cuddly, yummy, and related to nature. When she’s not working, you can usually find her having a picnic with her dog in a park somewhere.

Debbie Young, Customer Support


After a career in the beauty industry, Debbie found herself immersed in the world of health and fitness due to a health issue. Blogging and guest blogging led to new friendships, including with Sol and Kamal. At the time, she worked in customer support for online health companies but longed to support real science based on solid research. Examine has been the perfect fit as she loves helping out both our incredible team and our customers. When not working, she can be found walking Malcolm the wonder dog or training for her next 5k race in the wilds of Southern California.

Director of Strategy

Sol Orwell has a different story than most. Dabbling in web development while still in high school, he found he had a knack for building websites that were both useful and popular. He incorporated his first business while still studying computer engineering at the University of Toronto.

In his mid-20s, he opted to retire, freeing up time to do what he wanted, when he wanted. Transforming from fat to fit, he began to investigate the whys and hows behind nutrition, health, and fitness. It was this research that led to Examine, the culmination of thousands of hours of research into anatomy and nutrition.

Jernon Magcalas, Developer


Jernon Magcalas is in love with technology and adventure. He started in e-commerce platform and is now part of the tech team at Examine, where he makes sure everything functions as expected. When not working, he’s out exploring places — he loves traveling.

Munzir Rosdi, Developer


Although Munzir studied graphics and multimedia in college, his passion has always been for computers and programming. First hired by Sol in the early 2000s for a previous business, Munzir has nearly two decades of experience in ensuring that large and complex systems run smoothly. When not busy improving the Examine website, Munzir is an avid stargazer and video gamer, making his nightowl tendencies a perfect fit.

Heidi So, BS in biomedical science, MS(c) in epidemiology


Heidi was on the path to becoming a medical doctor until she came upon statistical programming in her Masters coursework — where she fell in love with relational databases and mining data for correlations. She’s worked in public health both for the government and for the private sector and now brings her expertise to Examine’s operations team. When she’s not working, she’s often found playing a board game, managing her fantasy basketball team, or planning her next adventure.

Roc Chan, BEng in bioengineering, MSc in material science


Roc never stopped asking “Why?” since he first understood the word. Bumping into Examine’s ethos for upholding logic and truth gave him the Why of wanting to help. He holds a BEng in bioengineering and an MSc in material science from University of Guelph. When away from the keyboard, he likes to doodle and pester his friends with silly questions that make them ask “Why, Roc, why?”.

Helena Wu, Operations, BS in Biology


Helena has long been fascinated by the human body and its ability to adapt to all kinds of stimuli. She received a BS in biology from Duke University. Along the way, she gained an interest in entrepreneurship, especially in the fitness industry, set a few national records in the USA in powerlifting, and even had the chance to step onto an F-15E fighter jet. She is currently studying toward a Master of Management in clinical informatics — what she likes to call the intersection of healthcare, IT, and business — at Duke University School of Medicine. Helena loves traveling, especially to natural and scenic locales, and listens to lots of K-pop on her gym playlist.

Advisory Board

We are humbled by the amount of support we've received since our founding. A few individuals have been especially helpful in our continued evolution; these are the people we turn to whenever we have a question that needs answering.

Gillian Mandich finished her doctoral studies at Western University in Health and Rehabilitation Science with the International Centre for Health Innovation Research at the Richard Ivey School of Business. Gillian Mandich's research examined health promotion, specifically physical activity, childhood obesity, nutrition, sustainable happiness, and diabetes. Prior to her PhD studies, Gillian worked in public health at the Middlesex-London Health Unit and received her Master's degree from Western University.

Tavis Piattoly, MS, RD, LDN, is co-founder and Director of Sports Nutrition education for My Sports Dietitian, an online sports nutrition education company that helps High School and College Athletes through the guidance of a Licensed Sports Dietitian.

He is the Sports Dietitian and Nutrition Consultant for Tulane University Athletic Department, Tulane Institute of Sports Medicine’s NFL Players Association Brain and Body program, Fairchild Sports Performance in Houston, and Traction Center for Sports Excellence. He was the Sports Dietitian for the New Orleans Saints from 2006-2013 and New Orleans Pelicans from 2008-2013. He’s been fortunate to work with training expert Mackie Shilstone and designed the nutrition programs for boxing champions Bernard Hopkins and Roy Jones Jr. along with working with Olympic, NFL, MLB, and NBA athletes to various college and high school programs.

Bryan Chung, MD, PhD, is a methodologist who improves people’s relationship with science

After obtaining his MSc from McGill University in Rehabilitation Science in Biomechanics, he went on to earn his PhD at the Sport Medicine Centre at the University of Calgary, focusing on research methods and biostatistics in musculoskeletal health, followed by his MD, also at the University of Calgary. He completed his residency training in Plastic Surgery at Dalhousie University in Nova Scotia and his fellowship in Hand Surgery at NYU. He is currently in practice as a plastic and reconstructive surgeon. Bryan is a research methodologist who has won research awards at both international sport medicine and plastic surgery meetings. He sits on the editorial board for the Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine and is a peer-reviewer for several journals, as well as the Cochrane Collaboration, which publishes the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

Lou Schuler is a National Magazine Award-winning journalist and editorial director of the Personal Trainer Development Center. He’s the former fitness editor for both Men's Fitness and Men's Health, as well as the author of many popular nutrition and fitness books, including the New Rules of Lifting series, which he wrote with Alwyn Cosgrove.

Emma-Leigh Synnott, MBBS, graduated in medicine from Sydney University, and is currently undertaking specialist physician training in Rehabilitation Medicine. She is a certified Sports Nutrition Specialist with the International Society of Sports Nutrition, and is an accredited Australian Strength and Conditioning Association Level 1 Strength and Conditioning Coach.

Since 2005, Emma-Leigh has run a performance and lifestyle consulting service, providing an integrated, balanced and sustainable approach to training, diet and lifestyle, whilst optimizing physical performance, body composition, and health. Her other experience includes observation in the Biochemistry and Nutrition Labs at the University of Sydney, and assisting in research at the Diabetes and Obesity Unit of the Garvan Institute of Medical Research. Prior to studying medicine, Emma-Leigh completed a degree in Veterinary Science (Hon I, and awarded the University Medal), and a Certificate III in Fitness.

Peter J. Woolf PhD's research spans the fields of machine learning, bioinformatics, biological engineering, and biostatistics. He has authored over 30 peer reviewed scientific articles. Dr. Woolf received his PhD in chemical engineering from the University of Michigan, followed by postdoctoral work in developmental biology and biological engineering at Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dr. Woolf was a faculty member in chemical and bioengineering at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, until in 2010 he left to found two companies, Foodwiki and ExtraorDNA.


This document was last updated on April 19, 2021.

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