Bitter orange

Last Updated: August 17 2022

A molecule that is similar to ephedrine in mechanism, but less potent. Commonly referred to as "bitter orange", synephrine appears to be a less potent fat-burner relative to ephedrine. It may exert some minor health effects on digestion and circulation.

Bitter orange is most often used for

What else is Bitter orange known as?
Note that Bitter orange is also known as:
  • Bitter Orange
  • P-synephrine
  • Citrus Aurantium
  • Synephrine
Bitter orange should not be confused with:
Dosage information

A recommended dosage is 10-20mg, taken thrice a day.

Acute dosages of 50mg are also frequently used, although not thrice a day.

Examine Database
References
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4.^Nelson BC, Putzbach K, Sharpless KE, Sander LCMass spectrometric determination of the predominant adrenergic protoalkaloids in bitter orange (Citrus aurantium)J Agric Food Chem.(2007 Nov 28)
9.^KAKIMOTO Y, ARMSTRONG MDThe phenolic amines of human urineJ Biol Chem.(1962 Jan)
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20.^Bui LT, Nguyen DT, Ambrose PJBlood pressure and heart rate effects following a single dose of bitter orangeAnn Pharmacother.(2006 Jan)
23.^Jordan R, Midgley JM, Thonoor CM, Williams CMBeta-adrenergic activities of octopamine and synephrine stereoisomers on guinea-pig atria and tracheaJ Pharm Pharmacol.(1987 Sep)
25.^Brown CM, McGrath JC, Midgley JM, Muir AG, O'Brien JW, Thonoor CM, Williams CM, Wilson VGActivities of octopamine and synephrine stereoisomers on alpha-adrenoceptorsBr J Pharmacol.(1988 Feb)
27.^Seifert JG, Nelson A, Devonish J, Burke ER, Stohs SJEffect of acute administration of an herbal preparation on blood pressure and heart rate in humansInt J Med Sci.(2011 Mar 2)
28.^Haller CA, Benowitz NL, Jacob P 3rdHemodynamic effects of ephedra-free weight-loss supplements in humansAm J Med.(2005 Sep)
30.^Bui LT, Nguyen DT, Ambrose PJBlood pressure and heart rate effects following a single dose of bitter orangeAnn Pharmacother.(2006 Jan)
32.^Nguyen DT, Bui LT, Ambrose PJResponse of CEDIA amphetamines assay after a single dose of bitter orangeTher Drug Monit.(2006 Apr)
34.^Bloomer RJ, Fisher-Wellman KH, Hammond KG, Schilling BK, Weber AA, Cole BJDietary supplement increases plasma norepinephrine, lipolysis, and metabolic rate in resistance trained menJ Int Soc Sports Nutr.(2009 Jan 28)
35.^McCarthy CG, Farney TM, Canale RE, Alleman RJ Jr, Bloomer RJA finished dietary supplement stimulates lipolysis and metabolic rate in young men and womenNutr Metab Insights.(2011 Dec 6)
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