Fish Oil

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    Last Updated: December 18, 2023

    Fish oil is a source of omega-3 fatty acids. It reduces triglycerides, but does not seem to affect the rate of cardiovascular events. It seems to notably reduce the symptoms of depression and improve some painful, inflammatory conditions.

    Fish Oil is most often used for .

    What is fish oil?

    Fish oil is the go-to source for two long-chain omega-3 (a.k.a. n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Fish oil can be consumed in the diet (from foods like salmon or anchovies), and is also available as a dietary supplement and as a prescription drug. The role of fish oil in cardiovascular disease, cancer, and many other conditions is a field of considerable interest and research.[1]

    According to recent analyses of NHANES, over 20% of the population in the United States takes an omega-3-containing dietary supplement.[2]

    What are fish oil’s main benefits?

    Fish oil is best known for its ability to reduce triglyceride levels in the blood, for which prescription fish oil is best studied.[3] Fish oil also seems to modestly reduce blood pressure, especially in people with hypertension.[4] Despite this, a meta-analysis of large clinical trials shows that taking fish oil for at least 1 year does not reduce the rate of cardiovascular events.[5] Most analyses suggest a modest benefit of fish oil for depression,[6][7][8][9] but this benefit may be too small to make a difference in people with major depressive disorder.[8][10] Limited evidence suggests that fish oil may have some benefit for inflammatory conditions like systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis.[11]

    What are fish oil’s main drawbacks?

    Fish oil is usually well-tolerated and safe. Common side effects from taking fish oil supplements include stomach pain, fishy breath and burps, heartburn, nausea, and diarrhea. Also, some fish oil formulations have been linked to increased levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Fish oil supplements are not strictly regulated, and some may contain contaminants, oxidized fatty acids, saturated fats, and other impurities that may reduce the overall benefit of the supplement. Fish oil has antiplatelet effects, although most clinical research has not found that supplementation with fish oil increased bleeding risk. A large 5-year study in Japan did find a small increase in bleeding in people taking prescription eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), though.[3]

    How does fish oil work?

    Fish oil reduces triglyceride levels by decreasing triglyceride-rich lipoprotein synthesis and release by the liver. It may also increase clearance of triglycerides by upregulating the lipoprotein lipase enzyme.[3] EPA and DHA from fish oil are usually initially incorporated into the phospholipid layer of cell membranes in platelets, neutrophils, and red blood cells. EPA especially seems to stabilize cell membranes and inhibit lipid oxidation, which can help regulate vascular tone, improve cell signaling, and reduce inflammation.[12]

    What are other names for Fish Oil

    Note that Fish Oil is also known as:
    • Eicosapentaenoic Acid
    • EPA
    • Docosahexaenoic Acid
    • DHA
    • Omega-3 fatty acids
    • Omega-3
    • Omega 3
    • N-3 Fatty Acids
    Fish Oil should not be confused with:
    • Alpha-Linolenic Acid (the plant-based omega-3)

    Dosage information

    Fish oil doses vary depending on the goal of supplementation. For general health, 250 mg of combined EPA and DHA is the minimum dose and can be obtained via fish intake. The American Heart Association recommends 1 g daily.

    Since fish oil is a combination of two different fatty acids, these numbers reflect a combined total. Total eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) consumption should come from a mix of real food and supplements. The more EPA and DHA is provided by the diet, the less supplementation is required.

    Fish oil can be taken throughout the day. To minimize the "fish burp" taste, take fish oil with meals.

    Pregnant women should increase their intake of DHA by at least 200mg a day, as long as there is no risk of elevated mercury levels.

    Examine Database: Fish Oil

    Research FeedRead all studies

    Frequently asked questions

    What is fish oil?

    Fish oil is the go-to source for two long-chain omega-3 (a.k.a. n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Fish oil can be consumed in the diet (from foods like salmon or anchovies), and is also available as a dietary supplement and as a prescription drug. The role of fish oil in cardiovascular disease, cancer, and many other conditions is a field of considerable interest and research.[1]

    According to recent analyses of NHANES, over 20% of the population in the United States takes an omega-3-containing dietary supplement.[2]

    What are fish oil’s main benefits?

    Fish oil is best known for its ability to reduce triglyceride levels in the blood, for which prescription fish oil is best studied.[3] Fish oil also seems to modestly reduce blood pressure, especially in people with hypertension.[4] Despite this, a meta-analysis of large clinical trials shows that taking fish oil for at least 1 year does not reduce the rate of cardiovascular events.[5] Most analyses suggest a modest benefit of fish oil for depression,[6][7][8][9] but this benefit may be too small to make a difference in people with major depressive disorder.[8][10] Limited evidence suggests that fish oil may have some benefit for inflammatory conditions like systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis.[11]

    Does fish oil really help depression?

    A meta-analysis of 35 small, randomized trials found that fish oil can slightly improve depression when compared to control. However, this improvement may be too small to be noticeable. Also, adding fish oil to antidepressant medication seems to be more beneficial than antidepressant treatment alone.[8] Fish oil incorporates into the cell membrane phospholipid layer, increasing its fluidity and permeability, which in turn might reduce inflammation and attenuate depressive symptoms. Another meta-analysis suggested that doses of 1-2 grams daily containing ≥60% proportion of total EPA + DHA seem to be especially beneficial.[9]

    Can I eat flax seeds instead of fish or fish oil for omega-3s?

    The short answer is “yes”, but it ultimately depends on your goal. For the purpose of covering the minimum amount of omega-3 fatty acids required for general health, it’s not necessary to consume fish or fish oil; you can just eat flaxseed.

    Flaxseed is a rich source of alpha-linolenic acid|alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), the only essential omega-3 fatty acid (i.e., the only omega-3 that can’t be synthesized by the body). Following ingestion, ALA is converted into the longer chain omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the same fatty acids found in fish oil.

    Animal-based foods are the primary sources of EPA and DHA in the diet. Consequently, vegetarians and vegans consume trivial amounts of these omega-3 fatty acids,[18] and their blood levels of EPA and DHA tend to be lower than meat-eaters'.[19]

    Despite the near exclusion of EPA and DHA from plant-based diets, these diets are not associated with adverse health effects or impairments in cognitive development,[20] which suggests that the average ALA intake of people following these diets allows for sufficient endogenous synthesis of EPA and DHA. Furthermore, the consumption of a healthy plant-based diet is associated with a variety of health benefits, such as a reduced risk of chronic diseases like cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.[21]

    However, while it’s evident that the average person can cover their basic omega-3 fatty acid needs through ALA-rich foods (like flaxseed) alone, that doesn’t mean that ALA-only intake is optimal, at least with respect to certain health outcomes.

    Higher intakes of EPA and DHA are associated with a number of health benefits,[22] and higher blood levels are, too. A higher blood level of EPA and DHA is associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality and death from cardiovascular disease or cancer,[23] as well as a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes.[24] Higher blood levels of EPA and DHA might also be protective against cognitive decline and dementia,[22] but more high-quality studies are needed to confirm whether this is the case.

    Only consuming flaxseed may mean missing out on the potential benefits of higher-than-adequate levels of EPA and DHA, because the available evidence suggests that supplementing with ALA does not significantly increase the blood level of EPA and DHA.[25][26] (To be more specific, supplementing with ALA seems to increase the blood level of EPA to a small degree, but it either doesn’t affect or even slightly decreases the blood level of DHA, typically resulting in no effect on the combined level of EPA and DHA.[27])

    As such, to maximize certain health outcomes, it might be best to consume direct sources of EPA and DHA — either in the form of fatty fish or fish oil, or, for vegetarians and vegans, in the form of algal oil — but further research is needed to confirm this.[28]

    What are fish oil’s main drawbacks?

    Fish oil is usually well-tolerated and safe. Common side effects from taking fish oil supplements include stomach pain, fishy breath and burps, heartburn, nausea, and diarrhea. Also, some fish oil formulations have been linked to increased levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Fish oil supplements are not strictly regulated, and some may contain contaminants, oxidized fatty acids, saturated fats, and other impurities that may reduce the overall benefit of the supplement. Fish oil has antiplatelet effects, although most clinical research has not found that supplementation with fish oil increased bleeding risk. A large 5-year study in Japan did find a small increase in bleeding in people taking prescription eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), though.[3]

    Does fish oil increase the risk of atrial fibrillation (irregular heart beat)?

    There are some mixed views on whether fish oil can cause abnormal heart rhythms or not. Generally speaking, most healthy people don’t need to worry: A meta-analysis of 30 randomized studies and 77,990 patients shows that taking fish oil does not affect the risk of atrial fibrillation.[13] However, in people who have (or are at risk for) heart disease, there’s a possibility that fish oil can increase the risk of new-onset atrial fibrillation. Several meta-analyses of randomized studies at least one year long in people with or at risk for cardiovascular disease show that fish oil can increase the risk of new-onset atrial fibrillation compared to control.[14][15][16] It’s important to note that, while this increase in risk is statistically significant, it’s still small in absolute terms and there is no known mechanism to explain this risk.

    Can fish oil increase the risk of bleeding?

    For most people, regular fish oil supplements do not affect bleeding risk. One meta-analysis of 11 randomized studies with over 80,000 patients concluded (with low certainty) that fish oil does not increase bleeding risk,[13] and another meta-analysis, which stratified by type of fish oil supplement, reported similar findings. Interestingly, the latter meta-analysis noted that EPA-only supplements did increase bleeding risk compared to control, but the absolute increase in risk was very small: about 0.5%, suggesting that for every 200 people taking an EPA-only supplement, one might experience bleeding.[17]

    How does fish oil work?

    Fish oil reduces triglyceride levels by decreasing triglyceride-rich lipoprotein synthesis and release by the liver. It may also increase clearance of triglycerides by upregulating the lipoprotein lipase enzyme.[3] EPA and DHA from fish oil are usually initially incorporated into the phospholipid layer of cell membranes in platelets, neutrophils, and red blood cells. EPA especially seems to stabilize cell membranes and inhibit lipid oxidation, which can help regulate vascular tone, improve cell signaling, and reduce inflammation.[12]

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    Research Breakdown

    References

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    12. ^Brosolo G, Da Porto A, Marcante S, Picci A, Capilupi F, Capilupi P, Bertin N, Vivarelli C, Bulfone L, Vacca A, Catena C, Sechi LAOmega-3 Fatty Acids in Arterial Hypertension: Is There Any Good News?Int J Mol Sci.(2023-May-30)
    13. ^Asmaa S Abdelhamid, Tracey J Brown, Julii S Brainard, Priti Biswas, Gabrielle C Thorpe, Helen J Moore, Katherine Ho Deane, Carolyn D Summerbell, Helen V Worthington, Fujian Song, Lee HooperOmega-3 fatty acids for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseaseCochrane Database Syst Rev.(2020 Feb 29)
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    Examine Database References

    1. Triglycerides - L Axelrod, J Camuso, E Williams, K Kleinman, E Briones, D SchoenfeldEffects of a Small Quantity of omega-3 Fatty Acids on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in NIDDM. A Randomized, Prospective, Double-Blind, Controlled StudyDiabetes Care.(1994 Jan)
    2. Kidney Function - Tarec K Elajami, Abdulhamied Alfaddagh, Dharshan Lakshminarayan, Michael Soliman, Madhuri Chandnani, Francine K WeltyEicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acids Attenuate Progression of Albuminuria in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Coronary Artery DiseaseJ Am Heart Assoc.(2017 Jul 14)
    3. Platelet Aggregation - Serebruany VL, Miller M, Pokov AN, Lynch D, Jensen JK, Hallén J, Atar DEarly impact of prescription Omega-3 fatty acids on platelet biomarkers in patients with coronary artery disease and hypertriglyceridemiaCardiology.(2011)
    4. Atrial Fibrillation Incidence - Ali Vasheghani Farahani, Awat Yousefi Azar, Hamid Reza Goodarzynejad, Elnaz Khorrami, Mohammad Javad Hosseinzadeh-Attar, Sima Oshnouei, Alireza Alizadeh Ghavidel, Elham Golfeshan, Fateme Ghourban PourFish oil supplementation for primary prevention of atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass graft surgery: A randomized clinical trialInt J Surg.(2017 Jun)
    5. C-Reactive Protein (CRP) - Geelen A, Brouwer IA, Schouten EG, Kluft C, Katan MB, Zock PLIntake of n-3 fatty acids from fish does not lower serum concentrations of C-reactive protein in healthy subjectsEur J Clin Nutr.(2004 Oct)
    6. Glycemic Control - Woodman RJ, Mori TA, Burke V, Puddey IB, Watts GF, Beilin LJEffects of purified eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids on glycemic control, blood pressure, and serum lipids in type 2 diabetic patients with treated hypertensionAm J Clin Nutr.(2002 Nov)
    7. Glycemic Control - Akinkuolie AO, Ngwa JS, Meigs JB, Djoussé LOmega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and insulin sensitivity: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trialsClin Nutr.(2011 Dec)
    8. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) - Alison M Hill, Jonathan D Buckley, Karen J Murphy, and Peter RC HoweCombining fish-oil supplements with regular aerobic exercise improves body composition and cardiovascular disease risk factorsThe American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.()
    9. Blood Pressure - Campbell F, Dickinson HO, Critchley JA, Ford GA, Bradburn MA systematic review of fish-oil supplements for the prevention and treatment of hypertensionEur J Prev Cardiolog.(2012 Jan 30)
    10. Triglycerides - Eslick GD, Howe PR, Smith C, Priest R, Bensoussan ABenefits of fish oil supplementation in hyperlipidemia: a systematic review and meta-analysisInt J Cardiol.(2009 Jul 24)
    11. Triglycerides - Davidson MH, Stein EA, Bays HE, Maki KC, Doyle RT, Shalwitz RA, Ballantyne CM, Ginsberg HN, COMBination of prescription Omega-3 with Simvastatin (COMBOS) InvestigatorsEfficacy and tolerability of adding prescription omega-3 fatty acids 4 g/d to simvastatin 40 mg/d in hypertriglyceridemic patients: an 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studyClin Ther.(2007 Jul)
    12. Triglycerides - Annuzzi G, Rivellese A, Capaldo B, Di Marino L, Iovine C, Marotta G, Riccardi GA controlled study on the effects of n-3 fatty acids on lipid and glucose metabolism in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patientsAtherosclerosis.(1991 Mar)
    13. Triglycerides - Maki KC, McKenney JM, Reeves MS, Lubin BC, Dicklin MREffects of adding prescription omega-3 acid ethyl esters to simvastatin (20 mg/day) on lipids and lipoprotein particles in men and women with mixed dyslipidemiaAm J Cardiol.(2008 Aug 15)
    14. Triglycerides - M Gorety Jacobo-Cejudo, Roxana Valdés-Ramos, Ana L Guadarrama-López, Rosa-Virgen Pardo-Morales, Beatriz E Martínez-Carrillo, Laurence S HarbigeEffect of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation on Metabolic and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus PatientsNutrients.(2017 Jun 3)
    15. Triglycerides - Maki KC, Lawless AL, Kelley KM, Dicklin MR, Schild AL, Rains TMPrescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters reduce fasting and postprandial triglycerides and modestly reduce pancreatic β-cell response in subjects with primary hypertriglyceridemiaProstaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids.(2011 Sep-Oct)
    16. Triglycerides - Krebs JD, Browning LM, McLean NK, Rothwell JL, Mishra GD, Moore CS, Jebb SAAdditive benefits of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and weight-loss in the management of cardiovascular disease risk in overweight hyperinsulinaemic womenInt J Obes (Lond).(2006 Oct)
    17. Triglycerides - Maki KC, Lawless AL, Kelley KM, Dicklin MR, Kaden VN, Schild AL, Rains TM, Marshall JWEffects of prescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters on fasting lipid profile in subjects with primary hypercholesterolemiaJ Cardiovasc Pharmacol.(2011 Apr)
    18. Triglycerides - Morgan WA, Raskin P, Rosenstock JA comparison of fish oil or corn oil supplements in hyperlipidemic subjects with NIDDMDiabetes Care.(1995 Jan)
    19. Triglycerides - Connor WE, Prince MJ, Ullmann D, Riddle M, Hatcher L, Smith FE, Wilson DThe hypotriglyceridemic effect of fish oil in adult-onset diabetes without adverse glucose controlAnn N Y Acad Sci.(1993 Jun 14)
    20. Triglycerides - Oelrich B, Dewell A, Gardner CDEffect of fish oil supplementation on serum triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and LDL subfractions in hypertriglyceridemic adultsNutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis.(2011 Sep 15)
    21. Triglycerides - Hanwell HE, Kay CD, Lampe JW, Holub BJ, Duncan AMAcute fish oil and soy isoflavone supplementation increase postprandial serum (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids and isoflavones but do not affect triacylglycerols or biomarkers of oxidative stress in overweight and obese hypertriglyceridemic menJ Nutr.(2009 Jun)
    22. Triglycerides - Skulas-Ray AC, Kris-Etherton PM, Harris WS, Vanden Heuvel JP, Wagner PR, West SGDose-response effects of omega-3 fatty acids on triglycerides, inflammation, and endothelial function in healthy persons with moderate hypertriglyceridemiaAm J Clin Nutr.(2011 Feb)
    23. Triglycerides - Khorshidi M, Hazaveh ZS, Alimohammadi-Kamalabadi M, Jamshidi S, Moghaddam OM, Olang B, Hatefi S, Hosseini A, Jamilian P, Zarezadeh M, Kohansal P, Heshmati J, Jamilian P, Sayyari AEffect of omega-3 supplementation on lipid profile in children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.Nutr J.(2023-Feb-10)
    24. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) - Warner JG Jr, Ullrich IH, Albrink MJ, Yeater RACombined effects of aerobic exercise and omega-3 fatty acids in hyperlipidemic personsMed Sci Sports Exerc.(1989 Oct)
    25. Muscle Mass - C Couet, J Delarue, P Ritz, J M Antoine, F LamisseEffect of dietary fish oil on body fat mass and basal fat oxidation in healthy adultsInt J Obes Relat Metab Disord.(1997 Aug)
    26. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) - Ciubotaru I, Lee YS, Wander RCDietary fish oil decreases C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and triacylglycerol to HDL-cholesterol ratio in postmenopausal women on HRTJ Nutr Biochem.(2003 Sep)
    27. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) - Vega-López S, Kaul N, Devaraj S, Cai RY, German B, Jialal ISupplementation with omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and all-rac alpha-tocopherol alone and in combination failed to exert an anti-inflammatory effect in human volunteersMetabolism.(2004 Feb)
    28. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) - Zulyniak MA, Perreault M, Gerling C, Spriet LL, Mutch DMFish oil supplementation alters circulating eicosanoid concentrations in young healthy menMetabolism.(2013 Mar 20)
    29. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) - Fakhrzadeh H, Ghaderpanahi M, Sharifi F, Mirarefin M, Badamchizade Z, Kamrani AA, Larijani BThe effects of low dose n-3 fatty acids on serum lipid profiles and insulin resistance of the elderly: a randomized controlled clinical trialInt J Vitam Nutr Res.(2010 Apr)
    30. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) - Dangardt F, Osika W, Chen Y, Nilsson U, Gan LM, Gronowitz E, Strandvik B, Friberg POmega-3 fatty acid supplementation improves vascular function and reduces inflammation in obese adolescentsAtherosclerosis.(2010 Oct)
    31. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) - Thusgaard M, Christensen JH, Mørn B, Andersen TS, Vige R, Arildsen H, Schmidt EB, Nielsen HEffect of fish oil (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) on plasma lipids, lipoproteins and inflammatory markers in HIV-infected patients treated with antiretroviral therapy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studyScand J Infect Dis.(2009)
    32. TNF-Alpha - Kelley DS, Taylor PC, Nelson GJ, Schmidt PC, Ferretti A, Erickson KL, Yu R, Chandra RK, Mackey BEDocosahexaenoic acid ingestion inhibits natural killer cell activity and production of inflammatory mediators in young healthy menLipids.(1999 Apr)
    33. TNF-Alpha - Pot GK, Brouwer IA, Enneman A, Rijkers GT, Kampman E, Geelen ANo effect of fish oil supplementation on serum inflammatory markers and their interrelationships: a randomized controlled trial in healthy, middle-aged individualsEur J Clin Nutr.(2009 Nov)
    34. TNF-Alpha - Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Belury MA, Andridge R, Malarkey WB, Hwang BS, Glaser ROmega-3 supplementation lowers inflammation in healthy middle-aged and older adults: a randomized controlled trialBrain Behav Immun.(2012 Aug)
    35. Triglycerides - Shidfar F, Keshavarz A, Hosseyni S, Ameri A, Yarahmadi SEffects of omega-3 fatty acid supplements on serum lipids, apolipoproteins and malondialdehyde in type 2 diabetes patientsEast Mediterr Health J.(2008 Mar-Apr)
    36. Triglycerides - Luo J, Rizkalla SW, Vidal H, Oppert JM, Colas C, Boussairi A, Guerre-Millo M, Chapuis AS, Chevalier A, Durand G, Slama GModerate intake of n-3 fatty acids for 2 months has no detrimental effect on glucose metabolism and could ameliorate the lipid profile in type 2 diabetic men. Results of a controlled studyDiabetes Care.(1998 May)
    37. Leukotriene B5 - Stanke-Labesque F, Molière P, Bessard J, Laville M, Véricel E, Lagarde MEffect of dietary supplementation with increasing doses of docosahexaenoic acid on neutrophil lipid composition and leukotriene production in human healthy volunteersBr J Nutr.(2008 Oct)
    38. Inflammation - Kooshki A, Taleban FA, Tabibi H, Hedayati MEffects of marine omega-3 fatty acids on serum systemic and vascular inflammation markers and oxidative stress in hemodialysis patientsAnn Nutr Metab.(2011)
    39. Inflammation - Yusof HM, Miles EA, Calder PInfluence of very long-chain n-3 fatty acids on plasma markers of inflammation in middle-aged menProstaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids.(2008 Mar)
    40. Cell Adhesion Factors - Maria C Paulo, Ana M Andrade, Maria L Andrade, Maria G Morais, Mairead Kiely, Dolores Parra, J Alfredo Martinéz, Inga Thorsdottir, Narcisa M BandarraInfluence of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on soluble cellular adhesion molecules as biomarkers of cardiovascular risk in young healthy subjectsNutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis.(2008 Dec)
    41. C-Reactive Protein (CRP) - Madsen T, Christensen JH, Blom M, Schmidt EBThe effect of dietary n-3 fatty acids on serum concentrations of C-reactive protein: a dose-response studyBr J Nutr.(2003 Apr)
    42. Infant Death Risk - Zhou SJ, Yelland L, McPhee AJ, Quinlivan J, Gibson RA, Makrides MFish-oil supplementation in pregnancy does not reduce the risk of gestational diabetes or preeclampsiaAm J Clin Nutr.(2012 Jun)
    43. Cortisol - Michaeli B, Berger MM, Revelly JP, Tappy L, Chioléro REffects of fish oil on the neuro-endocrine responses to an endotoxin challenge in healthy volunteersClin Nutr.(2007 Feb)
    44. Cortisol - Yann K Pittet, Mette M Berger, Thomas-Thi Pluess, Pierre Voirol, Jean-Pierre Revelly, Luc Tappy, René L ChioléroBlunting the response to endotoxin in healthy subjects: effects of various doses of intravenous fish oilIntensive Care Med.(2010 Feb)
    45. Insulin Resistance - Hou M, Zhou W, Sun L, Wang B, Shen J, Cao L, Lv HEffect of Fish Oil on Insulin Sensitivity in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Controlled Trials.Can J Diabetes.(2021-Aug)
    46. 5-HETE - Nielsen MS, Gammelmark A, Madsen T, Obel T, Aardestrup I, Schmidt EBThe effect of low-dose marine n-3 fatty acids on the biosynthesis of pro-inflammatory 5-lipoxygenase pathway metabolites in overweight subjects: a randomized controlled trialProstaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids.(2012 Jul)
    47. Weight - Kunesová M, Braunerová R, Hlavatý P, Tvrzická E, Stanková B, Skrha J, Hilgertová J, Hill M, Kopecký J, Wagenknecht M, Hainer V, Matoulek M, Parízková J, Zák A, Svacina SThe influence of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and very low calorie diet during a short-term weight reducing regimen on weight loss and serum fatty acid composition in severely obese womenPhysiol Res.(2006)
    48. Weight - Munro IA, Garg MLDietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA does not promote weight loss when combined with a very-low-energy dietBr J Nutr.(2012 Jan 3)
    49. Insulin - Borkman M, Chisholm DJ, Furler SM, Storlien LH, Kraegen EW, Simons LA, Chesterman CNEffects of fish oil supplementation on glucose and lipid metabolism in NIDDMDiabetes.(1989 Oct)
    50. Insulin - Goh YK, Jumpsen JA, Ryan EA, Clandinin MTEffect of omega 3 fatty acid on plasma lipids, cholesterol and lipoprotein fatty acid content in NIDDM patientsDiabetologia.(1997 Jan)
    51. Insulin - Pelikánová T, Kohout M, Válek J, Kazdová L, Base JMetabolic effects of omega-3 fatty acids in type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patientsAnn N Y Acad Sci.(1993 Jun 14)
    52. Triglycerides - Schectman G, Kaul S, Kissebah AHEffect of fish oil concentrate on lipoprotein composition in NIDDMDiabetes.(1988 Nov)
    53. Triglycerides - Rizza S, Tesauro M, Cardillo C, Galli A, Iantorno M, Gigli F, Sbraccia P, Federici M, Quon MJ, Lauro DFish oil supplementation improves endothelial function in normoglycemic offspring of patients with type 2 diabetesAtherosclerosis.(2009 Oct)
    54. Triglycerides - Montori VM, Farmer A, Wollan PC, Dinneen SFFish oil supplementation in type 2 diabetes: a quantitative systematic reviewDiabetes Care.(2000 Sep)
    55. Triglycerides - Boberg M, Pollare T, Siegbahn A, Vessby BSupplementation with n-3 fatty acids reduces triglycerides but increases PAI-1 in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitusEur J Clin Invest.(1992 Oct)
    56. Triglycerides - Hendra TJ, Britton ME, Roper DR, Wagaine-Twabwe D, Jeremy JY, Dandona P, Haines AP, Yudkin JSEffects of fish oil supplements in NIDDM subjects. Controlled studyDiabetes Care.(1990 Aug)
    57. Triglycerides - McManus RM, Jumpson J, Finegood DT, Clandinin MT, Ryan EAA comparison of the effects of n-3 fatty acids from linseed oil and fish oil in well-controlled type II diabetesDiabetes Care.(1996 May)
    58. HbA1c - Pooya Sh, Jalali MD, Jazayery AD, Saedisomeolia A, Eshraghian MR, Toorang FThe efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on plasma homocysteine and malondialdehyde levels of type 2 diabetic patientsNutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis.(2010 Jun)
    59. HbA1c - Kabir M, Skurnik G, Naour N, Pechtner V, Meugnier E, Rome S, Quignard-Boulangé A, Vidal H, Slama G, Clément K, Guerre-Millo M, Rizkalla SWTreatment for 2 mo with n 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduces adiposity and some atherogenic factors but does not improve insulin sensitivity in women with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled studyAm J Clin Nutr.(2007 Dec)
    60. Offspring BMI - Byron A Foster, Elia Escaname, Theresa L Powell, Benjamin Larsen, Sartaj K Siddiqui, John Menchaca, Christian Aquino, Rajam Ramamurthy, Daniel E HaleRandomized Controlled Trial of DHA Supplementation during Pregnancy: Child Adiposity OutcomesNutrients.(2017 Jun 2)
    61. Weight - Ramel A, Martinez JA, Kiely M, Bandarra NM, Thorsdottir IModerate consumption of fatty fish reduces diastolic blood pressure in overweight and obese European young adults during energy restrictionNutrition.(2010 Feb)
    62. Hematocrit - Leila Vahedi, Alireza Ostadrahimi, Fatemeh Edalati-Fard, Hossein Aslani, Azizeh Farshbaf-KhaliliIs fish oil supplementation effective on maternal serum FBS, oral glucose tolerance test, hemoglobin and hematocrit in low risk pregnant women? A triple-blind randomized controlled trialJ Complement Integr Med.(2018 Feb 28)
    63. Exercise-Induced Oxidation - Filaire E, Massart A, Portier H, Rouveix M, Rosado F, Bage AS, Gobert M, Durand DEffect of 6 Weeks of n-3 fatty-acid supplementation on oxidative stress in Judo athletesInt J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab.(2010 Dec)
    64. Muscle Soreness - Tartibian B, Maleki BH, Abbasi AThe effects of ingestion of omega-3 fatty acids on perceived pain and external symptoms of delayed onset muscle soreness in untrained menClin J Sport Med.(2009 Mar)
    65. Muscle Soreness - Lenn J, Uhl T, Mattacola C, Boissonneault G, Yates J, Ibrahim W, Bruckner GThe effects of fish oil and isoflavones on delayed onset muscle sorenessMed Sci Sports Exerc.(2002 Oct)
    66. Muscle Soreness - Bloomer RJ, Larson DE, Fisher-Wellman KH, Galpin AJ, Schilling BKEffect of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid on resting and exercise-induced inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers: a randomized, placebo controlled, cross-over studyLipids Health Dis.(2009 Aug 19)
    67. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) - Paula Simplício da Silva, Mauro Felippe Felix Mediano, Gilberto Marcelo Sperandio da Silva, Patricia Dias de Brito, Claudia Santos de Aguiar Cardoso, Cristiane Fonseca de Almeida, Luiz Henrique Conde Sangenis, Roberta Olmo Pinheiro, Alejandro Marcel Hasslocher-Moreno, Pedro Emmanuel Alvarenga Americano do Brasil, Andrea Silvestre de SousaOmega-3 supplementation on inflammatory markers in patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy: a randomized clinical studyNutr J.(2017 Jun 9)
    68. Exercise-Induced Immune Suppression - Gray P, Gabriel B, Thies F, Gray SRFish oil supplementation augments post-exercise immune function in young malesBrain Behav Immun.(2012 Nov)
    69. Inflammation - Schirmer SH, Werner CM, Binder SB, Faas ME, Custodis F, Böhm M, Laufs UEffects of omega-3 fatty acids on postprandial triglycerides and monocyte activationAtherosclerosis.(2012 Nov)
    70. Inflammation - Fujioka S, Hamazaki K, Itomura M, Huan M, Nishizawa H, Sawazaki S, Kitajima I, Hamazaki TThe effects of eicosapentaenoic acid-fortified food on inflammatory markers in healthy subjects--A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind studyJ Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo).(2006 Aug)
    71. Natural Killer Cell Content - Miles EA, Banerjee T, Wells SJ, Calder PCLimited effect of eicosapentaenoic acid on T-lymphocyte and natural killer cell numbers and functions in healthy young malesNutrition.(2006 May)
    72. Natural Killer Cell Content - Thies F, Nebe-von-Caron G, Powell JR, Yaqoob P, Newsholme EA, Calder PCDietary supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid, but not with other long-chain n-3 or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, decreases natural killer cell activity in healthy subjects aged >55 yAm J Clin Nutr.(2001 Mar)
    73. TNF-Alpha - Mina Abdolahi, Abbas Tafakhori, Mansoureh Togha, Ali Asghar Okhovat, Feridoun Siassi, Mohammad Reza Eshraghian, Mohsen Sedighiyan, Mona Djalali, Niyaz Mohammadzadeh Honarvar, Mahmoud DjalaliThe synergistic effects of ω-3 fatty acids and nano-curcumin supplementation on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α gene expression and serum level in migraine patientsImmunogenetics.(2017 Jun)
    74. T Cell Count - Thies F, Nebe-von-Caron G, Powell JR, Yaqoob P, Newsholme EA, Calder PCDietary supplementation with gamma-linolenic acid or fish oil decreases T lymphocyte proliferation in healthy older humansJ Nutr.(2001 Jul)
    75. Weight - Nobili V, Bedogni G, Alisi A, Pietrobattista A, Risé P, Galli C, Agostoni CDocosahexaenoic acid supplementation decreases liver fat content in children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: double-blind randomised controlled clinical trialArch Dis Child.(2011 Apr)
    76. Oxygenation Cost of Exercise - Lachlan Hingley, Michael J Macartney, Marc A Brown, Peter L McLennan, Gregory E PeoplesDHA-rich Fish Oil Increases the Omega-3 Index and Lowers the Oxygen Cost of Physiologically Stressful Cycling in Trained IndividualsInt J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab.(2017 Aug)
    77. Anaerobic Capacity - Leyre Gravina, Frankie F Brown, Lee Alexander, James Dick, Gordon Bell, Oliver C Witard, Stuart D R Gallowayn-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation During 4 Weeks of Training Leads to Improved Anaerobic Endurance Capacity, but not Maximal Strength, Speed, or Power in Soccer PlayersInt J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab.(2017 Aug)
    78. Walking Ability - Rondanelli M, Perna S, Riva A, Petrangolini G, Di Paolo E, Gasparri CEffects of n-3 EPA and DHA supplementation on fat free mass and physical performance in elderly. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trial.Mech Ageing Dev.(2021-Jun)
    79. Endometriosis-associated pelvic pain - James L Nodler, Amy D DiVasta, Allison F Vitonis, Sarah Karevicius, Maggie Malsch, Vishnudas Sarda, Ayotunde Fadayomi, Holly R Harris, Stacey A MissmerSupplementation with vitamin D or ω-3 fatty acids in adolescent girls and young women with endometriosis (SAGE): a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trialAm J Clin Nutr.(2020 Jul 1)
    80. Triglycerides - Cazzola R, Russo-Volpe S, Miles EA, Rees D, Banerjee T, Roynette CE, Wells SJ, Goua M, Wahle KW, Calder PC, Cestaro BAge- and dose-dependent effects of an eicosapentaenoic acid-rich oil on cardiovascular risk factors in healthy male subjectsAtherosclerosis.(2007 Jul)
    81. Triglycerides - Oliveira JM, Rondó PHOmega-3 fatty acids and hypertriglyceridemia in HIV-infected subjects on antiretroviral therapy: systematic review and meta-analysisHIV Clin Trials.(2011 Sep-Oct)
    82. Triglycerides - Schuchardt JP, Neubronner J, Kressel G, Merkel M, von Schacky C, Hahn AModerate doses of EPA and DHA from re-esterified triacylglycerols but not from ethyl-esters lower fasting serum triacylglycerols in statin-treated dyslipidemic subjects: Results from a six month randomized controlled trialProstaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids.(2011 Dec)
    83. Triglycerides - Dawczynski C, Martin L, Wagner A, Jahreis Gn-3 LC-PUFA-enriched dairy products are able to reduce cardiovascular risk factors: a double-blind, cross-over studyClin Nutr.(2010 Oct)
    84. Weight - Bays HE, Maki KC, Doyle RT, Stein EThe effect of prescription omega-3 fatty acids on body weight after 8 to 16 weeks of treatment for very high triglyceride levelsPostgrad Med.(2009 Sep)
    85. Depression Symptoms - Behboudi-Gandevani S, Hariri FZ, Moghaddam-Banaem LThe effect of omega 3 fatty acid supplementation on premenstrual syndrome and health-related quality of life: a randomized clinical trialJ Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol.(2018 Dec)
    86. Depression Symptoms - Sohrabi N, Kashanian M, Ghafoori SS, Malakouti SKEvaluation of the effect of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: "a pilot trial"Complement Ther Med.(2013 Jun)
    87. PMS Symptoms - Mandana Z, Azar AComparison of the Effect of Vit E, VitB6, Calcium and Omega-3 on the Treatment of Premenstrual Syndrome: A Clinical Randomized TrialAnnu Res Rev Biol.()
    88. Aggression - Fontani G, Corradeschi F, Felici A, Alfatti F, Migliorini S, Lodi LCognitive and physiological effects of Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in healthy subjectsEur J Clin Invest.(2005 Nov)
    89. Memory - Antypa N, Van der Does AJ, Smelt AH, Rogers RDOmega-3 fatty acids (fish-oil) and depression-related cognition in healthy volunteersJ Psychopharmacol.(2009 Sep)
    90. Memory - Rajesh Narendran, William G. Frankle, Neale S. Mason, Matthew F. Muldoon, Bita MoghaddamImproved Working Memory but No Effect on Striatal Vesicular Monoamine Transporter Type 2 after Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid SupplementationPLoS.()
    91. Depression Symptoms - Llorente AM, Jensen CL, Voigt RG, Fraley JK, Berretta MC, Heird WCEffect of maternal docosahexaenoic acid supplementation on postpartum depression and information processingAm J Obstet Gynecol.(2003 May)
    92. Attention - Jane Pei-Chen Chang, Kuan-Pin Su, Valeria Mondelli, Senthil Kumaran Satyanarayanan, Hui-Ting Yang, Yi-Ju Chiang, Hui-Ting Chen, Carmine M ParianteHigh-dose eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) improves attention and vigilance in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and low endogenous EPA levelsTransl Psychiatry.(2019 Nov 20)
    93. Attention - Widenhorn-Müller K, Schwanda S, Scholz E, Spitzer M, Bode HEffect of supplementation with long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on behavior and cognition in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a randomized placebo-controlled intervention trialProstaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids.(2014 Jul-Aug)
    94. Cognitive Decline - Chew EY, Clemons TE, Agrón E, Launer LJ, Grodstein F, Bernstein PS, Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) Research GroupEffect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Lutein/Zeaxanthin, or Other Nutrient Supplementation on Cognitive Function: The AREDS2 Randomized Clinical TrialJAMA.(2015 Aug 25)
    95. Cognitive Decline - Yurko-Mauro K, McCarthy D, Rom D, Nelson EB, Ryan AS, Blackwell A, Salem N Jr, Stedman M; MIDAS InvestigatorsBeneficial effects of docosahexaenoic acid on cognition in age-related cognitive declineAlzheimers Dement.(2010 Nov)
    96. Cerebral Oxygenation - Jackson PA, Reay JL, Scholey AB, Kennedy DODHA-rich oil modulates the cerebral haemodynamic response to cognitive tasks in healthy young adults: a near IR spectroscopy pilot studyBr J Nutr.(2012 Apr)
    97. Cognition - Sandrine Andrieu, Sophie Guyonnet, Nicola Coley, Christelle Cantet, Marc Bonnefoy, Serge Bordes, Lawrence Bories, Marie-Noëlle Cufi, Thierry Dantoine, Jean-François Dartigues, Françoise Desclaux, Audrey Gabelle, Yannick Gasnier, Alain Pesce, Kristel Sudres, Jacques Touchon, Philippe Robert, Olivier Rouaud, Philippe Legrand, Pierre Payoux, Jean-Paul Caubere, Michael Weiner, Isabelle Carrié, Pierre-Jean Ousset, Bruno Vellas, MAPT Study GroupEffect of long-term omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation with or without multidomain intervention on cognitive function in elderly adults with memory complaints (MAPT): a randomised, placebo-controlled trialLancet Neurol.(2017 May)
    98. Aggression - Annie T Ginty, Matthew F Muldoon, Dora C H Kuan, Brittney Schirda, Thomas W Kamarck, J Richard Jennings, Stephen B Manuck, Peter J GianarosOmega-3 Supplementation and the Neural Correlates of Negative Affect and Impulsivity: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial in Midlife AdultsPsychosom Med.(2017 Jun)
    99. Depression Symptoms - Watanabe N, Matsuoka Y, Kumachi M, Hamazaki K, Horikoshi M, Furukawa TAOmega-3 fatty acids for a better mental state in working populations - Happy Nurse Project: A 52-week randomized controlled trialJ Psychiatr Res.(2018 Jul)
    100. Subjective Well-Being - G Fontani, F Corradeschi, A Felici, F Alfatti, R Bugarini, A I Fiaschi, D Cerretani, G Montorfano, A M Rizzo, B BerraBlood profiles, body fat and mood state in healthy subjects on different diets supplemented with Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acidsEur J Clin Invest.(2005 Aug)
    101. Endothelial Function - Sanders TA, Hall WL, Maniou Z, Lewis F, Seed PT, Chowienczyk PJEffect of low doses of long-chain n-3 PUFAs on endothelial function and arterial stiffness: a randomized controlled trialAm J Clin Nutr.(2011 Oct)
    102. Endothelial Function - Pase MP, Grima NA, Sarris JDo long-chain n-3 fatty acids reduce arterial stiffness? A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trialsBr J Nutr.(2011 Oct)
    103. Triglycerides - Bernstein AM, Ding EL, Willett WC, Rimm EBA meta-analysis shows that docosahexaenoic acid from algal oil reduces serum triglycerides and increases HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol in persons without coronary heart diseaseJ Nutr.(2012 Jan)
    104. Cell Adhesion Factors - Miles EA, Thies F, Wallace FA, Powell JR, Hurst TL, Newsholme EA, Calder PCInfluence of age and dietary fish oil on plasma soluble adhesion molecule concentrationsClin Sci (Lond).(2001 Jan)
    105. C-Peptide - M Horvaticek, J Djelmis, M Ivanisevic, S Oreskovic, M HermanEffect of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid supplementation on C-peptide preservation in pregnant women with type-1 diabetes: randomized placebo controlled clinical trialEur J Clin Nutr.(2017 Aug)
    106. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) - Ilowite NT, Copperman N, Leicht T, Kwong T, Jacobson MSEffects of dietary modification and fish oil supplementation on dyslipoproteinemia in pediatric systemic lupus erythematosusJ Rheumatol.(1995 Jul)
    107. Blood Flow - Wright SA, O'Prey FM, McHenry MT, Leahey WJ, Devine AB, Duffy EM, Johnston DG, Finch MB, Bell AL, McVeigh GEA randomised interventional trial of omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids on endothelial function and disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosusAnn Rheum Dis.(2008 Jun)
    108. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Symptoms - U N DasBeneficial effect of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in the management of systemic lupus erythematosus and its relationship to the cytokine networkProstaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids.(1994 Sep)
    109. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Symptoms - Westberg G, Tarkowski AEffect of MaxEPA in patients with SLE. A double-blind, crossover studyScand J Rheumatol.(1990)
    110. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Symptoms - Duffy EM, Meenagh GK, McMillan SA, Strain JJ, Hannigan BM, Bell ALThe clinical effect of dietary supplementation with omega-3 fish oils and/or copper in systemic lupus erythematosusJ Rheumatol.(2004 Aug)
    111. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Symptoms - Clark WF, Parbtani A, Naylor CD, Levinton CM, Muirhead N, Spanner E, Huff MW, Philbrick DJ, Holub BJFish oil in lupus nephritis: clinical findings and methodological implicationsKidney Int.(1993 Jul)
    112. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Symptoms - Walton AJ, Snaith ML, Locniskar M, Cumberland AG, Morrow WJ, Isenberg DADietary fish oil and the severity of symptoms in patients with systemic lupus erythematosusAnn Rheum Dis.(1991 Jul)
    113. Depression Symptoms - Rees AM, Austin MP, Parker GBOmega-3 fatty acids as a treatment for perinatal depression: randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trialAust N Z J Psychiatry.(2008 Mar)
    114. Depression Symptoms - Su KP, Huang SY, Chiu TH, Huang KC, Huang CL, Chang HC, Pariante CMOmega-3 fatty acids for major depressive disorder during pregnancy: results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialJ Clin Psychiatry.(2008 Apr)
    115. Depression Symptoms - Doornbos B, van Goor SA, Dijck-Brouwer DA, Schaafsma A, Korf J, Muskiet FASupplementation of a low dose of DHA or DHA+AA does not prevent peripartum depressive symptoms in a small population based sampleProg Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry.(2009 Feb 1)
    116. Depression Symptoms - Mozurkewich EL, Clinton CM, Chilimigras JL, Hamilton SE, Allbaugh LJ, Berman DR, Marcus SM, Romero VC, Treadwell MC, Keeton KL, Vahratian AM, Schrader RM, Ren J, Djuric ZThe Mothers, Omega-3, and Mental Health Study: a double-blind, randomized controlled trialAm J Obstet Gynecol.(2013 Apr)
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    118. Postpartum Depression Symptoms - Juliana Dos Santos Vaz, Dayana Rodrigues Farias, Amanda Rodrigues Amorim Adegboye, Antonio Egidio Nardi, Gilberto KacOmega-3 supplementation from pregnancy to postpartum to prevent depressive symptoms: a randomized placebo-controlled trialBMC Pregnancy Childbirth.(2017 Jun 9)
    119. Depression Symptoms - Cohen LS, Joffe H, Guthrie KA, Ensrud KE, Freeman M, Carpenter JS, Learman LA, Newton KM, Reed SD, Manson JE, Sternfeld B, Caan B, Freeman EW, LaCroix AZ, Tinker LF, Booth-Laforce C, Larson JC, Anderson GLEfficacy of omega-3 for vasomotor symptoms treatment: a randomized controlled trialMenopause.(2014 Apr)
    120. Depression Symptoms - Lucas M, Asselin G, Mérette C, Poulin MJ, Dodin SEthyl-eicosapentaenoic acid for the treatment of psychological distress and depressive symptoms in middle-aged women: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trialAm J Clin Nutr.(2009 Feb)
    121. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone - Al-Safi ZA, Liu H, Carlson NE, Chosich J, Harris M, Bradford AP, Robledo C, Eckel RH, Polotsky AJOmega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Lowers Serum FSH in Normal Weight But Not Obese WomenJ Clin Endocrinol Metab.(2016 Jan)
    122. Glycemic Control - Vargas ML, Almario RU, Buchan W, Kim K, Karakas SEMetabolic and endocrine effects of long-chain versus essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in polycystic ovary syndromeMetabolism.(2011 Dec)
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    126. Airway Inflammation Markers - Neil C Williams, Kirsty A Hunter, Dominick E Shaw, Kim G Jackson, Graham R Sharpe, Michael A JohnsonComparable reductions in hyperpnoea-induced bronchoconstriction and markers of airway inflammation after supplementation with 6·2 and 3·1 g/d of long-chain n-3 PUFA in adults with asthmaBr J Nutr.(2017 May)
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    130. Depression Symptoms - Martins JGEPA but not DHA appears to be responsible for the efficacy of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in depression: evidence from a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trialsJ Am Coll Nutr.(2009 Oct)
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    133. Depression Symptoms - Peet M, Horrobin DFA dose-ranging study of the effects of ethyl-eicosapentaenoate in patients with ongoing depression despite apparently adequate treatment with standard drugsArch Gen Psychiatry.(2002 Oct)
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    136. Depression Symptoms - Grenyer BF, Crowe T, Meyer B, Owen AJ, Grigonis-Deane EM, Caputi P, Howe PRFish oil supplementation in the treatment of major depression: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trialProg Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry.(2007 Oct 1)
    137. Depression Symptoms - Maike Wolters, Annkathrin von der Haar, Ann-Kristin Baalmann, Maike Wellbrock, Thomas L Heise, Stefan RachEffects of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation in the Prevention and Treatment of Depressive Disorders-A Systematic Review and Meta-AnalysisNutrients.(2021 Mar 25)
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    139. Depression Symptoms - Christos F Kelaiditis, E Leigh Gibson, Simon C DyallEffects of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on reducing anxiety and/or depression in adults; A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trialsProstaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids.(2023 May)
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    166. DNA Damage - Rhodes LE, Shahbakhti H, Azurdia RM, Moison RM, Steenwinkel MJ, Homburg MI, Dean MP, McArdle F, Beijersbergen van Henegouwen GM, Epe B, Vink AAEffect of eicosapentaenoic acid, an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, on UVR-related cancer risk in humans. An assessment of early genotoxic markersCarcinogenesis.(2003 May)
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    171. Postpartum Depression Symptoms - Suradom C, Suttajit S, Oon-Arom A, Maneeton B, Srisurapanont MOmega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation for prevention and treatment of perinatal depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials.Nord J Psychiatry.(2021-May)
    172. Autism Symptoms - Saeid Doaei, Fatemeh Bourbour, Zohreh Teymoori, Faranak Jafari, Naser Kalantari, Saheb Abbas Torki, Narges Ashoori, Shiva Nemat Gorgani, Maryam GholamalizadehThe effect of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on social and behavioral disorders of children with autism: a randomized clinical trialPediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab.(2021)
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    174. Oxidative Stress Biomarkers - T Pawełczyk, M Grancow-Grabka, E Trafalska, J Szemraj, A PawełczykOxidative stress reduction related to the efficacy of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in first episode schizophrenia: Secondary outcome analysis of the OFFER randomized trialProstaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids.(2017 Jun)
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    179. Atrial Fibrillation Incidence - Baris Gencer, Luc Djousse, Omar T Al-Ramady, Nancy R Cook, JoAnn E Manson, Christine M AlbertEffect of Long-Term Marine Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation on the Risk of Atrial Fibrillation in Randomized Controlled Trials of Cardiovascular Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-AnalysisCirculation.(2021 Oct 6)
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