Vitamin K~2~ is required to activate the protein osteocalcin, which directs calcium into bones and teeth. K2 also helps prevent the hardening of arteries by aiding in the removal of calcium deposits.
Joints & Bones
Bones do a lot more than just provide some shape to our bodies; they also produce blood cells, store and release minerals, and help regulate blood acid-base balance. Joints are the places where bones meet. Diet, vitamins, minerals, and other supplements all can play a role in bone and joint health.
Bones not only provide shape to our bodies and protection for our organs but also produce red and white blood cells, act as a store for minerals like calcium and phosphorus, and help regulate blood acidity. Joints are simply the spaces where bones meet. Some joints allow for a movement, such as knee joints, whereas others don’t, such as the joints between skull bones. The most common type of joint in the body — and the one that probably most easily comes to mind — are synovial joints, which are surrounded by a fluid-filled cavity and also contain cartilage to help with smooth movement.
A healthy diet high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, fish and poultry, nuts, legumes, and low-fat dairy is associated with better bone health. Getting enough vitamin D, vitamin A, and calcium is particularly important for bone health. A healthy diet — along with weight loss in people with obesity — is also important for joint health.  On the other end of the spectrum, being underweight decreases bone density while raising the risk of osteoporosis. Increasing oily fish intake and good sources of vitamin K like leafy greens, Brussels sprouts, and broccoli may also be helpful in slowing osteoarthritis, which is the most prevalent form of arthritis.
For bone health, vitamin-d and calcium together have evidence supporting their use, although vitamin D on its own may not do much in this regard. vitamin-k supplements may also help prevent fractures to a small extent. Supplements for joint health include glucosamine, chondroitin, boswellia, turmeric, type-ii-collagen, fish-oil, and more.
Supplement GuideClick here to read the Joint Health Supplement Guide
Bone is much more dynamic than it may appear, constantly undergoing a remodeling process of resorption and new bone formation. Whether or not bone mass is lost through resorption or gained is determined by the balance between osteoclast cells, which carry out bone resorption, and osteoblast cells, which form new bone tissue. The ability of bone to undergo dynamic remodeling is important for regulating calcium and phosphate levels in the body, as well as healing bone fractures and adapting to different mechanical stimuli.
osteoporosis, which literally means “porous bone”, is caused by an imbalance between osteoblasts and osteoclasts, favoring the bone- resorbing activity of the latter. The risk of such an imbalance greatly increases after about age 50, particularly so in women at the time of menopause. Osteoporosis is a common cause of bone fractures in older adults.