Skin Health

Last Updated: August 16, 2022

Skin health refers to the integrity of skin function. Healthy skin maintains a barrier between the external environment and the inside of the body, and is characterized as smooth, moisturized, clear of blemishes, and radiant.

Skin Health falls under theSkin, Hair, & Nailscategory.

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References
  1. ^Sérgio Schalka, Denise Steiner, Flávia Naranjo Ravelli, Tatiana Steiner, Aripuanã Cobério Terena, Carolina Reato Marçon, Eloisa Leis Ayres, Flávia Alvim Sant'anna Addor, Helio Amante Miot, Humberto Ponzio, Ida Duarte, Jane Neffá, José Antônio Jabur da Cunha, Juliana Catucci Boza, Luciana de Paula Samorano, Marcelo de Paula Corrêa, Marcus Maia, Nilton Nasser, Olga Maria Rodrigues Ribeiro Leite, Otávio Sergio Lopes, Pedro Dantas Oliveira, Renata Leal Bregunci Meyer, Tânia Cestari, Vitor Manoel Silva dos Reis, Vitória Regina Pedreira de Almeida Rego, Brazilian Society of DermatologyBrazilian Consensus on PhotoprotectionAn Bras Dermatol.(Nov-Dec 2014)
  2. ^Jean Krutmann, Anne Bouloc, Gabrielle Sore, Bruno A Bernard, Thierry PasseronThe Skin Aging ExposomeJ Dermatol Sci.(2017 Mar)
  3. ^Uraiwan Panich, Gunya Sittithumcharee, Natwarath Rathviboon, Siwanon JirawatnotaiUltraviolet Radiation-Induced Skin Aging: The Role of DNA Damage and Oxidative Stress in Epidermal Stem Cell Damage Mediated Skin AgingStem Cells Int.(2016)
  4. ^Barbara A GilchrestPhotoagingJ Invest Dermatol.(2013 Jul 1)
  5. ^L L Hruza, A P PentlandMechanisms of UV-induced InflammationJ Invest Dermatol.(1993 Jan)
  6. ^Chanchal Deep Kaur, Swarnlata SarafIn Vitro Sun Protection Factor Determination of Herbal Oils Used in CosmeticsPharmacognosy Res.(2010 Jan)
  7. ^David A Kiken, David E CohenContact Dermatitis to Botanical ExtractsAm J Contact Dermat.(2002 Sep)
  8. ^M Corazza, A Borghi, M M Lauriola, A VirgiliUse of Topical Herbal Remedies and Cosmetics: A Questionnaire-Based Investigation in Dermatology Out-PatientsJ Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol.(2009 Nov)
  9. ^S Gause, A ChauhanUV-blocking Potential of Oils and JuicesInt J Cosmet Sci.(2016 Aug)
  10. ^Yoon HS, Kim JR, Park GY, Kim JE, Lee DH, Lee KW, Chung JHCocoa Flavanol Supplementation Influences Skin Conditions of Photo-Aged Women: A 24-Week Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled TrialJ Nutr.(2016 Jan)
  11. ^Heinrich U, Neukam K, Tronnier H, Sies H, Stahl WLong-term ingestion of high flavanol cocoa provides photoprotection against UV-induced erythema and improves skin condition in womenJ Nutr.(2006 Jun)
  12. ^Williams S, Tamburic S, Lally CEating chocolate can significantly protect the skin from UV lightJ Cosmet Dermatol.(2009 Sep)
  13. ^Brian Berman, Charles Ellis, Craig ElmetsPolypodium Leucotomos--An Overview of Basic Investigative FindingsJ Drugs Dermatol.(2016 Feb)
  14. ^Middelkamp-Hup MA, Pathak MA, Parrado C, Goukassian D, Rius-Díaz F, Mihm MC, Fitzpatrick TB, González SOral Polypodium leucotomos extract decreases ultraviolet-induced damage of human skinJ Am Acad Dermatol.(2004 Dec)
  15. ^Indermeet Kohli, Rubina Shafi, Prescilia Isedeh, James L Griffith, Mohammed S Al-Jamal, Narumol Silpa-Archa, Bradford Jackson, Mohammed Athar, Nikiforos Kollias, Craig A Elmets, Henry W Lim, Iltefat H HamzaviThe Impact of Oral Polypodium Leucotomos Extract on Ultraviolet B Response: A Human Clinical StudyJ Am Acad Dermatol.(2017 Jul)
  16. ^P Aguilera, C Carrera, J A Puig-Butille, C Badenas, M Lecha, S González, J Malvehy, S PuigBenefits of Oral Polypodium Leucotomos Extract in MM High-Risk PatientsJ Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol.(2013 Sep)
  17. ^Adriana Villa, Martha H Viera, Sadegh Amini, Ran Huo, Oliver Perez, Phillip Ruiz, Alexandra Amador, George Elgart, Brian BermanDecrease of Ultraviolet A Light-Induced "Common Deletion" in Healthy Volunteers After Oral Polypodium Leucotomos Extract Supplement in a Randomized Clinical TrialJ Am Acad Dermatol.(2010 Mar)
  18. ^Maritza A Middelkamp-Hup, Madhu A Pathak, Concepcion Parrado, Tomas Garcia-Caballero, Francisca Rius-Díaz, Thomas B Fitzpatrick, Salvador GonzálezOrally Administered Polypodium Leucotomos Extract Decreases psoralen-UVA-induced Phototoxicity, Pigmentation, and Damage of Human SkinJ Am Acad Dermatol.(2004 Jan)
  19. ^S González, M A Pathak, J Cuevas, V G Villarrubia, T B FitzpatrickTopical or Oral Administration With an Extract of Polypodium Leucotomos Prevents Acute Sunburn and Psoralen-Induced Phototoxic Reactions as Well as Depletion of Langerhans Cells in Human SkinPhotodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed.(Feb-Apr 1997)
  20. ^Enzo Emanuele, Marco Bertona, Marco BiagiComparative Effects of a Fixed Polypodium leucotomos/Pomegranate Combination Versus Polypodium Leucotomos Alone on Skin Biophysical ParametersNeuro Endocrinol Lett.(2017 Feb)
  21. ^Mark S Nestor, Brian Berman, Nicole SwensonSafety and Efficacy of Oral Polypodium Leucotomos Extract in Healthy Adult SubjectsJ Clin Aesthet Dermatol.(2015 Feb)
  22. ^Adrian Tanew, Sonja Radakovic, Salvador Gonzalez, Marina Venturini, Piergiacomo Calzavara-PintonOral administration of a hydrophilic extract of Polypodium leucotomos for the prevention of polymorphic light eruptionJ Am Acad Dermatol.(2012 Jan)
  23. ^Natalya E Chalyk, Viktor A Klochkov, Tatiana Y Bandaletova, Nigel H Kyle, Ivan M PetyaevContinuous Astaxanthin Intake Reduces Oxidative Stress and Reverses Age-Related Morphological Changes of Residual Skin Surface Components in Middle-Aged VolunteersNutr Res.(2017 Dec)
  24. ^Nicole M Lyons, Nora M O'BrienModulatory Effects of an Algal Extract Containing Astaxanthin on UVA-irradiated Cells in CultureJ Dermatol Sci.(2002 Oct)
  25. ^Tominaga K, Hongo N, Karato M, Yamashita ECosmetic benefits of astaxanthin on humans subjectsActa Biochim Pol.(2012)
  26. ^Tominaga K, Hongo N, Fujishita M, Takahashi Y, Adachi YProtective effects of astaxanthin on skin deteriorationJ Clin Biochem Nutr.(2017 Jul)
  27. ^Ito N, Seki S, Ueda FThe Protective Role of Astaxanthin for UV-Induced Skin Deterioration in Healthy People-A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled TrialNutrients.(2018 Jun 25)
  28. ^A Pérez-Sánchez, E Barrajón-Catalán, N Caturla, J Castillo, O Benavente-García, M Alcaraz, V MicolProtective Effects of Citrus and Rosemary Extracts on UV-induced Damage in Skin Cell Model and Human VolunteersJ Photochem Photobiol B.(2014 Jul 5)
  29. ^Vincenzo Nobile, Angela Michelotti, Enza Cestone, Nuria Caturla, Julián Castillo, Obdulio Benavente-García, Almudena Pérez-Sánchez, Vicente MicolSkin Photoprotective and Antiageing Effects of a Combination of Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis) and Grapefruit (Citrus Paradisi) PolyphenolsFood Nutr Res.(2016 Jul 1)
  30. ^Aleksandar Godic, Borut Poljšak, Metka Adamic, Raja DahmaneThe Role of Antioxidants in Skin Cancer Prevention and TreatmentOxid Med Cell Longev.(2014)
  31. ^Jens J Thiele, Swarna Ekanayake-MudiyanselageVitamin E in Human Skin: Organ-Specific Physiology and Considerations for Its Use in DermatologyMol Aspects Med.(Oct-Dec 2007)
  32. ^Alexandra Mereniuk, Philippe Marchessault, Catherine Maari, Chantal Bolduc, Robert BissonnetteTopical Vitamin E Cream Does Not Prevent Visible Light-Induced PigmentationJ Cutan Med Surg.(Jan/Feb 2018)
  33. ^Wei Ney YapTocotrienol-rich Fraction Attenuates UV-induced Inflammaging: A Bench to Bedside StudyJ Cosmet Dermatol.(2018 Jun)
  34. ^Jin Ho Chung, Jin Young Seo, Mi Kyoung Lee, Hee Chul Eun, Joo Heung Lee, Sewon Kang, Gary J Fisher, John J VoorheesUltraviolet Modulation of Human Macrophage Metalloelastase in Human Skin in VivoJ Invest Dermatol.(2002 Aug)
  35. ^F Dreher, N Denig, B Gabard, D A Schwindt, H I MaibachEffect of Topical Antioxidants on UV-induced Erythema Formation When Administered After ExposureDermatology.(1999)
  36. ^L Montenegro, F Bonina, L Rigano, S Giogilli, S SiriguProtective Effect Evaluation of Free Radical Scavengers on UVB Induced Human Cutaneous Erythema by Skin Reflectance SpectrophotometryInt J Cosmet Sci.(1995 Jun)
  37. ^Frank McArdle, Lesley E Rhodes, Richard A G Parslew, Graeme L Close, Catherine I A Jack, Peter S Friedmann, Malcolm J JacksonEffects of Oral Vitamin E and Beta-Carotene Supplementation on Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Oxidative Stress in Human SkinAm J Clin Nutr.(2004 Nov)
  38. ^Homero Mireles-Rocha, Ignacio Galindo, Miguel Huerta, Benjamín Trujillo-Hernández, Alejandro Elizalde, Roberto Cortés-FrancoUVB Photoprotection With Antioxidants: Effects of Oral Therapy With D-Alpha-Tocopherol and Ascorbic Acid on the Minimal Erythema DoseActa Derm Venereol.(2002)
  39. ^W Stahl, U Heinrich, H Jungmann, H Sies, H TronnierCarotenoids and Carotenoids Plus Vitamin E Protect Against Ultraviolet Light-Induced Erythema in HumansAm J Clin Nutr.(2000 Mar)
  40. ^B Eberlein-König, M Placzek, B PrzybillaProtective Effect Against Sunburn of Combined Systemic Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) and D-Alpha-Tocopherol (Vitamin E)J Am Acad Dermatol.(1998 Jan)
  41. ^K Werninghaus, M Meydani, J Bhawan, R Margolis, J B Blumberg, B A GilchrestEvaluation of the Photoprotective Effect of Oral Vitamin E SupplementationArch Dermatol.(1994 Oct)
  42. ^Courtney Blair Rubin, Bruce BrodNatural Does Not Mean Safe-The Dirt on Clean Beauty ProductsJAMA Dermatol.(2019 Sep 25)
  43. ^Bikle DDVitamin D metabolism and function in the skinMol Cell Endocrinol.(2011 Dec 5)
  44. ^Antony R Young, Joël Claveau, Ana Beatris RossiUltraviolet radiation and the skin: Photobiology and sunscreen photoprotectionJ Am Acad Dermatol.(2017 Mar)
  45. ^A Faurschou, D M Beyer, A Schmedes, M K Bogh, P A Philipsen, H C WulfThe relation between sunscreen layer thickness and vitamin D production after ultraviolet B exposure: a randomized clinical trialBr J Dermatol.(2012 Aug)
  46. ^Mantas Grigalavicius, Vladimir Iani, Asta JuzenieneLayer Thickness of SPF 30 Sunscreen and Formation of Pre-vitamin DAnticancer Res.(2016 Mar)
  47. ^Libon F, Courtois J, Le Goff C, Lukas P, Fabregat-Cabello N, Seidel L, Cavalier E, Nikkels AFSunscreens block cutaneous vitamin D production with only a minimal effect on circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin DArch Osteoporos.(2017 Dec)
  48. ^Bibi Petersen, Hans Christian WulfApplication of sunscreen--theory and realityPhotodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed.(Apr-Jun 2014)
  49. ^R E Neale, S R Khan, R M Lucas, M Waterhouse, D C Whiteman, C M OlsenThe effect of sunscreen on vitamin D: a reviewBr J Dermatol.(2019 Nov)
  50. ^T Passeron, R Bouillon, V Callender, T Cestari, T L Diepgen, A C Green, J C van der Pols, B A Bernard, F Ly, F Bernerd, L Marrot, M Nielsen, M Verschoore, N G Jablonski, A R YoungSunscreen photoprotection and vitamin D statusBr J Dermatol.(2019 Nov)
Examine Database References
  1. Cortisol - Fukada M, Kano E, Miyoshi M, Komaki R, Watanabe TEffect of "rose essential oil" inhalation on stress-induced skin-barrier disruption in rats and humansChem Senses.(2012 May)
  2. Bruising - Kovács RK, Bodai L, Dobozy A, Kemény LLack of the effect of topical vitamin K on bruising after mechanical injuryJ Am Acad Dermatol.(2004 Jun)
  3. Bruising - Shah NS, Lazarus MC, Bugdodel R, Hsia SL, He J, Duncan R, Baumann LThe effects of topical vitamin K on bruising after laser treatmentJ Am Acad Dermatol.(2002 Aug)
  4. Erythema - W W Lou, A T Quintana, R G Geronemus, M C GrossmanEffects of topical vitamin K and retinol on laser-induced purpura on nonlesional skinDermatol Surg.(1999 Dec)
  5. Erythema - Cohen JL, Bhatia ACThe role of topical vitamin K oxide gel in the resolution of postprocedural purpuraJ Drugs Dermatol.(2009 Nov)
  6. Skin Quality - Fujimura T, Tsukahara K, Moriwaki S, Kitahara T, Sano T, Takema YTreatment of human skin with an extract of Fucus vesiculosus changes its thickness and mechanical propertiesJ Cosmet Sci.(2002 Jan-Feb)
  7. Skin Quality - P Chuarienthong, N Lourith, P LeelapornpisidClinical efficacy comparison of anti-wrinkle cosmetics containing herbal flavonoidsInt J Cosmet Sci.(2010 Apr)
  8. Blood Flow - Boelsma E, Lamers RJ, Hendriks HF, van Nesselrooij JH, Roza LEvidence of the regulatory effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on skin blood flow and study of its effects on urinary metabolites in healthy humansPlanta Med.(2004 Nov)
  9. Skin Quality - Alessandra Pedretti, Rossana Capezzera, Cristina Zane, Elena Facchinetti, Piergiacomo Calzavara-PintonEffects of topical boswellic acid on photo and age-damaged skin: clinical, biophysical, and echographic evaluations in a double-blind, randomized, split-face studyPlanta Med.(2010 Apr)
  10. Skin Quality - Callaway J, Schwab U, Harvima I, Halonen P, Mykkänen O, Hyvönen P, Järvinen TEfficacy of dietary hempseed oil in patients with atopic dermatitisJ Dermatolog Treat.(2005 Apr)
  11. Skin Quality - Ito N, Seki S, Ueda FThe Protective Role of Astaxanthin for UV-Induced Skin Deterioration in Healthy People-A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled TrialNutrients.(2018 Jun 25)
  12. Skin Quality - Tominaga K, Hongo N, Karato M, Yamashita ECosmetic benefits of astaxanthin on humans subjectsActa Biochim Pol.(2012)
  13. Skin Elasticity - Tominaga K, Hongo N, Fujishita M, Takahashi Y, Adachi YProtective effects of astaxanthin on skin deteriorationJ Clin Biochem Nutr.(2017 Jul)
  14. Skin Quality - Weiss JS, Ellis CN, Headington JT, Tincoff T, Hamilton TA, Voorhees JJTopical tretinoin improves photoaged skin. A double-blind vehicle-controlled studyJAMA.(1988 Jan 22-29)
  15. Skin Quality - Kafi R, Kwak HS, Schumacher WE, Cho S, Hanft VN, Hamilton TA, King AL, Neal JD, Varani J, Fisher GJ, Voorhees JJ, Kang SImprovement of naturally aged skin with vitamin A (retinol)Arch Dermatol.(2007 May)
  16. Skin Quality - Weinstein GD, Nigra TP, Pochi PE, Savin RC, Allan A, Benik K, Jeffes E, Lufrano L, Thorne EGTopical tretinoin for treatment of photodamaged skin. A multicenter studyArch Dermatol.(1991 May)
  17. Skin Dryness - Griffiths CE, Kang S, Ellis CN, Kim KJ, Finkel LJ, Ortiz-Ferrer LC, White GM, Hamilton TA, Voorhees JJTwo concentrations of topical tretinoin (retinoic acid) cause similar improvement of photoaging but different degrees of irritation. A double-blind, vehicle-controlled comparison of 0.1% and 0.025% tretinoin creamsArch Dermatol.(1995 Sep)
  18. Hyperpigmentation - Griffiths CE, Goldfarb MT, Finkel LJ, Roulia V, Bonawitz M, Hamilton TA, Ellis CN, Voorhees JJTopical tretinoin (retinoic acid) treatment of hyperpigmented lesions associated with photoaging in Chinese and Japanese patients: a vehicle-controlled trialJ Am Acad Dermatol.(1994 Jan)
  19. Skin Quality - Vogelgesang B, Abdul-Malak N, Reymermier C, Altobelli C, Saget JOn the effects of a plant extract of Orthosiphon stamineus on sebum-related skin imperfectionsInt J Cosmet Sci.(2011 Feb)
  20. Skin Quality - Heinrich U, Moore CE, De Spirt S, Tronnier H, Stahl WGreen tea polyphenols provide photoprotection, increase microcirculation, and modulate skin properties of womenJ Nutr.(2011 Jun)
  21. Skin Quality - Marini A, Grether-Beck S, Jaenicke T, Weber M, Burki C, Formann P, Brenden H, Schönlau F, Krutmann JPycnogenol® effects on skin elasticity and hydration coincide with increased gene expressions of collagen type I and hyaluronic acid synthase in womenSkin Pharmacol Physiol.(2012)
  22. Skin Quality - Bissett DL, Oblong JE, Berge CANiacinamide: A B vitamin that improves aging facial skin appearanceDermatol Surg.(2005 Jul)
  23. Skin Quality - Hakozaki T, Minwalla L, Zhuang J, Chhoa M, Matsubara A, Miyamoto K, Greatens A, Hillebrand GG, Bissett DL, Boissy REThe effect of niacinamide on reducing cutaneous pigmentation and suppression of melanosome transferBr J Dermatol.(2002 Jul)
  24. Scar Healing - Baumann LS, Spencer JThe effects of topical vitamin E on the cosmetic appearance of scarsDermatol Surg.(1999 Apr)
  25. Scar Healing - Jenkins M, Alexander JW, MacMillan BG, Waymack JP, Kopcha RFailure of topical steroids and vitamin E to reduce postoperative scar formation following reconstructive surgeryJ Burn Care Rehabil.(1986 Jul-Aug)
  26. Erythema - Rhodes LE, Shahbakhti H, Azurdia RM, Moison RM, Steenwinkel MJ, Homburg MI, Dean MP, McArdle F, Beijersbergen van Henegouwen GM, Epe B, Vink AAEffect of eicosapentaenoic acid, an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, on UVR-related cancer risk in humans. An assessment of early genotoxic markersCarcinogenesis.(2003 May)
  27. Erythema - Rhodes LE, O'Farrell S, Jackson MJ, Friedmann PSDietary fish-oil supplementation in humans reduces UVB-erythemal sensitivity but increases epidermal lipid peroxidationJ Invest Dermatol.(1994 Aug)
  28. Polymorphic Light Eruptions - Caccialanza M, Percivalle S, Piccinno R, Brambilla RPhotoprotective activity of oral polypodium leucotomos extract in 25 patients with idiopathic photodermatosesPhotodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed.(2007 Feb)
  29. UV Skin Damage - Middelkamp-Hup MA, Pathak MA, Parrado C, Goukassian D, Rius-Díaz F, Mihm MC, Fitzpatrick TB, González SOral Polypodium leucotomos extract decreases ultraviolet-induced damage of human skinJ Am Acad Dermatol.(2004 Dec)
  30. UV Skin Damage - S Prahl, T Kueper, T Biernoth, Y Wöhrmann, A Münster, M Fürstenau, M Schmidt, C Schulze, K-P Wittern, H Wenck, G-M Muhr, T BlattAging skin is functionally anaerobic: importance of coenzyme Q10 for anti aging skin careBiofactors.(2008)
  31. UV Skin Damage - Žmitek K, Pogačnik T, Mervic L, Žmitek J, Pravst IThe effect of dietary intake of coenzyme Q10 on skin parameters and condition: Results of a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind studyBiofactors.(2017 Jan 2)
  32. Skin Dryness - Se Kyoo Jeong, Hyun Jung Park, Byeong Deog Park, Il-Hwan KimEffectiveness of Topical Chia Seed Oil on Pruritus of End-stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Patients and Healthy VolunteersAnn Dermatol.(2010 May)
  33. Skin Dryness - Yoon HS, Kim JR, Park GY, Kim JE, Lee DH, Lee KW, Chung JHCocoa Flavanol Supplementation Influences Skin Conditions of Photo-Aged Women: A 24-Week Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled TrialJ Nutr.(2016 Jan)
  34. Skin Dryness - Mogollon JA, Boivin C, Lemieux S, Blanchet C, Claveau J, Dodin SChocolate flavanols and skin photoprotection: a parallel, double-blind, randomized clinical trialNutr J.(2014 Jun 27)
  35. Skin Dryness - Heinrich U, Neukam K, Tronnier H, Sies H, Stahl WLong-term ingestion of high flavanol cocoa provides photoprotection against UV-induced erythema and improves skin condition in womenJ Nutr.(2006 Jun)
  36. Skin Dryness - Shiva Golmohammadzadeh, Mahmoud Reza Jaafari, Hossein HosseinzadehDoes saffron have antisolar and moisturizing effects?Iran J Pharm Res.(Spring 2010)
  37. Skin Dryness - Ali A, Akhtar N, Chowdhary FEnhancement of human skin facial revitalization by moringa leaf extract creamPostepy Dermatol Alergol.(2014 May)
  38. Skin Dryness - Phetcharat L, Wongsuphasawat K, Winther KThe effectiveness of a standardized rose hip powder, containing seeds and shells of Rosa canina, on cell longevity, skin wrinkles, moisture, and elasticityClin Interv Aging.(2015 Nov 19)
  39. Skin Dryness - Akhtar N, Zaman SU, Khan BA, Amir MN, Ebrahimzadeh MACalendula extract: effects on mechanical parameters of human skin.Acta Pol Pharm.(2011)
  40. Skin Elasticity - Harada N, Okajima K, Narimatsu N, Kurihara H, Nakagata NEffect of topical application of raspberry ketone on dermal production of insulin-like growth factor-I in mice and on hair growth and skin elasticity in humansGrowth Horm IGF Res.(2008 Aug)
  41. Hyperpigmentation - Glen Alvin, Nino Catambay, Ailynne Vergara, Maria Jasmin JamoraA comparative study of the safety and efficacy of 75% mulberry (Morus alba) extract oil versus placebo as a topical treatment for melasma: a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled trialJ Drugs Dermatol.(2011 Sep)
  42. Hyperpigmentation - Yamakoshi J, Sano A, Tokutake S, Saito M, Kikuchi M, Kubota Y, Kawachi Y, Otsuka FOral intake of proanthocyanidin-rich extract from grape seeds improves chloasmaPhytother Res.(2004 Nov)
  43. Wound Healing - Paocharoen VThe efficacy and side effects of oral Centella asiatica extract for wound healing promotion in diabetic wound patientsJ Med Assoc Thai.(2010 Dec)
  44. Acne Symptoms - Gabriella Fabbrocini, Stefania Staibano, Giuseppe De Rosa, Valeria Battimiello, Nunzio Fardella, Gennaro Ilardi, Maria Immacolata La Rotonda, Amelia Longobardi, Marialuisa Mazzella, Maria Siano, Francesco Pastore, Valerio De Vita, Maria Luisa Vecchione, Fabio AyalaResveratrol-containing gel for the treatment of acne vulgaris: a single-blind, vehicle-controlled, pilot studyAm J Clin Dermatol.(2011 Apr 1)
  45. Nipple Cracks - Melli MS, Rashidi MR, Nokhoodchi A, Tagavi S, Farzadi L, Sadaghat K, Tahmasebi Z, Sheshvan MKA randomized trial of peppermint gel, lanolin ointment, and placebo gel to prevent nipple crack in primiparous breastfeeding womenMed Sci Monit.(2007 Sep)