Vitamin E

Last Updated: September 26, 2023

Vitamin E is a group of eight different compounds which, collectively, help support antioxidation in the body. Benefits of high doses have uncertain safety, and lower doses seem effective in boosting immunity in the elderly.

Vitamin E is most often used for


Vitamin E is a term used to refer to eight molecules, which are divided into two categories: tocopherols and tocotrienols. Each category is further divided up into alpha (α), beta (β), gamma (γ), and delta (δ) vitamers. The vitamer α-tocopherol is considered to be the ‘main’ vitamer, but the gammas (γ-tocopherol and γ-tocotrienol) are also popular research topics, due to their presence in the diet. Collectively, these compounds are called vitamin E. Vitamin E supplements almost always contain α-tocopherol.

The majority of vitamin E’s benefits come from avoiding a deficiency, but there are several instances where supplementation can offer additional benefits. Supplementing α-tocopherol is able to improve T-cell mediated immune function, which boosts the immune system.

Vitamin E also seems to be able to enhance the body’s antibody response to vaccinations. Vitamin E is particularly important for the elderly, since a deficiency is associated with a higher risk of bone fractures. Supplementing additional vitamin E, however, will not provide additional benefits to bone health. Vitamin E may also be able to protect against age-related cognitive decline, but further research is needed before supplementation can be recommended specifically for Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s treatment.

Vitamin E was one of the first two antioxidant compounds to be sold as dietary supplements, the second being vitamin C. It is sometimes used as the ‘reference’ antioxidant compound when fat soluble compounds are being researched. Vitamin E may function as a signaling molecule within cells and for phosphate groups.

Since the majority of vitamin E’s benefits are associated with low doses slightly above the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), vitamin E supplementation is not always necessary. Dietary changes can singlehandedly prevent a vitamin E deficiency and eliminate the need for supplementation. Sesame seeds in particular contain a lot of tocotrienols, as well as sesamin, which improves the retention of vitamin E. Low-dose vitamin E is safe to supplement, but it should not be mixed with coumarin-based anticoagulants like warfarin. High-dose long-term vitamin E supplementation (above 400IU per day), however, may be associated with increased risk of death and increased risk of prostate cancer.

What are other names for Vitamin E?
Note that Vitamin E is also known as:
  • Tocopherols
  • Tocotrienols
Dosage information

Maintaining adequate levels of vitamin E in the body can be achieved through very low daily doses of 15mg (22.4 IU) or less. This dose of vitamin E can be acquired through the diet, making supplementation unnecessary in many cases. An elderly person supplementing vitamin E to improve immunity should take a 50-200mg dose.

Vitamin E supplements should contain α-tocopherol. Avocados, olives, vegetable oils and almonds are all high in vitamin E.

Vitamin E's antioxidant properties are improved when taken with unsaturated dietary fat. The minimum intake of vitamin E is 1 IU per gram of unsaturated fat. The ideal range is between 2-4 IU per gram of unsaturated fat.

In regards to an upper limit, while doses above 400IU α-tocopherol (268mg) are well tolerated in the short term it is the smallest dose associated with potential long-term adverse effects. If taking vitamin E as a daily supplement for no specific purpose (ie. as part of a multivitamin) then 150mg could be seen as a prudent upper limit.

Examine Database: Vitamin E