Summary of 1,3-Dimethylamylamine
Primary Information, Benefits, Effects, and Important Facts
DMAA is a neurological stimulant which causes a quick spike of energy similar to caffeine and other classical stimulants, but does so by different mechanisms in the brain.
It was first introduced as a nasal decongestant as 'Germanium Oil Extract' but more recently is used as a neurological stimulant and party pill.
Due to its structural similarity to amphetamines, it gives a false positive in drug tested competitions for amphetamines and thus should not be used by competing athletes.
It is not a highly studied compound in isolation.
It has been banned by the FDA for use in dietary supplements, but analogs are sometimes used in its place. The analog, 1,4-DMAA, now is on the FDA's Dietary Supplement Ingredient Advisory List as of April, 2019. These are ingredients that do not appear to be lawful ingredients in dietary supplements. The list is subject to change (check the provided link for current status).
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Things To Know & Note
Also Known As
4-methylhexan-2-amine, DMAA, Dimethylamylamine, 1, 3-DMAA, Geranamine, Methylhexaneamine, 3-Dimethylpentylamine, Forthane
Caution NoticeExamine.com Medical Disclaimer
DMAA is highly stimulatory.
How to Take 1,3-Dimethylamylamine
Recommended dosage, active amounts, other details
A typical starting dose of 1,3-DMAA is in the 10-20mg range and eventually reaching up to 40-60mg a day, there is no actual evidence to support this dosage range but it seems to be the standard dosages range for supplemental 1,3-DMAA on the market.
1,3-DMAA is known to be banned by various sports organizations due to its amphetamine-like nature, and should not be used by tested athletes.
Human Effect Matrix
The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (it excludes animal and in vitro studies) to tell you what effects 1,3-dimethylamylamine has on your body, and how strong these effects are.
|Grade||Level of Evidence [show legend]|
|Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials|
|Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled|
|Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies|
|Uncontrolled or observational studies only|
Level of Evidence
? The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results.
Magnitude of effect
? The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Consistency of research results
? Scientific research does not always agree. HIGH or VERY HIGH means that most of the scientific research agrees.
|Notable||- See study|
|-||- See study|
Scientific Research on 1,3-Dimethylamylamine
Click on any below to expand the corresponding section. Click on to collapse it.
DMAA is a straight chain, 7 carbon, aliphitic amine with a structural similarity to amphetamine, methamphetamine, and MDMA. It was first introduced as a nasal decongestant but more recently is used as a neurological stimulant and party pill.
DMAA also shares structural similarity to Propylhexedrine, a stimulant drug and nasodilator which may have fat-burning effects in vivo.
Due to its structural similarities, its mechanism of action may be as an adrenaline mimetic; inducing the same effects as adrenaline and the preceding compounds in vivo. However, direct studies on the pharmacokinetics of DMAA metabolism do not exist.
Although seemingly well tolerated in pre-workout supplemental form, DMAA has been linked to a cerebral haemorrhage in a case study with party pill usage.
No long-term toxicity studies are in existence, although acute LD50 of DMAA has been established at 39mg/kg bodyweight intravenous injection and 185mg/kg bodyweight intraperitoneal injection. Theoretically well below what can be achieved via oral ingestion.
DMAA, touted as being a component of geraniums, has been failed to be detected in geranium oil in one independent lab analysis.
- Military probe adding to skepticism of DMAA.
- Theraputic Goods Administration Interim Decision.
- Vorce SP, et al. Dimethylamylamine: a drug causing positive immunoassay results for amphetamines. J Anal Toxicol. (2011)
- [No authors listed. NEW and nonofficial remedies: methylhexamine; forthane. J Am Med Assoc. (1950)
- Gee P, Jackson S, Easton J. Another bitter pill: a case of toxicity from DMAA party pills. N Z Med J. (2010)
- The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals (Book).
- Lisi A, et al. Studies of methylhexaneamine in supplements and geranium oil. Drug Test Anal. (2011)
- Bloomer RJ, et al. Effects of 1,3-dimethylamylamine and caffeine alone or in combination on heart rate and blood pressure in healthy men and women. Phys Sportsmed. (2011)