1,3-DMAA (1,3-Dimethylamylamine) is a neural stimulant with a structure similar to ephedrine and adrenaline that has been used as a pre-workout stimulant. Not much information is available on 1,3-DMAA supplementation, and is no longer commonly sold as a supplement.
Structure and Function
DMAA is a straight chain, 7 carbon, aliphitic amine with a structural similarity to amphetamine, methamphetamine, and MDMA. It was first introduced as a nasal decongestant but more recently is used as a neurological stimulant and party pill.
DMAA also shares structural similarity to Propylhexedrine, a stimulant drug and nasodilator which may have fat-burning effects in vivo.
Due to its structural similarities, its mechanism of action may be as an adrenaline mimetic; inducing the same effects as adrenaline and the preceding compounds in vivo. However, direct studies on the pharmacokinetics of DMAA metabolism do not exist.
Safety and Legality
Although seemingly well tolerated in pre-workout supplemental form, DMAA has been linked to a cerebral haemorrhage in a case study with party pill usage.
No long-term toxicity studies are in existence, although acute LD50 of DMAA has been established at 39mg/kg bodyweight intravenous injection and 185mg/kg bodyweight intraperitoneal injection. Theoretically well below what can be achieved via oral ingestion.
DMAA, touted as being a component of geraniums, has been failed to be detected in geranium oil in one independent lab analysis.
Drug Testing in Competitions
DMAA causes a false positive for amphetamines in drug-tested sports competitions and should not be used by athletes being moderated by a drugs ethics association.