Summary of Product
TL;DR - contains multiple supplements
The main component, Ephedrine, is the main active ingredient for weight loss and the caffeine augments its efficacy. The aspirin is added to prevent blood clotting (which may be a side effect of ephedrine) and to aid in the signal transduction of ephedrine via prostaglandin inhibition.
Some proponents of the ECA stack recommend replacing the Aspirin in the stack with either Fish Oil or White willow bark, as Aspirin is linked to various organ side effects and the previous two compounds share the same anti-clotting mechanisms.
Studies have shown that the combination of Ephedrine and Caffeine is superior for fat loss than taking each individually. As ephedrine can increase heart rate and caffeine may increase blood pressure (in a naive user), the combination tends to have an additive rather than synergistic toxicological profile.
Frequently Asked Questions about ECA
Human Effect Matrix
The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (it excludes animal and in vitro studies) to tell you what effects eca has on your body, and how strong these effects are.
|Grade||Level of Evidence [show legend]|
|Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials|
|Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled|
|Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies|
|Uncontrolled or observational studies only|
Level of Evidence
? The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results.
Magnitude of effect
? The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Consistency of research results
? Scientific research does not always agree. HIGH or VERY HIGH means that most of the scientific research agrees.
|Metabolic Rate||Notable||Very High See 2 studies|
|Weight||Notable||- See study|
|Nasal Congestion||Minor||- See study|
|Pain||Minor||- See study|
|Blood Glucose||-||- See study|
|Blood Pressure||-||- See study|
|Heart Rate||-||- See study|
|Insulin||-||- See study|
|Total Cholesterol||-||- See study|
- Astrup A, et al. The effect and safety of an ephedrine/caffeine compound compared to ephedrine, caffeine and placebo in obese subjects on an energy restricted diet. A double blind trial. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. (1992)
- Toubro S, et al. Safety and efficacy of long-term treatment with ephedrine, caffeine and an ephedrine/caffeine mixture. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. (1993)
- Astrup A, et al. Thermogenic synergism between ephedrine and caffeine in healthy volunteers: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Metabolism. (1991)
- Haller CA, Jacob P 3rd, Benowitz NL. Enhanced stimulant and metabolic effects of combined ephedrine and caffeine. Clin Pharmacol Ther. (2004)
- Loose I, Winkel M. Clinical, double-blind, placebo-controlled study investigating the combination of acetylsalicylic acid and pseudoephedrine for the symptomatic treatment of nasal congestion associated with common cold. Arzneimittelforschung. (2004)
- Schachtel BP, et al. Demonstration of the analgesic efficacy and dose-response of acetylsalicylic acid with pseudoephedrine. J Clin Pharmacol. (2010)
- Daly PA, et al. Ephedrine, caffeine and aspirin: safety and efficacy for treatment of human obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. (1993)
- Horton TJ, Geissler CA. Aspirin potentiates the effect of ephedrine on the thermogenic response to a meal in obese but not lean women. Int J Obes. (1991)
- Horton TJ, Geissler CA. Post-prandial thermogenesis with ephedrine, caffeine and aspirin in lean, pre-disposed obese and obese women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. (1996)
- Agonist-Directed Desensitization of the β2-Adrenergic Receptor.
- Kenakin TP. Cellular assays as portals to seven-transmembrane receptor-based drug discovery. Nat Rev Drug Discov. (2009)
- Fang Y. Label-Free Receptor Assays. Drug Discov Today Technol. (2011)
- Fang Y, Ferrie AM. Label-free optical biosensor for ligand-directed functional selectivity acting on beta(2) adrenoceptor in living cells. FEBS Lett. (2008)
- Receptor internalization and ERK1/2 phosphorylation are dependent on the agonist exposure time.
- The desensitization and resensitization patterns of quiescent A431 cells induced by epinephrine is sensitive to stimulation duration and several inhibitors.
- January B, et al. beta2-adrenergic receptor desensitization, internalization, and phosphorylation in response to full and partial agonists. J Biol Chem. (1997)
- Characterization of β2-Adrenergic Receptor Dephosphorylation: Comparison with the Rate of Resensitization.
- Sears MR. Adverse effects of beta-agonists. J Allergy Clin Immunol. (2002)
- Nelson HS. Is there a problem with inhaled long-acting beta-adrenergic agonists. J Allergy Clin Immunol. (2006)
- Astrup A, et al. Enhanced thermogenic responsiveness during chronic ephedrine treatment in man. Am J Clin Nutr. (1985)