Magnesium

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    Last Updated: May 16, 2024

    Magnesium is an essential dietary mineral that is involved in energy production, nervous system function, blood pressure regulation, and blood glucose control. A lack of magnesium in the diet — which is common in modern societies — is associated with an increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other health conditions.

    Magnesium is most often used for .

    What is magnesium?

    Magnesium is an essential dietary nutrient and is one of the most abundant minerals in the body. Magnesium acts as an electrolyte and is a cofactor for more than 300 enzymes. Magnesium is required for energy (ATP) production, glucose metabolism, DNA and protein synthesis, nerve conduction, bone health, and cardiovascular regulation, among other functions. It also plays a crucial role in the synthesis and activation of vitamin D.

    Dietary sources of magnesium include dark green leafy vegetables, nuts and seeds, legumes, whole grains, and meat/fish such as salmon, chicken, and beef.[4] Many foods such as breakfast cereals and bread are fortified with magnesium. It appears that approximately 20%–40% of the dietary magnesium that enters the body becomes bioavailable.[5][6][7]

    More than half of adults may not meet the recommended daily intake of magnesium,[4] likely because Western diets tend to be very low in magnesium-rich foods and high in processed foods and refined grains, which are magnesium-poor. As such, magnesium deficiency — which elevates the risk of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and osteoporosis — is a major public health concern, especially for older adults.[8][9]

    What are magnesium’s main benefits?

    Low magnesium levels are associated with a higher risk of diabetes, and supplementation with magnesium has been shown to reduce blood glucose and improve insulin sensitivity,[10][11][12] especially in people who are insulin resistant and/or magnesium deficient[13][14][15][16] and/or in women with gestational diabetes.[12][17]

    Supplemental magnesium also appears to lower blood pressure in people who are deficient in magnesium[18][19] and in those who have elevated blood pressure (hypertension).[20][21][22] The average reduction in blood pressure after magnesium supplementation is 2–4 mmHg for systolic blood pressure and 2 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure,[23][24] though the reductions may be greater for individuals with type 2 diabetes (6–8 mmHg and 2–3 mmHg for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively).[25][26]

    There is some indication that magnesium supplementation may reduce the frequency and intensity of migraine headache[27][28][29] and attenuate premenstrual symptoms in women.[30][31][32]

    What are magnesium’s main drawbacks?

    Magnesium supplementation that is not excessive is well tolerated and probably won’t cause side effects, and it’s difficult to ingest too much magnesium from food sources alone. Excess magnesium in the body is eliminated by the kidneys, so the risk of magnesium toxicity from food is quite low for healthy people.[33]

    Supplementing with high doses and certain magnesium salts (i.e., magnesium carbonate, magnesium chloride, magnesium gluconate, magnesium hydroxide, and magnesium oxide) can have a laxative effect — though some people choose to take certain forms of magnesium for this reason.[2][4] Unabsorbed magnesium salts have an osmotic effect in the intestinal tract and can increase gastric motility. In one study, 12% of participants experienced diarrhea with a 1,000 mg dose of magnesium oxide,[34] but this form of magnesium is poorly absorbed, and the dose is well above the tolerable upper limit (UL) for magnesium of 350 mg for healthy adults.[35] Nausea, diarrhea, and abdominal cramping are also occasional side effects reported from supplemental magnesium.

    Magnesium supplements can also interfere with the absorption of certain medications, including bisphosphonates (used for treating osteoporosis) and antibiotics — to avoid these interactions, individuals who are taking these types of medications should talk to their healthcare provider about how to space out and time their supplemental magnesium.[4]

    How does magnesium work?

    Many observations related to magnesium’s effect on reducing disease risk are likely due to correction of a deficiency. In other words, it may not be the case that supplemental magnesium is beneficial per se; instead, magnesium deficiency may lead to several health problems, many of which may be related to chronic low-grade inflammation.[36] There is also the possibility of reverse causation because many modern diseases (i.e., obesity and diabetes) may lead to a magnesium deficiency.

    Nonetheless, there are well-documented mechanisms that explain why magnesium may benefit health.

    For one, magnesium plays a role in beta-cell activity in the pancreas, influencing insulin secretion and, therefore, our ability to regulate blood glucose. Magnesium deficiency can lead to impaired insulin secretion, impaired glucose utilization, and insulin resistance — all of which contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes.[37]

    In the cardiovascular system, magnesium regulates calcium concentrations, which enhances vascular relaxation and inhibits vasoconstriction, leading to healthy vascular tone and protecting against high blood pressure (hypertension). Magnesium also improves endothelial function by directly stimulating the release of nitric oxide(NO).[38]

    In the brain, magnesium binds to and blocks the actions of NMDA receptors, thereby preventing glutamate-dependent transmission of cortical spreading depression — one mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of migraine headache. Magnesium is also a GABA agonist. Magnesium affects the function of serotonin receptors, influences platelet aggregation, and regulates the synthesis and release of several neurotransmitters. These mechanisms explain magnesium’s benefit for migraine, as well as the potential for magnesium to improve sleep and other aspects of neurological health.[39][40]

    What are other names for Magnesium

    Note that Magnesium is also known as:
    • Magnesium oxide
    • Magnesium hydroxide
    • Magnesium citrate
    • Magnesium aspartate
    • Magnesium glycinate
    • Magnesium orotate
    • Magnesium L-threonate
    • Magnesium chloride
    • Magnesium lactate
    • Magnesium malate
    • Magnesium sulfate
    • Magnesium taurate
    • Magnesium carbonate
    Magnesium should not be confused with:
    • Manganese

    Dosage information

    The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for magnesium for adults is 410–420 mg/day for men and 320–360 mg/day for women. This includes magnesium from all sources such as food, beverages, supplements, and medications. The upper intake level (UL) for magnesium for adults is 350 mg; this value only includes magnesium obtained from dietary supplements and medications.

    Which forms of magnesium are best for people who are looking to increase their magnesium levels for general purposes or to correct a deficiency? Magnesium citrate appears to have the highest bioavailability of all forms of magnesium[1], followed by magnesium lactate. Magnesium chloride, magnesium gluconate, and magnesium glycinate also appear to have good bioavailability.[2] On the other hand, magnesium oxide and magnesium carbonate have extremely poor absorption and aren’t recommended for the purpose of increasing magnesium levels in the body.

    Magnesium citrate — especially potassium magnesium citrate — and magnesium lactate also appear to carry a lower risk for gastrointestinal side effects and diarrhea compared to other formulations.[2] More frequent reporting of side effects seems to be related to supplementing with magnesium carbonate and magnesium oxide, though gastrointestinal-related issues can occur with any type of magnesium supplement if too high of a dose is taken.

    Although magnesium sulfate (Epsom salt) is often used in bath preparations to soothe achy and sore muscles, there’s a lack of evidence to support the transdermal (through the skin) absorption of magnesium.[3] A warm soak might be relaxing, but it’s not due to the magnesium.

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    Frequently asked questions

    What is magnesium?

    Magnesium is an essential dietary nutrient and is one of the most abundant minerals in the body. Magnesium acts as an electrolyte and is a cofactor for more than 300 enzymes. Magnesium is required for energy (ATP) production, glucose metabolism, DNA and protein synthesis, nerve conduction, bone health, and cardiovascular regulation, among other functions. It also plays a crucial role in the synthesis and activation of vitamin D.

    Dietary sources of magnesium include dark green leafy vegetables, nuts and seeds, legumes, whole grains, and meat/fish such as salmon, chicken, and beef.[4] Many foods such as breakfast cereals and bread are fortified with magnesium. It appears that approximately 20%–40% of the dietary magnesium that enters the body becomes bioavailable.[5][6][7]

    More than half of adults may not meet the recommended daily intake of magnesium,[4] likely because Western diets tend to be very low in magnesium-rich foods and high in processed foods and refined grains, which are magnesium-poor. As such, magnesium deficiency — which elevates the risk of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and osteoporosis — is a major public health concern, especially for older adults.[8][9]

    What are the different types of magnesium?

    Magnesium supplements generally come in the form of magnesium salts bound to another element or amino acid. Some of the main forms of magnesium include magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide (the commercial product Milk of Magnesia), magnesium citrate, magnesium lactate, magnesium gluconate, magnesium aspartate, magnesium glycinate, magnesium orotate, magnesium threonate, and magnesium sulfate (Epsom salt).

    Some forms of magnesium (such as magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide) are typically used for laxative purposes. Magnesium citrate is the most commonly used form of supplemental magnesium because of its high bioavailability and relatively low cost. Magnesium threonate has been investigated for its effects on increasing brain magnesium levels, which may benefit learning and memory,[50][51] although research to date has only been conducted in animal models (rats).

    In other words, different forms of magnesium are used for different specific purposes.

    What foods are highest in magnesium?

    A variety of plant and animal foods are good sources of magnesium, including the following:

    Dark leafy green vegetables: kale, spinach, collard greens, turnip greens, mustard greens

    Nuts and seeds: cashews, almonds, pumpkin seeds, chia seeds, flaxseed

    Beans and legumes: lentils, chickpeas, peas, soybeans, black beans, kidney beans, peanuts

    Whole grains: rice, oats, whole-wheat bread, quinoa, buckwheat, barley

    Fruits and vegetables: bananas, avocados, potatoes, raisins, apples, carrots, broccoli

    Meat and fish: salmon, halibut, chicken, lean ground beef

    Other dietary sources of magnesium include fortified bread and breakfast cereals, milk and yogurt products, and, serendipitously, dark chocolate.[4]

    Of note, approximately 30%–40% of the dietary magnesium we eat is absorbed by the body when a mixed (i.e., omnivorous) diet is consumed.[52][5][7][6] The consumption of certain foods( i.e., low-oxalate leafy green vegetables) also appears to enhance magnesium bioavailability compared to magnesium obtained from eating whole grains or oxalate-rich vegetables, which contain compounds that interfere with magnesium absorption.[53][54][55]

    What are magnesium’s main benefits?

    Low magnesium levels are associated with a higher risk of diabetes, and supplementation with magnesium has been shown to reduce blood glucose and improve insulin sensitivity,[10][11][12] especially in people who are insulin resistant and/or magnesium deficient[13][14][15][16] and/or in women with gestational diabetes.[12][17]

    Supplemental magnesium also appears to lower blood pressure in people who are deficient in magnesium[18][19] and in those who have elevated blood pressure (hypertension).[20][21][22] The average reduction in blood pressure after magnesium supplementation is 2–4 mmHg for systolic blood pressure and 2 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure,[23][24] though the reductions may be greater for individuals with type 2 diabetes (6–8 mmHg and 2–3 mmHg for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively).[25][26]

    There is some indication that magnesium supplementation may reduce the frequency and intensity of migraine headache[27][28][29] and attenuate premenstrual symptoms in women.[30][31][32]

    Does magnesium help with sleep?

    Due to its actions as an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist and a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist, magnesium is hypothesized to help regulate the sleep/wake cycle and thereby promote healthy sleep.[56][57] For this reason, magnesium is often promoted as a sleep-enhancing supplement, and some people use magnesium to treat insomnia and improve sleep quality and/or sleep duration. However, there is surprisingly little evidence to support its use.

    Some evidence from animal studies shows that higher magnesium levels in specific sites in the brain are associated with better sleep quality.[58] Some evidence from observational studies in humans finds low serum magnesium concentrations in people with obstructive sleep apnea, a sleep disorder associated with sleep disturbances.[59] Meanwhile, other evidence from observational studies shows that higher magnesium intake is associated with better sleep quality.[60] However, these lines of evidence do not prove that magnesium helps with sleep.

    Unfortunately, very few randomized controlled trials have assessed the effect of magnesium on sleep quality or sleep duration, and their outcomes are mixed.[61][62][63] Consequently, although recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses have found that supplemental magnesium may reduce sleep latency by approximately 17 minutes, they conclude that the quality of current evidence is insufficient to make well-informed recommendations and that larger randomized controlled trials are needed to remedy that issue.[56][64]

    Can you take magnesium during pregnancy?

    Supplementation with magnesium during pregnancy can have health benefits for both mother and baby; however, the quality of evidence is mixed, and large, well‐designed randomized controlled trials are needed to draw firm conclusions.[65][66][67][12][68][49][69][28][70]

    Importantly, adverse effects of magnesium are rare, and supplementation with magnesium before or during pregnancy appears to be safe for mother and baby.[65][66][69][70] That said, women who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant should consult their doctor for advice before starting to supplement with magnesium.

    Does magnesium help with anxiety?

    Observational studies have found that serum magnesium concentrations are not different between people with and without generalized anxiety disorder[71] and that serum magnesium concentrations are not correlated with self-reported levels of anxiety.[72][73] Some observational studies have found an association between a greater dietary magnesium intake and lower odds of anxiety,[74] but other studies do not confirm that finding.[75][76]

    Some clinical trials have compared magnesium to magnesium + pyridoxine (vitamin b6) and found a post-trial decrease in self-reported anxiety and/or stress levels in people in the magnesium group.[77][78][79] However, conclusions concerning the direct effect of magnesium cannot be made from studies lacking a control group who did not take magnesium. Fortunately, there are some randomized controlled trials comparing supplementation with magnesium to a placebo. These studies have mixed outcomes that showed a possible, but weak, effect of magnesium on anxiety.[61][80][81][32][82][83] However, the overall quality of the evidence is low, and high-quality randomized controlled trials are needed.[82][83]

    Does magnesium help with constipation?

    Some people take Milk of Magnesia, which contains magnesium hydroxide, to alleviate constipation. While some studies find a benefit,[84][85][86][87] its overall efficacy is unclear due to a lack of high-quality research.[88][89] Other studies have found that magnesium oxide might also improve constipation;[90][91][92] similarly, however, further high-quality research is needed to draw firm conclusions concerning its efficacy.

    It’s important to note that Milk of Magnesia has several drug interactions (e.g., aspirin, prednisone, cholecalciferol (vitamin D3)); therefore, people who use medications should consult their doctor before using Milk of Magnesia/magnesium hydroxide. Furthermore, Milk of Magnesia interacts with several conditions. People with intestinal disorders, kidney problems, or inflammatory bowel disease should also consult their doctor before using Milk of Magnesia/magnesium hydroxide.

    Does magnesium help with blood pressure?

    Large cross-sectional studies have shown that a higher systolic blood pressure in adults who experience hypertensive crises (sudden and severe rises in blood pressure) is associated with a higher serum magnesium concentration.[93] However, in healthy children and adults without hypertensive crises, higher blood pressure is associated with a lower serum magnesium concentration.[94][95][96] Furthermore, children with lower serum magnesium concentrations are more likely to have high blood pressure,[94][95] and serum magnesium concentrations are lower in adults with high blood pressure (hypertension) compared to healthy adults.[96]

    Other types of observational studies show that a lower systolic blood pressure is associated with a high dietary magnesium intake[96][97] and that people with a high dietary magnesium intake are less likely to have high blood pressure (hypertension).[98] However, not all studies confirm this relationship,[99] and these types of studies have limitations because magnesium intake is estimated from self-reported diet intake surveys. Consequently, they do not reveal whether supplementation with magnesium helps with blood pressure.

    Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials show that supplementation with magnesium can have a small but meaningful effect on lowering blood pressure in people with high blood pressure,[100][23][101][102] prediabetes,[24] or type 2 diabetes.[26][25] However, there is large between-trial variability in the effect size, and the efficacy of magnesium on blood pressure appears greatest in people with low serum magnesium concentrations.[11][23] That said, many randomized controlled trials do not report baseline serum magnesium concentrations, so this relationship requires further exploration.

    What are magnesium’s main drawbacks?

    Magnesium supplementation that is not excessive is well tolerated and probably won’t cause side effects, and it’s difficult to ingest too much magnesium from food sources alone. Excess magnesium in the body is eliminated by the kidneys, so the risk of magnesium toxicity from food is quite low for healthy people.[33]

    Supplementing with high doses and certain magnesium salts (i.e., magnesium carbonate, magnesium chloride, magnesium gluconate, magnesium hydroxide, and magnesium oxide) can have a laxative effect — though some people choose to take certain forms of magnesium for this reason.[2][4] Unabsorbed magnesium salts have an osmotic effect in the intestinal tract and can increase gastric motility. In one study, 12% of participants experienced diarrhea with a 1,000 mg dose of magnesium oxide,[34] but this form of magnesium is poorly absorbed, and the dose is well above the tolerable upper limit (UL) for magnesium of 350 mg for healthy adults.[35] Nausea, diarrhea, and abdominal cramping are also occasional side effects reported from supplemental magnesium.

    Magnesium supplements can also interfere with the absorption of certain medications, including bisphosphonates (used for treating osteoporosis) and antibiotics — to avoid these interactions, individuals who are taking these types of medications should talk to their healthcare provider about how to space out and time their supplemental magnesium.[4]

    Does ZMA cause weird dreams?
    Quick answer:

    It is possible that ZMA can cause weird dreams, and the anecdotes support this; however, since this has not been directly investigated the best 'proof' that can be given is weak.

    ZMA is a proprietary blend of Zinc bound to monomethionine, Magnesium bound to aspartate, and the vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine). It is sometimes reported to give users 'weird, vivid dreams'.

    This claim has not been investigated much, but a pilot study[41] suggests that a dose of 250mg pyridoxine can alter dream perception in college aged men, through a hypothesized increased conversion of tryptophan to serotonin. This dose of B6, however, is much higher than that occurring in ZMA products; which tends to range in the 10-50mg range and usually at the lower end.

    One other study has reported synergism between B6 and Magnesium in regards to anxiety reduction, when the subjects were women experiencing PMS;[42] it is theoretically possible that the ZMA formulation enhances the actions of pyridoxine allowing the previous research's results to be relevant.

    How does magnesium work?

    Many observations related to magnesium’s effect on reducing disease risk are likely due to correction of a deficiency. In other words, it may not be the case that supplemental magnesium is beneficial per se; instead, magnesium deficiency may lead to several health problems, many of which may be related to chronic low-grade inflammation.[36] There is also the possibility of reverse causation because many modern diseases (i.e., obesity and diabetes) may lead to a magnesium deficiency.

    Nonetheless, there are well-documented mechanisms that explain why magnesium may benefit health.

    For one, magnesium plays a role in beta-cell activity in the pancreas, influencing insulin secretion and, therefore, our ability to regulate blood glucose. Magnesium deficiency can lead to impaired insulin secretion, impaired glucose utilization, and insulin resistance — all of which contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes.[37]

    In the cardiovascular system, magnesium regulates calcium concentrations, which enhances vascular relaxation and inhibits vasoconstriction, leading to healthy vascular tone and protecting against high blood pressure (hypertension). Magnesium also improves endothelial function by directly stimulating the release of nitric oxide(NO).[38]

    In the brain, magnesium binds to and blocks the actions of NMDA receptors, thereby preventing glutamate-dependent transmission of cortical spreading depression — one mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of migraine headache. Magnesium is also a GABA agonist. Magnesium affects the function of serotonin receptors, influences platelet aggregation, and regulates the synthesis and release of several neurotransmitters. These mechanisms explain magnesium’s benefit for migraine, as well as the potential for magnesium to improve sleep and other aspects of neurological health.[39][40]

    Does low magnesium lead to muscle cramps?

    It’s a widely held belief that imbalances in electrolytes — in particular magnesium — may be involved in the etiology of muscle cramps — sudden involuntary contractions of one or more muscles that lead to sharp pains. However, the theory that muscle cramps are related to electrolyte or water imbalances has been questioned, although some evidence suggests that exercise-associated muscle cramps may have their origin in excessive losses of water and sodium during exercise.[43]

    The idea that low magnesium levels play a role in muscle cramping comes from evidence that reduced magnesium levels are correlated to higher rates of muscle cramping during pregnancy[44][45] and in people who experience leg cramps at night.[46] Severe magnesium deficiency has also been associated with a higher incidence of muscle pain and cramping.[47][48]

    However, a meta-analysis published in 2020 concluded that it is unlikely that magnesium supplementation in any form can reduce idiopathic nocturnal or exercise-induced muscle cramps. The available evidence on a reduction in pregnancy-associated muscle cramps was conflicting.[49]

    Update History

    Large update

    major

    The following FAQs were added: Does magnesium help with sleep? Can you take magnesium during pregnancy? Does magnesium help with anxiety? Does magnesium help with constipation? Does magnesium help with blood pressure?

    The following existing FAQs were edited: What are magnesium’s main benefits? The sentence for the effects on sleep was removed because there is only weak evidence for a benefit. A new additional FAQ on sleep was added.

    We added 10 meta-analyses to the Examine database. “Sleep quality” has been changed from “Small beneficial effect” to “No beneficial effect”; however, “sleep latency” (the time it takes to fall asleep) is now rated as “Small beneficial effect”.

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    References

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    19. Osteocalcin - Aydin H, Deyneli O, Yavuz D, Gözü H, Mutlu N, Kaygusuz I, Akalin SShort-term oral magnesium supplementation suppresses bone turnover in postmenopausal osteoporotic womenBiol Trace Elem Res.(2010 Feb)
    20. Bone Mineral Density - Carpenter TO, DeLucia MC, Zhang JH, Bejnerowicz G, Tartamella L, Dziura J, Petersen KF, Befroy D, Cohen DA randomized controlled study of effects of dietary magnesium oxide supplementation on bone mineral content in healthy girlsJ Clin Endocrinol Metab.(2006 Dec)
    21. PMS Symptoms - De Souza MC, Walker AF, Robinson PA, Bolland KA synergistic effect of a daily supplement for 1 month of 200 mg magnesium plus 50 mg vitamin B6 for the relief of anxiety-related premenstrual symptoms: a randomized, double-blind, crossover studyJ Womens Health Gend Based Med.(2000 Mar)
    22. PMS Symptoms - Walker AF, De Souza MC, Vickers MF, Abeyasekera S, Collins ML, Trinca LAMagnesium supplementation alleviates premenstrual symptoms of fluid retentionJ Womens Health.(1998 Nov)
    23. PMS Symptoms - Quaranta S, Buscaglia MA, Meroni MG, Colombo E, Cella SPilot study of the efficacy and safety of a modified-release magnesium 250 mg tablet (Sincromag) for the treatment of premenstrual syndromeClin Drug Investig.(2007)
    24. PMS Symptoms - Ebrahimi E, Khayati Motlagh S, Nemati S, Tavakoli ZEffects of magnesium and vitamin b6 on the severity of premenstrual syndrome symptomsJ Caring Sci.(2012 Nov 22)
    25. PMS Symptoms - Facchinetti F, Borella P, Sances G, Fioroni L, Nappi RE, Genazzani AROral magnesium successfully relieves premenstrual mood changesObstet Gynecol.(1991 Aug)
    26. Blood glucose - Guerrero-Romero F, Rodríguez-Morán MMagnesium improves the beta-cell function to compensate variation of insulin sensitivity: double-blind, randomized clinical trialEur J Clin Invest.(2011 Apr)
    27. Blood glucose - Mooren FC, Krüger K, Völker K, Golf SW, Wadepuhl M, Kraus AOral magnesium supplementation reduces insulin resistance in non-diabetic subjects - a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trialDiabetes Obes Metab.(2011 Mar)
    28. Blood glucose - Lee S, Park HK, Son SP, Lee CW, Kim IJ, Kim HJEffects of oral magnesium supplementation on insulin sensitivity and blood pressure in normo-magnesemic nondiabetic overweight Korean adultsNutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis.(2009 Dec)
    29. Blood glucose - Vedat Cinar, Yahya Polat, Rasim Mogulkoc, Mustafa Nizamlioglu, Abdulkerim Kasim BaltaciThe effect of magnesium supplementation on glucose and insulin levels of tae-kwan-do sportsmen and sedentary subjectsPak J Pharm Sci.(2008 Jul)
    30. Serum Magnesium - Guerrero-Romero F, Tamez-Perez HE, González-González G, Salinas-Martínez AM, Montes-Villarreal J, Treviño-Ortiz JH, Rodríguez-Morán MOral magnesium supplementation improves insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic subjects with insulin resistance. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial.Diabetes Metab.(2004-Jun)
    31. Cortisol - Cinar V, Mogulkoc R, Baltaci AK, Polat YAdrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels in athletes and sedentary subjects at rest and exhaustion: effects of magnesium supplementationBiol Trace Elem Res.(2008 Mar)
    32. C-Reactive Protein (CRP) - Nicola Veronese, Damiano Pizzol, Lee Smith, Ligia J Dominguez, Mario BarbagalloEffect of Magnesium Supplementation on Inflammatory Parameters: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled TrialsNutrients.(2022 Feb 5)
    33. C-Reactive Protein (CRP) - Talebi S, Miraghajani M, Hosseini R, Mohammadi HThe Effect of Oral Magnesium Supplementation on Inflammatory Biomarkers in Adults: A Comprehensive Systematic Review and Dose-response Meta-analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials.Biol Trace Elem Res.(2022-Apr)
    34. Testosterone - Cinar V, Polat Y, Baltaci AK, Mogulkoc REffects of magnesium supplementation on testosterone levels of athletes and sedentary subjects at rest and after exhaustionBiol Trace Elem Res.(2011 Apr)
    35. Muscle Soreness - Reno AM, Green M, Killen LG, O'Neal EK, Pritchett K, Hanson ZEffects of Magnesium Supplementation on Muscle Soreness and Performance.J Strength Cond Res.(2022-Aug-01)
    36. Muscle Soreness - Steward CJ, Zhou Y, Keane G, Cook MD, Liu Y, Cullen TOne week of magnesium supplementation lowers IL-6, muscle soreness and increases post-exercise blood glucose in response to downhill running.Eur J Appl Physiol.(2019-Dec)
    37. Creatine Kinase - Córdova A, Mielgo-Ayuso J, Roche E, Caballero-García A, Fernandez-Lázaro DImpact of Magnesium Supplementation in Muscle Damage of Professional Cyclists Competing in a Stage Race.Nutrients.(2019-Aug-16)
    38. LDL Oxidation - I De Leeuw, W Engelen, P Aerts, S SchransEffect of intensive magnesium supplementation on the in vitro oxidizability of LDL and VLDL in Mg-depleted type 1 diabetic patientsMagnes Res.(1998 Sep)
    39. Diabetic Neuropathy Symptoms - De Leeuw I, Engelen W, De Block C, Van Gaal LLong term magnesium supplementation influences favourably the natural evolution of neuropathy in Mg-depleted type 1 diabetic patients (T1dm)Magnes Res.(2004 Jun)
    40. Asthma Symptoms - Gontijo-Amaral C, Ribeiro MA, Gontijo LS, Condino-Neto A, Ribeiro JDOral magnesium supplementation in asthmatic children: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trialEur J Clin Nutr.(2007 Jan)
    41. Asthma Symptoms - Bede O, Surányi A, Pintér K, Szlávik M, Gyurkovits KUrinary magnesium excretion in asthmatic children receiving magnesium supplementation: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind studyMagnes Res.(2003 Dec)
    42. Asthma Symptoms - Kazaks AG, Uriu-Adams JY, Albertson TE, Shenoy SF, Stern JSEffect of oral magnesium supplementation on measures of airway resistance and subjective assessment of asthma control and quality of life in men and women with mild to moderate asthma: a randomized placebo controlled trialJ Asthma.(2010 Feb)
    43. Asthma Symptoms - Fogarty A, Lewis SA, Scrivener SL, Antoniak M, Pacey S, Pringle M, Britton JOral magnesium and vitamin C supplements in asthma: a parallel group randomized placebo-controlled trialClin Exp Allergy.(2003 Oct)
    44. Blood Pressure - Hatzistavri LS, Sarafidis PA, Georgianos PI, Tziolas IM, Aroditis CP, Zebekakis PE, Pikilidou MI, Lasaridis ANOral magnesium supplementation reduces ambulatory blood pressure in patients with mild hypertensionAm J Hypertens.(2009 Oct)
    45. Blood Pressure - Kawano Y, Matsuoka H, Takishita S, Omae TEffects of magnesium supplementation in hypertensive patients: assessment by office, home, and ambulatory blood pressuresHypertension.(1998 Aug)
    46. Blood Pressure - Xi Zhang, Yufeng Li, Liana C Del Gobbo, Andrea Rosanoff, Jiawei Wang, Wen Zhang, Yiqing SongEffects of Magnesium Supplementation on Blood Pressure: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled TrialsHypertension.(2016 Aug)
    47. Blood Pressure - Daniel T Dibaba, Pengcheng Xun, Yiqing Song, Andrea Rosanoff, Michael Shechter, Ka HeThe effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure in individuals with insulin resistance, prediabetes, or noncommunicable chronic diseases: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trialsAm J Clin Nutr.(2017 Sep)
    48. Blood Pressure - L Kass, J Weekes, L CarpenterEffect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure: a meta-analysisEur J Clin Nutr.(2012 Apr)
    49. Blood Pressure - Veronese N, Demurtas J, Pesolillo G, Celotto S, Barnini T, Calusi G, Caruso MG, Notarnicola M, Reddavide R, Stubbs B, Solmi M, Maggi S, Vaona A, Firth J, Smith L, Koyanagi A, Dominguez L, Barbagallo MMagnesium and health outcomes: an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational and intervention studiesEur J Nutr.(2019 Jan 25)
    50. Muscle Oxygenation - Golf SW, Bender S, Grüttner JOn the significance of magnesium in extreme physical stressCardiovasc Drugs Ther.(1998 Sep)
    51. Strength - L R Brilla, T F HaleyEffect of magnesium supplementation on strength training in humansJ Am Coll Nutr.(1992 Jun)
    52. Cramps - Nygaard IH, Valbø A, Pethick SV, Bøhmer TDoes oral magnesium substitution relieve pregnancy-induced leg crampsEur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol.(2008 Nov)
    53. Cramps - Garrison SR, Birmingham CL, Koehler BE, McCollom RA, Khan KMThe effect of magnesium infusion on rest cramps: randomized controlled trial.J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci.(2011-Jun)
    54. Cramps - Roffe C, Sills S, Crome P, Jones PRandomised, cross-over, placebo controlled trial of magnesium citrate in the treatment of chronic persistent leg cramps.Med Sci Monit.(2002-May)
    55. Cramps - Frusso R, Zárate M, Augustovski F, Rubinstein AMagnesium for the treatment of nocturnal leg cramps: a crossover randomized trial.J Fam Pract.(1999-Nov)
    56. Cramps - Olha Barna, Pavlo Lohoida, Yurii Holovchenko, Andrii Bazylevych, Valentyna Velychko, Iryna Hovbakh, Larysa Bula, Michael ShechterA randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study assessing the efficacy of magnesium oxide monohydrate in the treatment of nocturnal leg crampsNutr J.(2021 Oct 31)
    57. Cramps - Liu J, Song G, Zhao G, Meng TEffect of oral magnesium supplementation for relieving leg cramps during pregnancy: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol.(2021-Jul)
    58. Cramps - Scott R Garrison, Christina S Korownyk, Michael R Kolber, G Michael Allan, Vijaya M Musini, Ravneet K Sekhon, Nicolas DugréMagnesium for skeletal muscle crampsCochrane Database Syst Rev.(2020 Sep 21)
    59. Pregnancy Complications - Kovács L, Molnár BG, Huhn E, Bódis L[Magnesium substitution in pregnancy. A prospective, randomized double-blind study].Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd.(1988-Aug)
    60. Pregnancy Complications - Carla Adriane Leal de Araújo, Joel Geoffrey Ray, José Natal Figueiroa, João Guilherme AlvesBRAzil magnesium (BRAMAG) trial: a double-masked randomized clinical trial of oral magnesium supplementation in pregnancyBMC Pregnancy Childbirth.(2020 Apr 21)
    61. Pregnancy Complications - Makrides M, Crosby DD, Bain E, Crowther CAMagnesium supplementation in pregnancy.Cochrane Database Syst Rev.(2014 Apr 3)
    62. Pre-Eclampsia Risk - Yuan J, Yu Y, Zhu T, Lin X, Jing X, Zhang JOral Magnesium Supplementation for the Prevention of Preeclampsia: a Meta-analysis or Randomized Controlled Trials.Biol Trace Elem Res.(2022-Aug)
    63. Infant Death Risk - Shepherd E, Salam RA, Manhas D, Synnes A, Middleton P, Makrides M, Crowther CAAntenatal magnesium sulphate and adverse neonatal outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.PLoS Med.(2019 Dec)
    64. C-Reactive Protein (CRP) - Nielsen FH, Johnson LK, Zeng HMagnesium supplementation improves indicators of low magnesium status and inflammatory stress in adults older than 51 years with poor quality sleepMagnes Res.(2010 Dec)
    65. Sleep Quality - Held K, Antonijevic IA, Künzel H, Uhr M, Wetter TC, Golly IC, Steiger A, Murck HOral Mg(2+) supplementation reverses age-related neuroendocrine and sleep EEG changes in humansPharmacopsychiatry.(2002 Jul)
    66. Tinnitus Symptoms - Cevette MJ, Barrs DM, Patel A, Conroy KP, Sydlowski S, Noble BN, Nelson GA, Stepanek JPhase 2 study examining magnesium-dependent tinnitusInt Tinnitus J.(2011)
    67. Fibromyalgia Symptoms - Selda Bagis, Mehmet Karabiber, Ismet As, Lülüfer Tamer, Canan Erdogan, Ayçe AtalayIs magnesium citrate treatment effective on pain, clinical parameters and functional status in patients with fibromyalgia?Rheumatol Int.(2013 Jan)
    68. Serum Magnesium - Macian N, Dualé C, Voute M, Leray V, Courrent M, Bodé P, Giron F, Sonneville S, Bernard L, Joanny F, Menard K, Ducheix G, Pereira B, Pickering GShort-Term Magnesium Therapy Alleviates Moderate Stress in Patients with Fibromyalgia: A Randomized Double-Blind Clinical Trial.Nutrients.(2022-May-17)
    69. Fasting Glucose - Vázquez-Lorente H, Herrera-Quintana L, Molina-López J, Gamarra-Morales Y, López-González B, Miralles-Adell C, Planells EResponse of Vitamin D after Magnesium Intervention in a Postmenopausal Population from the Province of Granada, Spain.Nutrients.(2020-Jul-30)
    70. Body Mass Index (BMI) - Masoumeh Rafiee, Abed Ghavami, Ali Rashidian, Amir Hadi, Gholamreza AskariThe effect of magnesium supplementation on anthropometric indices: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of clinical trialsBr J Nutr.(2020 Jul 28)
    71. Depression Symptoms - Barragán-Rodríguez L, Rodríguez-Morán M, Guerrero-Romero FEfficacy and safety of oral magnesium supplementation in the treatment of depression in the elderly with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, equivalent trialMagnes Res.(2008 Dec)
    72. Depression Symptoms - Afsharfar M, Shahraki M, Shakiba M, Asbaghi O, Dashipour AThe effects of magnesium supplementation on serum level of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and depression status in patients with depression.Clin Nutr ESPEN.(2021-Apr)
    73. Depression Symptoms - Behnaz Abiri, Parvin Sarbakhsh, Mohammadreza VafaRandomized study of the effects of vitamin D and/or magnesium supplementation on mood, serum levels of BDNF, inflammation, and SIRT1 in obese women with mild to moderate depressive symptomsNutr Neurosci.(2021 Jul 2)
    74. Migraine Symptoms - Köseoglu E, Talaslioglu A, Gönül AS, Kula MThe effects of magnesium prophylaxis in migraine without auraMagnes Res.(2008 Jun)
    75. Migraine Symptoms - Hsiao-Yean Chiu, Tu-Hsueh Yeh, Yin-Cheng Huang, Pin-Yuan ChenEffects of Intravenous and Oral Magnesium on Reducing Migraine: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled TrialsPain Physician.(2016 Jan)
    76. Migraine Severity - Kandil M, Jaber S, Desai D, Nuñez Cruz S, Lomotan N, Ahmad U, Cirone M, Burkins J, McDowell MMAGraine: Magnesium compared to conventional therapy for treatment of migraines.Am J Emerg Med.(2021-Jan)
    77. Headaches - Khani S, Hejazi SA, Yaghoubi M, Sharifipour EComparative study of magnesium, sodium valproate, and concurrent magnesium-sodium valproate therapy in the prevention of migraine headaches: a randomized controlled double-blind trial.J Headache Pain.(2021-Apr-07)
    78. Serum Magnesium - Behnood Abbasi, Masud Kimiagar, Khosro Sadeghniiat, Minoo M Shirazi, Mehdi Hedayati, Bahram RashidkhaniThe effect of magnesium supplementation on primary insomnia in elderly: A double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trialJ Res Med Sci.(2012 Dec)
    79. Serum Magnesium - Hornyak M, Voderholzer U, Hohagen F, Berger M, Riemann DMagnesium therapy for periodic leg movements-related insomnia and restless legs syndrome: an open pilot study.Sleep.(1998-Aug-01)
    80. Sleep Duration - Jasmine Mah, Tyler PitreOral magnesium supplementation for insomnia in older adults: a Systematic Review & Meta-AnalysisBMC Complement Med Ther.(2021 Apr 17)
    81. Stress Signs and Symptoms - Noah L, Dye L, Bois De Fer B, Mazur A, Pickering G, Pouteau EEffect of magnesium and vitamin B6 supplementation on mental health and quality of life in stressed healthy adults: Post-hoc analysis of a randomised controlled trial.Stress Health.(2021-Dec)
    82. Constipation Signs and Symptoms - Morishita D, Tomita T, Mori S, Kimura T, Oshima T, Fukui H, Miwa HSenna Versus Magnesium Oxide for the Treatment of Chronic Constipation: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.Am J Gastroenterol.(2021-Jan-01)
    83. Constipation Signs and Symptoms - Kubota M, Ito K, Tomimoto K, Kanazaki M, Tsukiyama K, Kubota A, Kuroki H, Fujita M, Vandenplas YLactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 and Magnesium Oxide in Children with Functional Chronic Constipation: A Double-Blind and Randomized Clinical Trial.Nutrients.(2020-Jan-15)
    84. Constipation Signs and Symptoms - Mori S, Tomita T, Fujimura K, Asano H, Ogawa T, Yamasaki T, Kondo T, Kono T, Tozawa K, Oshima T, Fukui H, Kimura T, Watari J, Miwa HA Randomized Double-blind Placebo-controlled Trial on the Effect of Magnesium Oxide in Patients With Chronic Constipation.J Neurogastroenterol Motil.(2019-Oct-30)
    85. Pre-Eclampsia Risk - de Araújo CAL, de Sousa Oliveira L, de Gusmão IMB, Guimarães A, Ribeiro M, Alves JGBMagnesium supplementation and preeclampsia in low-income pregnant women - a randomized double-blind clinical trial.BMC Pregnancy Childbirth.(2020-Apr-09)
    86. Fasting Glucose - Farsinejad-Marj M, Azadbakht L, Mardanian F, Saneei P, Esmaillzadeh AClinical and Metabolic Responses to Magnesium Supplementation in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.Biol Trace Elem Res.(2020-Aug)
    87. Insulin Resistance - Mohammad Alizadeh, Majid Karandish, Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi, Lida Heidari, Roshan Nikbakht, Hossein Babaahmadi Rezaei, Reihaneh MousaviMetabolic and hormonal effects of melatonin and/or magnesium supplementation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialNutr Metab (Lond).(2021 Jun 6)
    88. Serum Magnesium - Reihaneh Mousavi, Mohammad Alizadeh, Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi, Lida Heidari, Roshan Nikbakht, Hossein Babaahmadi Rezaei, Majid KarandishEffects of Melatonin and/or Magnesium Supplementation on Biomarkers of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled TrialBiol Trace Elem Res.(2021 May 19)
    89. Quality of Life - Jaripur M, Ghasemi-Tehrani H, Askari G, Gholizadeh-Moghaddam M, Clark CCT, Rouhani MHThe effects of magnesium supplementation on abnormal uterine bleeding, alopecia, quality of life, and acne in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized clinical trial.Reprod Biol Endocrinol.(2022-Aug-02)
    90. ADHD Symptoms - Surman C, Vaudreuil C, Boland H, Rhodewalt L, DiSalvo M, Biederman JL-Threonic Acid Magnesium Salt Supplementation in ADHD: An Open-Label Pilot Study.J Diet Suppl.(2021)
    91. Fasting Glucose - Afitska K, Clavel J, Kisters K, Vormann J, Werner TMagnesium citrate supplementation decreased blood pressure and HbA1c in normomagnesemic subjects with metabolic syndrome: a 12-week, placebo-controlled, double-blinded pilot trial.Magnes Res.(2021-Aug-01)
    92. Cortisol - Schutten JC, Joris PJ, Minović I, Post A, van Beek AP, de Borst MH, Mensink RP, Bakker SJLLong-term magnesium supplementation improves glucocorticoid metabolism: A post-hoc analysis of an intervention trial.Clin Endocrinol (Oxf).(2021-Feb)
    93. Transferrin - Milinković N, Zeković M, Dodevska M, Đorđević B, Radosavljević B, Ignjatović S, Ivanović NMagnesium supplementation and iron status among female students: The intervention study.J Med Biochem.(2022-Jul-29)
    94. Serum Magnesium - Ali Reza Sobhani, Hossein Farshidi, Fariba Azarkish, Mahdiya Eslami, Ebrahim Eftekhar, Mansoor Keshavarz, Nepton SoltaniMagnesium Sulfate Improves Some Risk Factors for Atherosclerosis in Patients Suffering from One or Two Coronary Artery Diseases: A Double-blind Clinical Trial StudyClin Pharmacol.(2020 Sep 25)
    95. Fasting Glucose - Salehidoost R, Taghipour Boroujeni G, Feizi A, Aminorroaya A, Amini MEffect of oral magnesium supplement on cardiometabolic markers in people with prediabetes: a double blind randomized controlled clinical trial.Sci Rep.(2022-Oct-28)
    96. Fasting Glucose - Norouzi M, Rezvankhah B, Haeri MR, Heydari H, Tafaroji J, Shafigh N, Avval JO, Dahmardeh AR, Masoumzadeh N, Gharehbeglou MMagnesium supplementation and insulin resistance in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.Eur J Transl Myol.(2022-Jul-05)
    97. Pain - Hashemian M, Mirkheshti A, Mirafzal A, Ahmadipour H, Nasehabad MAThe effect of preoperative oral magnesium oxide on the severity of postoperative pain among women undergoing hysterectomy.Ir J Med Sci.(2022-Dec)
    98. Serum Magnesium - Guo G, Zhou J, Xu T, Sheng Z, Huang A, Sun L, Yao LEffect of Magnesium Supplementation on Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder in Hemodialysis Patients: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.J Ren Nutr.(2022-Jan)
    99. Blood Pressure - Saba S, Faizi F, Sepandi M, Nehrir BEffect of short-term magnesium supplementation on anxiety, depression and sleep quality in patients after open-heart surgery.Magnes Res.(2022-Apr-01)
    100. Blood Pressure - Marques BCAA, Klein MRST, da Cunha MR, de Souza Mattos S, de Paula Nogueira L, de Paula T, Corrêa FM, Oigman W, Neves MFEffects of Oral Magnesium Supplementation on Vascular Function: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev.(2020-Feb)
    101. Fasting Glucose - Qu Q, Rong R, Yu JEffect of magnesium supplementation on pregnancy outcome in gestational diabetes mellitus patients: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.Food Sci Nutr.(2022-Oct)
    102. Fasting Glucose - Xiaoqing Tan, Yi HuangMagnesium supplementation for glycemic status in women with gestational diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysisGynecol Endocrinol.(2021 Dec 15)
    103. Body Mass Index (BMI) - Askari M, Mozaffari H, Jafari A, Ghanbari M, Darooghegi Mofrad MThe effects of magnesium supplementation on obesity measures in adults: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr.(2021)