Blood glucose

Last Updated: March 19, 2024

How much glucose, or blood sugar, is floating around in your blood. Fasting blood glucose is measured when your stomach is empty (usually before breakfast), whereas postprandial blood glucose is checked after a meal. Both are used as indicators of diabetes risk.


Your body breaks down every carb you ingest into glucose, also known as blood sugar because it travels through your bloodstream.[1] Glucose is a simple sugar — more precisely, a monosaccharide (mono meaning single and saccharide meaning sugar). To store glucose, your body combines the molecules into a polysaccharide (poly meaning several) called glycogen, which gets stored in your liver and muscles.

Insulin (a hormone produced by your pancreas) rises when blood glucose rises;[2] it lowers blood sugar by telling various cells to absorb it — for storage in your liver or muscles or for immediate use — and your liver to stop producing new glucose.[3]

The ability of cells to absorb glucose in response to insulin is called insulin sensitivity, and low insulin sensitivity is called insulin resistance. The more sensitive you are to insulin, the less resistant, and vice versa.

It is also possible to produce too little insulin. If you have type 1 diabetes or are in the late stages of type 2 diabetes, in which case you suffer from insulin deficiency, glucose can’t be removed efficiently from your blood, causing hyperglycemia (overly high glucose levels).[4]

Insulin resistance paves the way for type 2 diabetes, which can cause your blood sugar levels to consistently remain too high for too long. If not managed, these high blood sugar levels can lead to serious health complications — mostly cardiovascular diseases,[5] but probably cancer, Alzheimer’s, and Parkinson’s as well.[6][7][8]

How are blood glucose levels assessed?

Glycemic control can be tested several ways, each with its own cutoff values indicating impaired glucose regulation.[9] Of these tests, fasting blood glucose is the most common, followed by hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c).

Methods of glycemic-control measurement

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  1. ^The content of this page was partially adapted from MedlinePlus of the National Library of Medicine
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  9. ^American Diabetes AssociationDiabetes Care(2019)
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  12. ^Brownlee MThe pathobiology of diabetic complications: a unifying mechanismDiabetes.(2005 Jun)
  13. ^Schwingshackl L, Hoffmann G, Lampousi AM, Knüppel S, Iqbal K, Schwedhelm C, Bechthold A, Schlesinger S, Boeing HFood groups and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studiesEur J Epidemiol.(2017 May)
  14. ^Schwingshackl L, Hoffmann G, Iqbal K, Schwedhelm C, Boeing HFood groups and intermediate disease markers: a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized trialsAm J Clin Nutr.(2018 Sep 1)
  15. ^Gummesson A, Nyman E, Knutsson M, Karpefors MEffect of weight reduction on glycated haemoglobin in weight loss trials in patients with type 2 diabetesDiabetes Obes Metab.(2017 Sep)
  16. ^Franz MJ, Boucher JL, Rutten-Ramos S, VanWormer JJLifestyle weight-loss intervention outcomes in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trialsJ Acad Nutr Diet.(2015 Sep)
  17. ^Aune D, Norat T, Leitzmann M, Tonstad S, Vatten LJPhysical activity and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysisEur J Epidemiol.(2015 Jul)
  18. ^Liubaoerjijin Y, Terada T, Fletcher K, Boulé NGEffect of aerobic exercise intensity on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of head-to-head randomized trialsActa Diabetol.(2016 Oct)
  19. ^Pan B, Ge L, Xun YQ, Chen YJ, Gao CY, Han X, Zuo LQ, Shan HQ, Yang KH, Ding GW, Tian JHExercise training modalities in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and network meta-analysisInt J Behav Nutr Phys Act.(2018 Jul 25)
Examine Database References
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  8. Niacin (Vitamin B3) - Valeria Nasser Figueiredo, Felipe Vendrame, Bruno A Colontoni, Thiago Quinaglia, Jose Roberto Matos-Souza, Filipe Azevedo Moura, Otavio R Coelho, Eliana C de Faria, Andrei C SpositoShort-term effects of extended-release niacin with and without the addition of laropiprant on endothelial function in individuals with low HDL-C: a randomized, controlled crossover trialClin Ther.(2014 Jun 1)
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  38. Biotin (Vitamin B7) - Revilla-Monsalve C, Zendejas-Ruiz I, Islas-Andrade S, Báez-Saldaña A, Palomino-Garibay MA, Hernández-Quiróz PM, Fernandez-Mejia CBiotin supplementation reduces plasma triacylglycerol and VLDL in type 2 diabetic patients and in nondiabetic subjects with hypertriglyceridemiaBiomed Pharmacother.(2006 May)
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  42. L-Carnitine - Alavinejad P, et alEvaluation of L-Carnitine Efficacy in the Treatment of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease among Diabetic Patients: A Randomized Double Blind Pilot StudyJ Gastroenterol Hepatol.()
  43. Curcumin - Rahimi HR, Mohammadpour AH, Dastani M, Jaafari MR, Abnous K, Ghayour Mobarhan M, Kazemi Oskuee RThe effect of nano-curcumin on HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, and lipid profile in diabetic subjects: a randomized clinical trialAvicenna J Phytomed.(2016 Sep-Oct)
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  45. Chromium - Gunton JE, Cheung NW, Hitchman R, Hams G, O'Sullivan C, Foster-Powell K, McElduff AChromium supplementation does not improve glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, or lipid profile: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of supplementation in subjects with impaired glucose toleranceDiabetes Care.(2005 Mar)
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  48. OMAD And 20:4 Intermittent Fasting - Sutton EF, Beyl R, Early KS, Cefalu WT, Ravussin E, Peterson CMEarly Time-Restricted Feeding Improves Insulin Sensitivity, Blood Pressure, and Oxidative Stress Even without Weight Loss in Men with PrediabetesCell Metab.(2018 Jun 5)
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  52. Inositol - Alessandro D Genazzani, Alessia Prati, Susanna Santagni, Federica Ricchieri, Elisa Chierchia, Erica Rattighieri, Annalisa Campedelli, Tommaso Simoncini, Paolo G ArtiniDifferential insulin response to myo-inositol administration in obese polycystic ovary syndrome patientsGynecol Endocrinol.(2012 Dec)
  53. L-Carnitine - Munji Choi, Seongmin Park, Myoungsook LeeL-Carnitine's Effect on the Biomarkers of Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled TrialsNutrients.(2020 Sep 12)
  54. Fenugreek - Kochhar A, Nagi MEffect of supplementation of traditional medicinal plants on blood glucose in non-insulin-dependent diabetics: a pilot studyJ Med Food.(2005 Winter)
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  58. Olive Leaf Extract - Gimeno E, de la Torre-Carbot K, Lamuela-Raventós RM, Castellote AI, Fitó M, de la Torre R, Covas MI, López-Sabater MCChanges in the phenolic content of low density lipoprotein after olive oil consumption in men. A randomized crossover controlled trialBr J Nutr.(2007 Dec)
  59. Niacin (Vitamin B3) - Kelly JJ, Lawson JA, Campbell LV, Storlien LH, Jenkins AB, Whitworth JA, O'Sullivan AJEffects of nicotinic acid on insulin sensitivity and blood pressure in healthy subjectsJ Hum Hypertens.(2000 Sep)
  60. Black seed - Abdullah O Bamosa, Huda Kaatabi, Fatma M Lebdaa, Abdul-Muhssen Al Elq, Ali Al-SultanbEffect of Nigella sativa seeds on the glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitusIndian J Physiol Pharmacol.(Oct-Dec 2010)
  61. Curcumin - Thota RN, Dias CB, Abbott KA, Acharya SH, Garg MLCurcumin alleviates postprandial glycaemic response in healthy subjects: A cross-over, randomized controlled studySci Rep.(2018 Sep 12)
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  66. Cocoa Extract - Grassi D, Necozione S, Lippi C, Croce G, Valeri L, Pasqualetti P, Desideri G, Blumberg JB, Ferri CCocoa reduces blood pressure and insulin resistance and improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in hypertensivesHypertension.(2005 Aug)
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  68. Chromium - Krikorian R, Eliassen JC, Boespflug EL, Nash TA, Shidler MDImproved cognitive-cerebral function in older adults with chromium supplementationNutr Neurosci.(2010 Jun)
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  73. L-Carnitine - Eun Shil Hong, Eun Ky Kim, Seon Mee Kang, Ah Reum Khang, Sung Hee Choi, Kyong Soo Park, Hak Chul Jang, Soo LimEffect of carnitine-orotate complex on glucose metabolism and fatty liver: a double-blind, placebo-controlled studyJ Gastroenterol Hepatol.(2014)
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  75. Rose Hip - Andersson U, Berger K, Högberg A, Landin-Olsson M, Holm CEffects of rose hip intake on risk markers of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over investigation in obese personsEur J Clin Nutr.(2012 May)
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  77. Rooibos - Débora Villaño, Monia Pecorari, Maria Francesca Testa, Anna Raguzzini, Angelique Stalmach, Alan Crozier, Claudio Tubili, Mauro SerafiniUnfermented and fermented rooibos teas (Aspalathus linearis) increase plasma total antioxidant capacity in healthy humansFood Chemistry.()
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  88. Chromium - Anderson RA, Cheng N, Bryden NA, Polansky MM, Cheng N, Chi J, Feng JElevated intakes of supplemental chromium improve glucose and insulin variables in individuals with type 2 diabetesDiabetes.(1997 Nov)
  89. Resveratrol - Timmers S, Konings E, Bilet L, Houtkooper RH, van de Weijer T, Goossens GH, Hoeks J, van der Krieken S, Ryu D, Kersten S, Moonen-Kornips E, Hesselink MK, Kunz I, Schrauwen-Hinderling VB, Blaak EE, Auwerx J, Schrauwen PCalorie restriction-like effects of 30 days of resveratrol supplementation on energy metabolism and metabolic profile in obese humansCell Metab.(2011 Nov 2)
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  92. Chromium - Joseph LJ, Farrell PA, Davey SL, Evans WJ, Campbell WWEffect of resistance training with or without chromium picolinate supplementation on glucose metabolism in older men and womenMetabolism.(1999 May)
  93. Vitamin C - Gutierrez AD, Duran-Valdez E, Robinson I, de Serna DG, Schade DSDoes short-term vitamin C reduce cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes?Endocr Pract.(2013 Sep-Oct)
  94. Conjugated Linoleic Acid - Tricon S, Burdge GC, Jones EL, Russell JJ, El-Khazen S, Moretti E, Hall WL, Gerry AB, Leake DS, Grimble RF, Williams CM, Calder PC, Yaqoob PEffects of dairy products naturally enriched with cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid on the blood lipid profile in healthy middle-aged menAm J Clin Nutr.(2006 Apr)
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  96. Conjugated Linoleic Acid - Michelle L Asp, Angela L Collene, Leigh E Norris, Rachel M Cole, Michael B Stout, Szu-Yu Tang, Jason C Hsu, Martha A BeluryTime-dependent effects of safflower oil to improve glycemia, inflammation and blood lipids in obese, post-menopausal women with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-masked, crossover studyClin Nutr.(2011 Aug)
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  99. Grape Juice - Dohadwala MM, Hamburg NM, Holbrook M, Kim BH, Duess MA, Levit A, Titas M, Chung WB, Vincent FB, Caiano TL, Frame AA, Keaney JF Jr, Vita JAEffects of Concord grape juice on ambulatory blood pressure in prehypertension and stage 1 hypertensionAm J Clin Nutr.(2010 Nov)
  100. Spirulina - Patricia V Torres-Duran, Aldo Ferreira-Hermosillo, Marco A Juarez-OropezaAntihyperlipemic and antihypertensive effects of Spirulina maxima in an open sample of Mexican population: a preliminary reportLipids Health Dis.(2007 Nov 26)
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  102. Black Chokeberry - Simeonov SB, Botushanov NP, Karahanian EB, Pavlova MB, Husianitis HK, Troev DMEffects of Aronia melanocarpa juice as part of the dietary regimen in patients with diabetes mellitusFolia Med (Plovdiv).(2002)
  103. L-Carnitine - Bruls Y, et alCarnitine supplementation improves metabolic flexibility and skeletal muscle acetylcarnitine formation in volunteers with impaired glucose tolerance: A randomised controlled trialEBioMedicine.()
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  105. Ketogenic Diet - Athinarayanan SJ, Adams RN, Hallberg SJ, McKenzie AL, Bhanpuri NH, Campbell WW, Volek JS, Phinney SD, McCarter JPLong-Term Effects of a Novel Continuous Remote Care Intervention Including Nutritional Ketosis for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes: A 2-Year Non-randomized Clinical TrialFront Endocrinol (Lausanne).(2019 Jun 5)
  106. Zinc - Hashemipour M, Kelishadi R, Shapouri J, Sarrafzadegan N, Amini M, Tavakoli N, Movahedian-Attar A, Mirmoghtadaee P, Poursafa PEffect of zinc supplementation on insulin resistance and components of the metabolic syndrome in prepubertal obese childrenHormones (Athens).(2009 Oct-Dec)
  107. Vitamin D - Elisabeth Lerchbaum, Christian Trummer, Verena Theiler-Schwetz, Martina Kollmann, Monika Wölfler, Annemieke C Heijboer, Stefan Pilz, Barbara Obermayer-PietschEffects of vitamin D supplementation on androgens in men with low testosterone levels: a randomized controlled trialEur J Nutr.(2019 Dec)
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  109. Maca - Gonzales-Arimborgo C, Yupanqui I, Montero E, Alarcón-Yaquetto DE, Zevallos-Concha A, Caballero L, Gasco M, Zhao J, Khan IA, Gonzales GFAcceptability, Safety, and Efficacy of Oral Administration of Extracts of Black or Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii) in Adult Human Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled StudyPharmaceuticals (Basel).(2016 Aug 18)
  110. Curcumin - Funamoto M, Sunagawa Y, Katanasaka Y, Miyazaki Y, Imaizumi A, Kakeya H, Yamakage H, Satoh-Asahara N, Komiyama M, Wada H, Hasegawa K, Morimoto THighly absorptive curcumin reduces serum atherosclerotic low-density lipoprotein levels in patients with mild COPDInt J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis.(2016 Aug 26)
  111. Jiaogulan - Huyen VT, Phan DV, Thang P, Hoa NK, Ostenson CGAntidiabetic effect of Gynostemma pentaphyllum tea in randomly assigned type 2 diabetic patientsHorm Metab Res.(2010 May)
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  113. Boron - Rogoveanu OC, Mogoşanu GD, Bejenaru C, Bejenaru LE, Croitoru O, Neamţu J, Pietrzkowski Z, Reyes-Izquierdo T, Biţă A, Scorei ID, Scorei RIEffects of Calcium Fructoborate on Levels of C-Reactive Protein, Total Cholesterol, Low-Density Lipoprotein, Triglycerides, IL-1β, IL-6, and MCP-1: a Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical StudyBiol Trace Elem Res.(2015 Feb)
  114. Red Clover Extract - Blakesmith SJ, Lyons-Wall PM, George C, Joannou GE, Petocz P, Samman SEffects of supplementation with purified red clover (Trifolium pratense) isoflavones on plasma lipids and insulin resistance in healthy premenopausal womenBr J Nutr.(2003 Apr)
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  116. L-Carnitine - M R Rubin, J S Volek, A L Gómez, N A Ratamess, D N French, M J Sharman, W J KraemerSafety measures of L-carnitine L-tartrate supplementation in healthy menJ Strength Cond Res.(2001 Nov)
  117. ECA - Daly PA, Krieger DR, Dulloo AG, Young JB, Landsberg LEphedrine, caffeine and aspirin: safety and efficacy for treatment of human obesityInt J Obes Relat Metab Disord.(1993 Feb)
  118. Lactobacillus Reuteri - Jones ML, Martoni CJ, Di Pietro E, Simon RR, Prakash SEvaluation of clinical safety and tolerance of a Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 30242 supplement capsule: a randomized control trialRegul Toxicol Pharmacol.(2012 Jul)
  119. Fish Oil - Goh YK, Jumpsen JA, Ryan EA, Clandinin MTEffect of omega 3 fatty acid on plasma lipids, cholesterol and lipoprotein fatty acid content in NIDDM patientsDiabetologia.(1997 Jan)
  120. Saffron - Fatemeh Ebrahimi, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Naheed Aryaeian, Naseh Pahlavani, Soudabeh Fallah, Nariman Moradi, Davoud Abbasi, Agha Fatemeh HosseiniEffects Of Saffron Supplementation On Inflammation And Metabolic Responses In Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled TrialDiabetes Metab Syndr Obes.(2019 Oct 14)
  121. Chromium - I Kato, J H Vogelman, V Dilman, J Karkoszka, K Frenkel, N P Durr, N Orentreich, P TonioloEffect of supplementation with chromium picolinate on antibody titers to 5-hydroxymethyl uracilEur J Epidemiol.(1998 Sep)
  122. Chromium - Cefalu WT, Rood J, Pinsonat P, Qin J, Sereda O, Levitan L, Anderson RA, Zhang XH, Martin JM, Martin CK, Wang ZQ, Newcomer BCharacterization of the metabolic and physiologic response to chromium supplementation in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitusMetabolism.(2010 May)
  123. Vitamin E - Winterbone MS, Sampson MJ, Saha S, Hughes JC, Hughes DAPro-oxidant effect of alpha-tocopherol in patients with type 2 diabetes after an oral glucose tolerance test--a randomised controlled trialCardiovasc Diabetol.(2007 Feb 22)
  124. Butcher's broom - B. Archimowicz-Cyryłowska, B. Adamek, M. Droździk, L. Samochowiec, J. WójcickiClinical Effect of Buckwheat Herb, Ruscus Extract and Troxerutin on Retinopathy and Lipids in Diabetic PatientsPhytotherapy Research.()
  125. Ketogenic Diet - Vazquez JA, Kazi ULipolysis and gluconeogenesis from glycerol during weight reduction with very-low-calorie dietsMetabolism.(1994 Oct)
  126. Astaxanthin - Mashhadi NS, Zakerkish M, Mohammadiasl J, Zarei M, Mohammadshahi M, Haghighizadeh MHAstaxanthin improves glucose metabolism and reduces blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitusAsia Pac J Clin Nutr.(2018)
  127. Black Cohosh - Spangler L, Newton KM, Grothaus LC, Reed SD, Ehrlich K, LaCroix AZThe effects of black cohosh therapies on lipids, fibrinogen, glucose and insulinMaturitas.(2007 Jun 20)
  128. Yacon - Genta S, Cabrera W, Habib N, Pons J, Carillo IM, Grau A, Sánchez SYacon syrup: beneficial effects on obesity and insulin resistance in humansClin Nutr.(2009 Apr)
  129. Astaxanthin - Yoshida H, Yanai H, Ito K, Tomono Y, Koikeda T, Tsukahara H, Tada NAdministration of natural astaxanthin increases serum HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin in subjects with mild hyperlipidemiaAtherosclerosis.(2010 Apr)
  130. Nicotine - Morgan TM, Crawford L, Stoller A, Toth D, Yeo KT, Baron JAAcute effects of nicotine on serum glucose insulin growth hormone and cortisol in healthy smokersMetabolism.(2004 May)
  131. Vitamin C - Ashor AW, Werner AD, Lara J, Willis ND, Mathers JC, Siervo MEffects of vitamin C supplementation on glycaemic control: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trialsEur J Clin Nutr.(2017 Dec)
  132. Chromium - Volek JS, Silvestre R, Kirwan JP, Sharman MJ, Judelson DA, Spiering BA, Vingren JL, Maresh CM, Vanheest JL, Kraemer WJEffects of chromium supplementation on glycogen synthesis after high-intensity exerciseMed Sci Sports Exerc.(2006 Dec)
  133. Ketogenic Diet - Urbain P, Strom L, Morawski L, Wehrle A, Deibert P, Bertz HImpact of a 6-week non-energy-restricted ketogenic diet on physical fitness, body composition and biochemical parameters in healthy adultsNutr Metab (Lond).(2017 Feb 20)
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  135. Coenzyme Q10 - Dai YL, Luk TH, Yiu KH, Wang M, Yip PM, Lee SW, Li SW, Tam S, Fong B, Lau CP, Siu CW, Tse HFReversal of mitochondrial dysfunction by coenzyme Q10 supplement improves endothelial function in patients with ischaemic left ventricular systolic dysfunction: a randomized controlled trialAtherosclerosis.(2011 Jun)
  136. 16:8 Intermittent Fasting - Tatiana Moro, Grant Tinsley, Antonino Bianco, Giuseppe Marcolin, Quirico Francesco Pacelli, Giuseppe Battaglia, Antonio Palma, Paulo Gentil, Marco Neri, Antonio PaoliEffects of eight weeks of time-restricted feeding (16/8) on basal metabolism, maximal strength, body composition, inflammation, and cardiovascular risk factors in resistance-trained malesJ Transl Med.(2016 Oct 13)
  137. Saffron - Karimi-Nazari E, et alEffect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on lipid profile, glycemic indices and antioxidant status among overweight/obese prediabetic individuals: A double-blinded, randomized controlled trialClin Nutr ESPEN.()
  138. Tulsi - P Agrawal, V Rai, R B SinghRandomized placebo-controlled, single blind trial of holy basil leaves in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitusInt J Clin Pharmacol Ther.(1996 Sep)
  139. Berberine - Zhang Y, Li X, Zou D, Liu W, Yang J, Zhu N, Huo L, Wang M, Hong J, Wu P, Ren G, Ning GTreatment of type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia with the natural plant alkaloid berberineJ Clin Endocrinol Metab.(2008 Jul)
  140. Cocoa Extract - Monahan KD, Feehan RP, Kunselman AR, Preston AG, Miller DL, Lott MEDose-dependent increases in flow-mediated dilation following acute cocoa ingestion in healthy older adultsJ Appl Physiol.(2011 Dec)
  141. Astaxanthin - Tominaga K, Hongo N, Fujishita M, Takahashi Y, Adachi YProtective effects of astaxanthin on skin deteriorationJ Clin Biochem Nutr.(2017 Jul)
  142. Moringa - Felicia William, S. Lakshminarayanan, Hariprasad CheguEffect of some Indian vegetables on the glucose and insulin response in diabetic subjectsInternational Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition.()
  143. Vitamin C - Mason SA, Rasmussen B, van Loon LJC, Salmon J, Wadley GDAscorbic acid supplementation improves postprandial glycaemic control and blood pressure in individuals with type 2 diabetes: Findings of a randomized cross-over trialDiabetes Obes Metab.(2019 Mar)
  144. Garlic - Gómez-Arbeláez D, Lahera V, Oubiña P, Valero-Muñoz M, de Las Heras N, Rodríguez Y, García RG, Camacho PA, López-Jaramillo PAged garlic extract improves adiponectin levels in subjects with metabolic syndrome: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover studyMediators Inflamm.(2013)
  145. Inositol - Donà G, Sabbadin C, Fiore C, Bragadin M, Giorgino FL, Ragazzi E, Clari G, Bordin L, Armanini DInositol administration reduces oxidative stress in erythrocytes of patients with polycystic ovary syndromeEur J Endocrinol.(2012 Apr)
  146. Olive Leaf Extract - de Bock M, Derraik JG, Brennan CM, Biggs JB, Morgan PE, Hodgkinson SC, Hofman PL, Cutfield WSOlive (Olea europaea L.) Leaf Polyphenols Improve Insulin Sensitivity in Middle-Aged Overweight Men: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover TrialPLoS One.(2013)
  147. Ketogenic Diet - Partsalaki I, Karvela A, Spiliotis BEMetabolic impact of a ketogenic diet compared to a hypocaloric diet in obese children and adolescentsJ Pediatr Endocrinol Metab.(2012)
  148. Rooibos - Marnewick JL, Rautenbach F, Venter I, Neethling H, Blackhurst DM, Wolmarans P, Macharia MEffects of rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) on oxidative stress and biochemical parameters in adults at risk for cardiovascular diseaseJ Ethnopharmacol.(2011 Jan 7)
  149. Paleolithic Diet - Mohammad Hassan Sohouli, Somaye Fatahi, Abolfazl Lari, Mojtaba Lotfi, Maryam Seifishahpar, Mihnea-Alexandru Găman, Seyedeh Tayebeh Rahideh, Saud K AlBatati, Abdullah M AlHossan, Sara A Alkhalifa, Sara A Alomar, Ahmed Abu-ZaidThe effect of paleolithic diet on glucose metabolism and lipid profile among patients with metabolic disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trialsCrit Rev Food Sci Nutr.(2021 Jan 25)
  150. L-Carnitine - Galloway SD, Craig TP, Cleland SJEffects of oral L-carnitine supplementation on insulin sensitivity indices in response to glucose feeding in lean and overweight/obese malesAmino Acids.(2011 Jul)
  151. Curcumin - Saeede Saadati, Behzad Hatami, Zahra Yari, Mohammad Amin Shahrbaf, Sareh Eghtesad, Asieh Mansour, Hossein Poustchi, Mehdi Hedayati, Morteza Aghajanpoor-Pasha, Amir Sadeghi, Azita HekmatdoostThe effects of curcumin supplementation on liver enzymes, lipid profile, glucose homeostasis, and hepatic steatosis and fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver diseaseEur J Clin Nutr.(2019 Mar)
  152. Alanylglutamine - Hoffman JR, Ratamess NA, Kang J, Rashti SL, Kelly N, Gonzalez AM, Stec M, Anderson S, Bailey BL, Yamamoto LM, Hom LL, Kupchak BR, Faigenbaum AD, Maresh CMExamination of the efficacy of acute L-alanyl-L-glutamine ingestion during hydration stress in endurance exerciseJ Int Soc Sports Nutr.(2010 Feb 3)
  153. Dill - Mansouri M, Nayebi N, Keshtkar A, Hasani-Ranjbar S, Taheri E, Larijani BThe effect of 12 weeks Anethum graveolens (dill) on metabolic markers in patients with metabolic syndrome; a randomized double blind controlled trialDaru.(2012 Oct 4)
  154. Fish Oil - Borkman M, Chisholm DJ, Furler SM, Storlien LH, Kraegen EW, Simons LA, Chesterman CNEffects of fish oil supplementation on glucose and lipid metabolism in NIDDMDiabetes.(1989 Oct)
  155. L-Carnitine - Fabio Galvano, Giovanni Li Volti, Michele Malaguarnera, Teresio Avitabile, Tijana Antic, Marco Vacante, Mariano MalaguarneraEffects of simvastatin and carnitine versus simvastatin on lipoprotein(a) and apoprotein(a) in type 2 diabetes mellitusExpert Opin Pharmacother.(2009 Aug)
  156. Ashwagandha - Ziegenfuss TN, Kedia AW, Sandrock JE, Raub BJ, Kerksick CM, Lopez HLEffects of an Aqueous Extract of Withania somnifera on Strength Training Adaptations and Recovery: The STAR TrialNutrients.(2018 Nov 20)
  157. Black seed - Sabzghabaee AM, Dianatkhah M, Sarrafzadegan N, Asgary S, Ghannadi AClinical evaluation of Nigella sativa seeds for the treatment of hyperlipidemia: a randomized, placebo controlled clinical trialMed Arh.(2012)
  158. Saffron - Hajieh Shahbazian, Armaghan Moravej Aleali, Reza Amani, Foroogh Namjooyan, Bahman Cheraghian, Seyed Mahmoud Latifi, Sara Bahrainian, Ataallah GhadiriEffects of saffron on homocysteine, and antioxidant and inflammatory biomarkers levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized double-blind clinical trialAvicenna J Phytomed.(Sep-Oct 2019)
  159. Chromium - Vrtovec M, Vrtovec B, Briski A, Kocijancic A, Anderson RA, Radovancevic BChromium supplementation shortens QTc interval duration in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitusAm Heart J.(2005 Apr)
  160. Rose Hip - Nagatomo A, Nishida N, Fukuhara I, Noro A, Kozai Y, Sato H, Matsuura YDaily intake of rosehip extract decreases abdominal visceral fat in preobese subjects: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trialDiabetes Metab Syndr Obes.(2015 Mar 6)
  161. Pycnogenol - Zibadi S, Rohdewald PJ, Park D, Watson RRReduction of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with type 2 diabetes by Pycnogenol supplementationNutr Res.(2008 May)
  162. Paleolithic Diet - C Mellberg, S Sandberg, M Ryberg, M Eriksson, S Brage, C Larsson, T Olsson, B LindahlLong-term effects of a Palaeolithic-type diet in obese postmenopausal women: a 2-year randomized trialEur J Clin Nutr.(2014 Mar)
  163. L-Carnitine - Jun-jie Zhang, Zhi-bing Wu, You-jin Cai, Bin Ke, Ying-juan Huang, Chao-ping Qiu, Yu-bing Yang, Lan-ying Shi, Jian QinL-carnitine ameliorated fasting-induced fatigue, hunger, and metabolic abnormalities in patients with metabolic syndrome: a randomized controlled studyNutr J.(2014 Nov 26)
  164. Chromium - Król E, Krejpcio Z, Byks H, Bogdański P, Pupek-Musialik DEffects of chromium brewer's yeast supplementation on body mass, blood carbohydrates, and lipids and minerals in type 2 diabetic patientsBiol Trace Elem Res.(2011 Nov)
  165. Chromium - Davis JM, Welsh RS, Alerson NAEffects of carbohydrate and chromium ingestion during intermittent high-intensity exercise to fatigueInt J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab.(2000 Dec)
  166. Blueberry - Clegg ME, Pratt M, Meade CM, Henry CJThe addition of raspberries and blueberries to a starch-based food does not alter the glycaemic responseBr J Nutr.(2011 Aug)
  167. Roselle - Kuriyan R, Kumar DR, R R, Kurpad AVAn evaluation of the hypolipidemic effect of an extract of Hibiscus Sabdariffa leaves in hyperlipidemic Indians: a double blind, placebo controlled trialBMC Complement Altern Med.(2010 Jun 17)
  168. Blueberry - Krikorian R, Shidler MD, Nash TA, Kalt W, Vinqvist-Tymchuk MR, Shukitt-Hale B, Joseph JABlueberry supplementation improves memory in older adultsJ Agric Food Chem.(2010 Apr 14)
  169. Citrulline - S Azizi, M Ebrahimi-Mameghani, M Mobasseri, N Karamzad, R MahdaviOxidative stress and nitrate/nitrite (NOx) status following citrulline supplementation in type 2 diabetes: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialJ Hum Nutr Diet.(2020 Jul 19)
  170. Citrulline - Ochiai M, Hayashi T, Morita M, Ina K, Maeda M, Watanabe F, Morishita KShort-term effects of L-citrulline supplementation on arterial stiffness in middle-aged menInt J Cardiol.(2012 Mar 8)
  171. L-Tyrosine - Erin E Sutton, M Regina Coill, Patricia A DeusterIngestion of tyrosine: effects on endurance, muscle strength, and anaerobic performanceInt J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab.(2005 Apr)
  172. L-Carnitine - Giuseppe Derosa, Pamela Maffioli, Sibilla A T Salvadeo, Ilaria Ferrari, Alessia Gravina, Roberto Mereu, Angela D'Angelo, Ilaria Palumbo, Sabrina Randazzo, Arrigo F G CiceroEffects of combination of sibutramine and L-carnitine compared with sibutramine monotherapy on inflammatory parameters in diabetic patientsMetabolism.(2011 Mar)
  173. Ketogenic Diet - Ranjan A, Schmidt S, Damm-Frydenberg C, Holst JJ, Madsbad S, Nørgaard KShort-term effects of a low carbohydrate diet on glycaemic variables and cardiovascular risk markers in patients with type 1 diabetes: A randomized open-label crossover trialDiabetes Obes Metab.(2017 Oct)
  174. Glutamine - Awad S, Fearon KC, Macdonald IA, Lobo DNA randomized cross-over study of the metabolic and hormonal responses following two preoperative conditioning drinksNutrition.(2011 Sep)
  175. Bitter Cucumber - Huseini HF, Darvishzadeh F, Heshmat R, Jafariazar Z, Raza M, Larijani BThe clinical investigation of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) schrad fruit in treatment of Type II diabetic patients: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trialPhytother Res.(2009 Aug)
  176. Creatine - Gualano B, Novaes RB, Artioli GG, Freire TO, Coelho DF, Scagliusi FB, Rogeri PS, Roschel H, Ugrinowitsch C, Lancha AH JrEffects of creatine supplementation on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in sedentary healthy males undergoing aerobic trainingAmino Acids.(2008 Feb)
  177. Curcumin - Ferguson JJA, Stojanovski E, MacDonald-Wicks L, Garg MLCurcumin potentiates cholesterol-lowering effects of phytosterols in hypercholesterolaemic individuals. A randomised controlled trialMetabolism.(2018 May)
  178. Curcumin - Nieman DC, Cialdella-Kam L, Knab AM, Shanely RAInfluence of red pepper spice and turmeric on inflammation and oxidative stress biomarkers in overweight females: a metabolomics approachPlant Foods Hum Nutr.(2012 Dec)
  179. Ketogenic Diet - Phillips SA, Jurva JW, Syed AQ, Syed AQ, Kulinski JP, Pleuss J, Hoffmann RG, Gutterman DDBenefit of low-fat over low-carbohydrate diet on endothelial health in obesityHypertension.(2008 Feb)
  180. Ketogenic Diet - Keogh JB, Brinkworth GD, Noakes M, Belobrajdic DP, Buckley JD, Clifton PMEffects of weight loss from a very-low-carbohydrate diet on endothelial function and markers of cardiovascular disease risk in subjects with abdominal obesityAm J Clin Nutr.(2008 Mar)
  181. Spirulina - Lee EH, Park JE, Choi YJ, Huh KB, Kim WYA randomized study to establish the effects of spirulina in type 2 diabetes mellitus patientsNutr Res Pract.(2008 Winter)
  182. DHEA - Kawano H, Yasue H, Kitagawa A, Hirai N, Yoshida T, Soejima H, Miyamoto S, Nakano M, Ogawa HDehydroepiandrosterone supplementation improves endothelial function and insulin sensitivity in menJ Clin Endocrinol Metab.(2003 Jul)
  183. Panax Ginseng (Korean Ginseng) - De Souza LR, Jenkins AL, Sievenpiper JL, Jovanovski E, Rahelić D, Vuksan VKorean red ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) root fractions: differential effects on postprandial glycemia in healthy individualsJ Ethnopharmacol.(2011 Sep 1)
  184. Salacia Reticulata - Collene AL, Hertzler SR, Williams JA, Wolf BWEffects of a nutritional supplement containing Salacia oblonga extract and insulinogenic amino acids on postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, and breath hydrogen responses in healthy adultsNutrition.(2005 Jul-Aug)
  185. Ketogenic Diet - Hernandez TL, Sutherland JP, Wolfe P, Allian-Sauer M, Capell WH, Talley ND, Wyatt HR, Foster GD, Hill JO, Eckel RHLack of suppression of circulating free fatty acids and hypercholesterolemia during weight loss on a high-fat, low-carbohydrate dietAm J Clin Nutr.(2010 Mar)
  186. Psyllium - Sierra M, García JJ, Fernández N, Diez MJ, Calle APTherapeutic effects of psyllium in type 2 diabetic patientsEur J Clin Nutr.(2002 Sep)
  187. Krill Oil - Banni S, Carta G, Murru E, Cordeddu L, Giordano E, Sirigu AR, Berge K, Vik H, Maki KC, Di Marzo V, Griinari MKrill oil significantly decreases 2-arachidonoylglycerol plasma levels in obese subjectsNutr Metab (Lond).(2011 Jan 30)
  188. Ashwagandha - B Andallu, B RadhikaHypoglycemic, diuretic and hypocholesterolemic effect of winter cherry (Withania somnifera, Dunal) rootIndian J Exp Biol.(2000 Jun)
  189. Astaxanthin - Kim JH, Chang MJ, Choi HD, Youn YK, Kim JT, Oh JM, Shin WGProtective effects of Haematococcus astaxanthin on oxidative stress in healthy smokersJ Med Food.(2011 Nov)
  190. Chromium - Ali A, Ma Y, Reynolds J, Wise JP Sr, Inzucchi SE, Katz DLChromium effects on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in persons at risk for diabetes mellitusEndocr Pract.(2011 Jan-Feb)
  191. Panax Ginseng (Korean Ginseng) - Park BJ, Lee YJ, Lee HR, Jung DH, Na HY, Kim HB, Shim JYEffects of Korean Red Ginseng on Cardiovascular Risks in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome: a Double-blind Randomized Controlled StudyKorean J Fam Med.(2012 Jul)
  192. Saffron - Nasim Abedimanesh, S Zahra Bathaie, Saeed Abedimanesh, Behrooz Motlagh, Ahmad Separham, Alireza OstadrahimiSaffron and crocin improved appetite, dietary intakes and body composition in patients with coronary artery diseaseJ Cardiovasc Thorac Res.(2017)
  193. Curcumin - Kim SW, Ha KC, Choi EK, Jung SY, Kim MG, Kwon DY, Yang HJ, Kim MJ, Kang HJ, Back HI, Kim SY, Park SH, Baek HY, Kim YJ, Lee JY, Chae SWThe effectiveness of fermented turmeric powder in subjects with elevated alanine transaminase levels: a randomised controlled studyBMC Complement Altern Med.(2013 Mar 8)
  194. Inositol - Gerli S, Mignosa M, Di Renzo GCEffects of inositol on ovarian function and metabolic factors in women with PCOS: a randomized double blind placebo-controlled trialEur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci.(2003 Nov-Dec)
  195. Chlorogenic Acid - van Dijk AE, Olthof MR, Meeuse JC, Seebus E, Heine RJ, van Dam RMAcute effects of decaffeinated coffee and the major coffee components chlorogenic acid and trigonelline on glucose toleranceDiabetes Care.(2009 Jun)
  196. Cocoa Extract - Balzer J, Rassaf T, Heiss C, Kleinbongard P, Lauer T, Merx M, Heussen N, Gross HB, Keen CL, Schroeter H, Kelm MSustained benefits in vascular function through flavanol-containing cocoa in medicated diabetic patients a double-masked, randomized, controlled trialJ Am Coll Cardiol.(2008 Jun 3)
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  198. Korean black raspberry - Ji Eun Lee, Eunkyo Park, Jung Eun Lee, Joong Hyuck Auh, Hyung-Kyoon Choi, Jaehwi Lee, Soomuk Cho, Jung-Hyun KimEffects of a Rubus coreanus Miquel supplement on plasma antioxidant capacity in healthy Korean menNutr Res Pract.(2011 Oct)
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  200. Chromium - Anton SD, Morrison CD, Cefalu WT, Martin CK, Coulon S, Geiselman P, Han H, White CL, Williamson DAEffects of chromium picolinate on food intake and satietyDiabetes Technol Ther.(2008 Oct)
  201. Ashwagandha - Auddy, B, et alA Standardized Withania Somnifera Extract Significantly Reduces Stress-Related Parameters in Chronically Stressed Humans: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled StudyJ Am Nut Assn.()
  202. Inositol - Maeba R, Hara H, Ishikawa H, Hayashi S, Yoshimura N, Kusano J, Takeoka Y, Yasuda D, Okazaki T, Kinoshita M, Teramoto TMyo-inositol treatment increases serum plasmalogens and decreases small dense LDL, particularly in hyperlipidemic subjects with metabolic syndromeJ Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo).(2008 Jun)
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  204. Ashwagandha - Raut AA, Rege NN, Tadvi FM, Solanki PV, Kene KR, Shirolkar SG, Pandey SN, Vaidya RA, Vaidya ABExploratory study to evaluate tolerability, safety, and activity of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) in healthy volunteersJ Ayurveda Integr Med.(2012 Jul)
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  206. TUDCA - Kars M, Yang L, Gregor MF, Mohammed BS, Pietka TA, Finck BN, Patterson BW, Horton JD, Mittendorfer B, Hotamisligil GS, Klein STauroursodeoxycholic Acid may improve liver and muscle but not adipose tissue insulin sensitivity in obese men and womenDiabetes.(2010 Aug)
  207. Branched-Chain Amino Acids - Gualano AB, Bozza T, Lopes De Campos P, Roschel H, Dos Santos Costa A, Luiz Marquezi M, Benatti F, Herbert Lancha Junior ABranched-chain amino acids supplementation enhances exercise capacity and lipid oxidation during endurance exercise after muscle glycogen depletionJ Sports Med Phys Fitness.(2011 Mar)
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  209. Citrulline - Brian Cunniffe, Maria Papageorgiou, Barbara OʼBrien, Nathan A Davies, George K Grimble, Marco CardinaleAcute Citrulline-Malate Supplementation and High-Intensity Cycling PerformanceJ Strength Cond Res.(2016 Sep)
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  211. Psyllium - Bajorek SA, Morello CMEffects of dietary fiber and low glycemic index diet on glucose control in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitusAnn Pharmacother.(2010 Nov)
  212. Amla - Muhammad Shoaib Akhtar, Ayesha Ramzan, Amanat Ali, Maqsood AhmadEffect of Amla fruit (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) on blood glucose and lipid profile of normal subjects and type 2 diabetic patientsInt J Food Sci Nutr.(2011 Sep)
  213. Alpha-Lipoic Acid - Porasuphatana S, Suddee S, Nartnampong A, Konsil J, Harnwong B, Santaweesuk AGlycemic and oxidative status of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus following oral administration of alpha-lipoic acid: a randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled studyAsia Pac J Clin Nutr.(2012)
  214. Salacia Reticulata - Heacock PM, Hertzler SR, Williams JA, Wolf BWEffects of a medical food containing an herbal alpha-glucosidase inhibitor on postprandial glycemia and insulinemia in healthy adultsJ Am Diet Assoc.(2005 Jan)
  215. Kefir - GÖLÜNÜK, S et alEffects of traditional fermented beverages on some blood parameters in aerobic exercises.Biomedical Research.()
  216. Eucommia Bark - Greenway F, Liu Z, Yu Y, Gupta AA clinical trial testing the safety and efficacy of a standardized Eucommia ulmoides Oliver bark extract to treat hypertensionAltern Med Rev.(2011 Dec)
  217. Zinc - Kelishadi R, Hashemipour M, Adeli K, Tavakoli N, Movahedian-Attar A, Shapouri J, Poursafa P, Rouzbahani AEffect of zinc supplementation on markers of insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and inflammation among prepubescent children with metabolic syndromeMetab Syndr Relat Disord.(2010 Dec)
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  219. Chromium - Offenbacher EG, Rinko CJ, Pi-Sunyer FXThe effects of inorganic chromium and brewer's yeast on glucose tolerance, plasma lipids, and plasma chromium in elderly subjectsAm J Clin Nutr.(1985 Sep)
  220. Fish Oil - Paula Simplício da Silva, Mauro Felippe Felix Mediano, Gilberto Marcelo Sperandio da Silva, Patricia Dias de Brito, Claudia Santos de Aguiar Cardoso, Cristiane Fonseca de Almeida, Luiz Henrique Conde Sangenis, Roberta Olmo Pinheiro, Alejandro Marcel Hasslocher-Moreno, Pedro Emmanuel Alvarenga Americano do Brasil, Andrea Silvestre de SousaOmega-3 supplementation on inflammatory markers in patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy: a randomized clinical studyNutr J.(2017 Jun 9)
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  223. Ketogenic Diet - Cohen CW, Fontaine KR, Arend RC, Alvarez RD, Leath CA III, Huh WK, Bevis KS, Kim KH, Straughn JM Jr, Gower BAA Ketogenic Diet Reduces Central Obesity and Serum Insulin in Women with Ovarian or Endometrial CancerJ Nutr.(2018 Aug 1)
  224. L-Carnitine - Hadis Fathizadeh, Alireza Milajerdi, Željko Reiner, Fariba Kolahdooz, Zatollah AsemiThe effects of L-carnitine supplementation on glycemic control: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trialsEXCLI J.(2019 Aug 19)
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  226. OMAD And 20:4 Intermittent Fasting - B D Horne, J B Muhlestein, D L Lappé, H T May, J F Carlquist, O Galenko, K D Brunisholz, J L AndersonRandomized cross-over trial of short-term water-only fasting: metabolic and cardiovascular consequencesNutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis.(2013 Nov)
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  229. Saffron - Babak Roshanravan, Saeed Samarghandian, Milad Ashrafizadeh, Alireza Amirabadizadeh, Farhad Saeedi, Tahereh FarkhondehMetabolic Impact of Saffron and Crocin: An Updated Systematic and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Clinical TrialsArch Physiol Biochem.(2020 Feb 4)
  230. Vitamin E - Sanyal AJ, Chalasani N, Kowdley KV, McCullough A, Diehl AM, Bass NM, Neuschwander-Tetri BA, Lavine JE, Tonascia J, Unalp A, Van Natta M, Clark J, Brunt EM, Kleiner DE, Hoofnagle JH, Robuck PR, NASH CRNPioglitazone, vitamin E, or placebo for nonalcoholic steatohepatitisN Engl J Med.(2010 May 6)
  231. Coenzyme Q10 - Gholami M, Zarei P, Sadeghi Sedeh B, Rafiei F, Khosrowbeygi AEffects of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on serum values of adiponectin, leptin, 8-isoprostane and malondialdehyde in women with type 2 diabetesGynecol Endocrinol.(2018 Dec)
  232. Green Tea Extract - Wu AH, Spicer D, Stanczyk FZ, Tseng CC, Yang CS, Pike MCEffect of 2-month controlled green tea intervention on lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and hormone levels in healthy postmenopausal womenCancer Prev Res (Phila).(2012 Mar)
  233. Artichoke Extract - P. Nazni , T. Poongodi Vijayakumar , P. Alagianambi and M. AmirthaveniHypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Effect of Cynara Scolymus among Selected Type 2 Diabetic IndividualsPakistan Journal of Nutrition.()
  234. Spirulina - Parikh P, Mani U, Iyer URole of Spirulina in the Control of Glycemia and Lipidemia in Type 2 Diabetes MellitusJ Med Food.(2001 Winter)
  235. Cocoa Extract - Di Renzo L, Rizzo M, Sarlo F, Colica C, Iacopino L, Domino E, Sergi D, De Lorenzo AEffects of dark chocolate in a population of normal weight obese women: a pilot studyEur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci.(2013 Aug)
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  237. L-Carnitine - Barry A Spiering, William J Kraemer, Jakob L Vingren, Disa L Hatfield, Maren S Fragala, Jen-Yu Ho, Carl M Maresh, Jeffrey M Anderson, Jeff S VolekResponses of criterion variables to different supplemental doses of L-carnitine L-tartrateJ Strength Cond Res.(2007 Feb)
  238. L-Carnitine - Sani Hlais, Dana R Abou Reslan, Hiba K Sarieddine, Lara Nasreddine, Ghazi Taan, Sami Azar, Omar A ObeidEffect of lysine, vitamin B(6), and carnitine supplementation on the lipid profile of male patients with hypertriglyceridemia: a 12-week, open-label, randomized, placebo-controlled trialClin Ther.(2012 Aug)
  239. Conjugated Linoleic Acid - Marianne Raff, Tine Tholstrup, Samar Basu, Pernille Nonboe, Martin Tang Sørensen, Ellen Marie StraarupA diet rich in conjugated linoleic acid and butter increases lipid peroxidation but does not affect atherosclerotic, inflammatory, or diabetic risk markers in healthy young menJ Nutr.(2008 Mar)
  240. Red Clover Extract - Howes JB, Tran D, Brillante D, Howes LGEffects of dietary supplementation with isoflavones from red clover on ambulatory blood pressure and endothelial function in postmenopausal type 2 diabetesDiabetes Obes Metab.(2003 Sep)
  241. Fish Oil - Shidfar F, Keshavarz A, Hosseyni S, Ameri A, Yarahmadi SEffects of omega-3 fatty acid supplements on serum lipids, apolipoproteins and malondialdehyde in type 2 diabetes patientsEast Mediterr Health J.(2008 Mar-Apr)
  242. Yerba Mate - Klein GA, Stefanuto A, Boaventura BC, de Morais EC, Cavalcante Lda S, de Andrade F, Wazlawik E, Di Pietro PF, Maraschin M, da Silva ELMate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) improves glycemic and lipid profiles of type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes individuals: a pilot studyJ Am Coll Nutr.(2011 Oct)
  243. Chromium - Pei D, Hsieh CH, Hung YJ, Li JC, Lee CH, Kuo SWThe influence of chromium chloride-containing milk to glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialMetabolism.(2006 Jul)
  244. Sodium Bicarbonate - Harris SS, Dawson-Hughes BNo effect of bicarbonate treatment on insulin sensitivity and glucose control in non-diabetic older adultsEndocrine.(2010 Oct)
  245. Fish Oil - Luo J, Rizkalla SW, Vidal H, Oppert JM, Colas C, Boussairi A, Guerre-Millo M, Chapuis AS, Chevalier A, Durand G, Slama GModerate intake of n-3 fatty acids for 2 months has no detrimental effect on glucose metabolism and could ameliorate the lipid profile in type 2 diabetic men. Results of a controlled studyDiabetes Care.(1998 May)
  246. Curcumin - Adibian M, Hodaei H, Nikpayam O, Sohrab G, Hekmatdoost A, Hedayati MThe effects of curcumin supplementation on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, serum adiponectin, and lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialPhytother Res.(2019 May)
  247. Kefir - Ezgi Bellikci-Koyu, Banu Pınar Sarer-Yurekli, Yakut Akyon, Fadime Aydin-Kose, Cem Karagozlu, Ahmet Gokhan Ozgen, Annika Brinkmann, Andreas Nitsche, Koray Ergunay, Engin Yilmaz, Zehra BuyuktuncerEffects of Regular Kefir Consumption on Gut Microbiota in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome: A Parallel-Group, Randomized, Controlled StudyNutrients.(2019 Sep 4)
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  249. Berberine - Yan HM, Xia MF, Wang Y, Chang XX, Yao XZ, Rao SX, Zeng MS, Tu YF, Feng R, Jia WP, Liu J, Deng W, Jiang JD, Gao XEfficacy of Berberine in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver DiseasePLoS One.(2015 Aug 7)
  250. Pycnogenol - Ximing Liu, Ha-Jun Zhou, Peter RohdewaldFrench maritime pine bark extract Pycnogenol dose-dependently lowers glucose in type 2 diabetic patientsDiabetes Care.(2004 Mar)
  251. Vitamin D - Carrillo AE, Flynn MG, Pinkston C, Markofski MM, Jiang Y, Donkin SS, Teegarden DImpact of vitamin D supplementation during a resistance training intervention on body composition, muscle function, and glucose tolerance in overweight and obese adultsClin Nutr.(2012 Aug 31)
  252. Fish Oil - Maki KC, Lawless AL, Kelley KM, Dicklin MR, Schild AL, Rains TMPrescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters reduce fasting and postprandial triglycerides and modestly reduce pancreatic β-cell response in subjects with primary hypertriglyceridemiaProstaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids.(2011 Sep-Oct)
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  254. Spirulina - Szulinska M, Gibas-Dorna M, Miller-Kasprzak E, Suliburska J, Miczke A, Walczak-Gałezewska M, Stelmach-Mardas M, Walkowiak J, Bogdanski PSpirulina maxima improves insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, and total antioxidant status in obese patients with well-treated hypertension: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled studyEur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci.(2017 May)
  255. Tribulus Terrestris - Samani NB, Jokar A, Soveid M, Heydari M, Mosavat SHEfficacy of Tribulus Terrestris Extract on the Serum Glucose and Lipids of Women with Diabetes MellitusIran J Med Sci.(2016 May)
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  257. 16:8 Intermittent Fasting - Hutchison AT, Regmi P, Manoogian ENC, Fleischer JG, Wittert GA, Panda S, Heilbronn LKTime-Restricted Feeding Improves Glucose Tolerance in Men at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Crossover TrialObesity (Silver Spring).(2019 May)
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  289. Panax Ginseng (Korean Ginseng) - Reeds DN, Patterson BW, Okunade A, Holloszy JO, Polonsky KS, Klein SGinseng and ginsenoside Re do not improve β-cell function or insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetesDiabetes Care.(2011 May)
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  294. Paleolithic Diet - Eric W Manheimer, Esther J van Zuuren, Zbys Fedorowicz, Hanno PijlPaleolithic nutrition for metabolic syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysisAm J Clin Nutr.(2015 Oct)
  295. Fenugreek - Abdel-Barry JA, Abdel-Hassan IA, Jawad AM, al-Hakiem MHHypoglycaemic effect of aqueous extract of the leaves of Trigonella foenum-graecum in healthy volunteersEast Mediterr Health J.(2000 Jan)
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  297. Ursolic Acid - Bang HS, Seo DY, Chung YM, Oh KM, Park JJ, Arturo F, Jeong SH, Kim N, Han JUrsolic Acid-induced elevation of serum irisin augments muscle strength during resistance training in menKorean J Physiol Pharmacol.(2014 Oct)
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  301. Chromium - Brownley KA, Von Holle A, Hamer RM, La Via M, Bulik CMA double-blind, randomized pilot trial of chromium picolinate for binge eating disorder: results of the Binge Eating and Chromium (BEACh) studyJ Psychosom Res.(2013 Jul)
  302. L-Tyrosine - Les Tumilty, Glen Davison, Manfred Beckmann, Rhys ThatcherOral tyrosine supplementation improves exercise capacity in the heatEur J Appl Physiol.(2011 Dec)
  303. L-Carnitine - Giuseppe Derosa, Arrigo F G Cicero, Antonio Gaddi, Amedeo Mugellini, Leonardina Ciccarelli, Roberto FogariThe effect of L-carnitine on plasma lipoprotein(a) levels in hypercholesterolemic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitusClin Ther.(2003 May)
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  305. Astaxanthin - Nakagawa K, Kiko T, Miyazawa T, Carpentero Burdeos G, Kimura F, Satoh A, Miyazawa TAntioxidant effect of astaxanthin on phospholipid peroxidation in human erythrocytesBr J Nutr.(2011 Jun)
  306. L-Carnitine - Giuseppe Derosa, Pamela Maffioli, Ilaria Ferrari, Angela D'Angelo, Elena Fogari, Ilaria Palumbo, Sabrina Randazzo, Arrigo F G CiceroComparison between orlistat plus l-carnitine and orlistat alone on inflammation parameters in obese diabetic patientsFundam Clin Pharmacol.(2011 Oct)
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  309. Sulbutiamine - K K Kiew, W B Wan Mohamad, A Ridzuan, M MafauzyEffects of sulbutiamine on diabetic polyneuropathy: an open randomised controlled study in type 2 diabeticsMalays J Med Sci.(2002 Jan)
  310. 7-Keto DHEA - Douglas S. Kaiman, Carlon M. Colker, Melissa A. Swain, Georgeann C. Torina, Qiuhu ShiA randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 3-acetyl-7-oxo-dehydroepiandrosterone in healthy overweight adultsCurrent Therapeutic Research.()
  311. L-Carnitine - Mariano Malaguarnera, Marco Vacante, Teresio Avitabile, Marcella Malaguarnera, Lisa Cammalleri, Massimo MottaL-Carnitine supplementation reduces oxidized LDL cholesterol in patients with diabetesAm J Clin Nutr.(2009 Jan)
  312. Niacin (Vitamin B3) - Fabbrini E, Mohammed BS, Korenblat KM, Magkos F, McCrea J, Patterson BW, Klein SEffect of fenofibrate and niacin on intrahepatic triglyceride content, very low-density lipoprotein kinetics, and insulin action in obese subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver diseaseJ Clin Endocrinol Metab.(2010 Jun)
  313. Vitamin C - Ellulu MS, Rahmat A, Patimah I, Khaza'ai H, Abed YEffect of vitamin C on inflammation and metabolic markers in hypertensive and/or diabetic obese adults: a randomized controlled trialDrug Des Devel Ther.(2015 Jul 1)
  314. Vitamin C - Pirbudak L, Balat O, Cekmen M, Ugur MG, Aygün S, Oner UEffect of ascorbic acid on surgical stress response in gynecologic surgeryInt J Clin Pract.(2004 Oct)
  315. Hesperidin - Rizza S, Muniyappa R, Iantorno M, Kim JA, Chen H, Pullikotil P, Senese N, Tesauro M, Lauro D, Cardillo C, Quon MJCitrus polyphenol hesperidin stimulates production of nitric oxide in endothelial cells while improving endothelial function and reducing inflammatory markers in patients with metabolic syndromeJ Clin Endocrinol Metab.(2011 May)
  316. Citrulline - Paul Hwang, Flor E Morales Marroquín, Josh Gann, Tom Andre, Sarah McKinley-Barnard, Caelin Kim, Masahiko Morita, Darryn S WilloughbyEight weeks of resistance training in conjunction with glutathione and L-Citrulline supplementation increases lean mass and has no adverse effects on blood clinical safety markers in resistance-trained malesJ Int Soc Sports Nutr.(2018 Jun 27)
  317. Saffron - Mostafa Asadollahi, Parisa Nikdokht, Boshra Hatef, Seyed Shahabeddin Sadr, Hedayat Sahraei, Farhad Assarzadegan, Gila Pirzad JahromiProtective properties of the aqueous extract of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in ischemic stroke, randomized clinical trialJ Ethnopharmacol.(2019 Jun 28)
  318. Black seed - Qidwai W, Hamza HB, Qureshi R, Gilani AEffectiveness, safety, and tolerability of powdered Nigella sativa (kalonji) seed in capsules on serum lipid levels, blood sugar, blood pressure, and body weight in adults: results of a randomized, double-blind controlled trialJ Altern Complement Med.(2009 Jun)
  319. Chia seeds - Nieman DC, Cayea EJ, Austin MD, Henson DA, McAnulty SR, Jin FChia seed does not promote weight loss or alter disease risk factors in overweight adultsNutr Res.(2009 Jun)
  320. Whey Protein - Anders H Frid, Mikael Nilsson, Jens Juul Holst, Inger M E BjörckEffect of whey on blood glucose and insulin responses to composite breakfast and lunch meals in type 2 diabetic subjectsAm J Clin Nutr.(2005 Jul)
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  323. Ketogenic Diet - Sharman MJ, Gómez AL, Kraemer WJ, Volek JSVery low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets affect fasting lipids and postprandial lipemia differently in overweight menJ Nutr.(2004 Apr)
  324. Magnesium - Lee S, Park HK, Son SP, Lee CW, Kim IJ, Kim HJEffects of oral magnesium supplementation on insulin sensitivity and blood pressure in normo-magnesemic nondiabetic overweight Korean adultsNutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis.(2009 Dec)
  325. Coenzyme Q10 - Izadi A, Ebrahimi S, Shirazi S, Taghizadeh S, Parizad M, Farzadi L, Gargari BPHormonal and Metabolic Effects of Coenzyme Q10 and/or Vitamin E in Patients With Polycystic Ovary SyndromeJ Clin Endocrinol Metab.(2019 Feb 1)
  326. Niacin (Vitamin B3) - Fraterrigo G, Fabbrini E, Mittendorfer B, O'Rahilly S, Scherer PE, Patterson BW, Klein SRelationship between Changes in Plasma Adiponectin Concentration and Insulin Sensitivity after Niacin TherapyCardiorenal Med.(2012 Aug)
  327. Niacin (Vitamin B3) - Chen X, Iqbal N, Boden GThe effects of free fatty acids on gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis in normal subjectsJ Clin Invest.(1999 Feb)
  328. Curcumin - Kocher A, Bohnert L, Schiborr C, Frank JHighly bioavailable micellar curcuminoids accumulate in blood, are safe and do not reduce blood lipids and inflammation markers in moderately hyperlipidemic individualsMol Nutr Food Res.(2016 Jul)
  329. Chromium - Kleefstra N, Houweling ST, Bakker SJ, Verhoeven S, Gans RO, Meyboom-de Jong B, Bilo HJChromium treatment has no effect in patients with type 2 diabetes in a Western population: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialDiabetes Care.(2007 May)
  330. L-Carnitine - Sheyu Li, Xiang Chen, Qianrui Li, Juan Du, Zhimin Liu, Yongde Peng, Mian Xu, Qifu Li, Minxiang Lei, Changjiang Wang, Shaoxiong Zheng, Xiaojuan Zhang, Hongling Yu, Jinyu Shi, Shibing Tao, Ping Feng, Haoming TianEffects of acetyl-L-carnitine and methylcobalamin for diabetic peripheral neuropathy: A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, controlled trialJ Diabetes Investig.(2016 Sep)
  331. Cocoa Extract - Almoosawi S, Fyfe L, Ho C, Al-Dujaili EThe effect of polyphenol-rich dark chocolate on fasting capillary whole blood glucose, total cholesterol, blood pressure and glucocorticoids in healthy overweight and obese subjectsBr J Nutr.(2010 Mar)
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  333. Whey Protein - Mikael Nilsson, Jens J Holst, Inger Me BjörckMetabolic effects of amino acid mixtures and whey protein in healthy subjects: studies using glucose-equivalent drinksAm J Clin Nutr.(2007 Apr)
  334. Vitamin C - Mason SA, Della Gatta PA, Snow RJ, Russell AP, Wadley GDAscorbic acid supplementation improves skeletal muscle oxidative stress and insulin sensitivity in people with type 2 diabetes: Findings of a randomized controlled studyFree Radic Biol Med.(2016 Apr)
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  336. Inositol - Santamaria A, Giordano D, Corrado F, Pintaudi B, Interdonato ML, Vieste GD, Benedetto AD, D'Anna ROne-year effects of myo-inositol supplementation in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndromeClimacteric.(2012 Oct)
  337. Ketogenic Diet - Parker N Hyde, Teryn N Sapper, Christopher D Crabtree, Richard A LaFountain, Madison L Bowling, Alex Buga, Brandon Fell, Fionn T McSwiney, Ryan M Dickerson, Vincent J Miller, Debbie Scandling, Orlando P Simonetti, Stephen D Phinney, William J Kraemer, Sarah A King, Ronald M Krauss, Jeff S VolekDietary carbohydrate restriction improves metabolic syndrome independent of weight lossJCI Insight.(2019 Jun 20)
  338. Coenzyme Q10 - Hodgson JM, Watts GF, Playford DA, Burke V, Croft KDCoenzyme Q10 improves blood pressure and glycaemic control: a controlled trial in subjects with type 2 diabetesEur J Clin Nutr.(2002 Nov)
  339. Spirulina - José J van den Driessche, Jogchum Plat, Maurice C J M Konings, Ronald P MensinkEffects of spirulina and wakame consumption on intestinal cholesterol absorption and serum lipid concentrations in non-hypercholesterolemic adult men and womenEur J Nutr.(2020 Aug)
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  343. Chromium - Lai MHAntioxidant effects and insulin resistance improvement of chromium combined with vitamin C and e supplementation for type 2 diabetes mellitusJ Clin Biochem Nutr.(2008 Nov)
  344. Zinc - Seet RC, Lee CY, Lim EC, Quek AM, Huang H, Huang SH, Looi WF, Long LH, Halliwell BOral zinc supplementation does not improve oxidative stress or vascular function in patients with type 2 diabetes with normal zinc levelsAtherosclerosis.(2011 Nov)
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  346. Arginine - Jabłecka A, Bogdański P, Balcer N, Cieślewicz A, Skołuda A, Musialik KThe effect of oral L-arginine supplementation on fasting glucose, HbA1c, nitric oxide and total antioxidant status in diabetic patients with atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease of lower extremitiesEur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci.(2012 Mar)
  347. Grape Juice - Krikorian R, Nash TA, Shidler MD, Shukitt-Hale B, Joseph JAConcord grape juice supplementation improves memory function in older adults with mild cognitive impairmentBr J Nutr.(2010 Mar)
  348. Salacia Reticulata - Williams JA, Choe YS, Noss MJ, Baumgartner CJ, Mustad VAExtract of Salacia oblonga lowers acute glycemia in patients with type 2 diabetesAm J Clin Nutr.(2007 Jul)
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  350. Japanese Knotweed - Ghanim H, Sia CL, Abuaysheh S, Korzeniewski K, Patnaik P, Marumganti A, Chaudhuri A, Dandona PAn antiinflammatory and reactive oxygen species suppressive effects of an extract of Polygonum cuspidatum containing resveratrolJ Clin Endocrinol Metab.(2010 Sep)
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  353. HMB - Wei Hung, Tsung-Han Liu, Chung-Yu Chen, Chen-Kang ChangEffect of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate Supplementation During Energy Restriction in Female Judo AthletesJournal of Exercise Science & Fitness.()
  354. Artichoke Extract - Englisch W, Beckers C, Unkauf M, Ruepp M, Zinserling VEfficacy of Artichoke dry extract in patients with hyperlipoproteinemiaArzneimittelforschung.(2000 Mar)
  355. Fish Oil - Schectman G, Kaul S, Kissebah AHEffect of fish oil concentrate on lipoprotein composition in NIDDMDiabetes.(1988 Nov)
  356. Vitamin K - Hyung Jin Choi, MD, Juyoun Yu, BS, Hosanna Choi, BS, Jee Hyun An, MD, Sang Wan Kim, MD, PHD, Kyong Soo Park, MD, PHD, Hak C. Jang, MD, PHD, Seong Yeon Kim, MD, PHD and Chan Soo Shin, MD, PHDVitamin K2 Supplementation Improves Insulin Sensitivity via Osteocalcin Metabolism: A Placebo-Controlled Trial2011.()
  357. Green Coffee Extract - Watanabe T, Arai Y, Mitsui Y, Kusaura T, Okawa W, Kajihara Y, Saito IThe blood pressure-lowering effect and safety of chlorogenic acid from green coffee bean extract in essential hypertensionClin Exp Hypertens.(2006 Jul)
  358. Coenzyme Q10 - Zhang P, Yang C, Guo H, Wang J, Lin S, Li H, Yang Y, Ling WTreatment of coenzyme Q10 for 24 weeks improves lipid and glycemic profile in dyslipidemic individualsJ Clin Lipidol.(2018 Mar - Apr)
  359. Inositol - Gerli S, Papaleo E, Ferrari A, Di Renzo GCRandomized, double blind placebo-controlled trial: effects of myo-inositol on ovarian function and metabolic factors in women with PCOSEur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci.(2007 Sep-Oct)
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  362. Quercetin - Randi L. Edwards, Tiffany Lyon, Sheldon E. Litwin, Alexander Rabovsky, J. David Symons, and Thunder JaliliQuercetin Reduces Blood Pressure in Hypertensive SubjectsAmerican Society for Nutrition.()
  363. Caffeine - Wedick NM, Brennan AM, Sun Q, Hu FB, Mantzoros CS, van Dam RMEffects of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee on biological risk factors for type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trialNutr J.(2011 Sep 13)
  364. Blueberry - Arpita Basu, Mei Du, Misti J Leyva, Karah Sanchez, Nancy M Betts, Mingyuan Wu, Christopher E Aston, Timothy J LyonsBlueberries decrease cardiovascular risk factors in obese men and women with metabolic syndromeJ Nutr.(2010 Sep)
  365. Betaine - Armstrong LE, Casa DJ, Roti MW, Lee EC, Craig SA, Sutherland JW, Fiala KA, Maresh CMInfluence of betaine consumption on strenuous running and sprinting in a hot environmentJ Strength Cond Res.(2008 May)
  366. Magnesium - Vedat Cinar, Yahya Polat, Rasim Mogulkoc, Mustafa Nizamlioglu, Abdulkerim Kasim BaltaciThe effect of magnesium supplementation on glucose and insulin levels of tae-kwan-do sportsmen and sedentary subjectsPak J Pharm Sci.(2008 Jul)
  367. Spirulina - Gitte S Jensen, Cassandra Drapeau, Miki Lenninger, Kathleen F BensonClinical Safety of a High Dose of Phycocyanin-Enriched Aqueous Extract from Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis: Results from a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study with a Focus on Anticoagulant Activity and Platelet ActivationJ Med Food.(2016 Jul)
  368. Citrulline - Sureda A, Córdova A, Ferrer MD, Pérez G, Tur JA, Pons AL-citrulline-malate influence over branched chain amino acid utilization during exercise