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Alanylglutamine

L-Alanyl-L-Glutamine, also known by the brand name Sustamine, is a dipeptide molecule of glutamine and alanine, which makes it more stable and water-soluble than glutamine by itself. Current evidence does not support L-alanyl-L-glutamine’s use as a performance-enhancing supplement.

Our evidence-based analysis on alanylglutamine features 34 unique references to scientific papers.

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Summary of Alanylglutamine

Primary information, health benefits, side effects, usage, and other important details

L-Alanyl-L-Glutamine (alanylglutamine) is a dipeptide molecule, consisting of L-glutamine and L-alanine, two amino acids.

Alanylglutamine is sometimes supplemented before prolonged physical exercise to enhance electrolyte absorption and improve endurance.

Preliminary rodent evidence suggests alanylglutamine is more effective at increasing muscular glutamine content after supplementation than glutamine itself. This is because glutamine is absorbed by the liver and intestines after supplementation. Since alanylglutamine is a dipeptide molecule, it contains more than one amino acid for the intestines to absorb, allowing glutamine to reach the muscles.

Though alanylglutamine supplementation results in greater glutamine muscular content, this has not been shown to provide a performance enhancing effect.

Current evidence suggests alanylglutamine may be a more effective supplement than glutamine because of its increased stability and water solubility, but more research is needed to determine if it actually has an effect on performance.

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How to Take

Medical Disclaimer

Recommended dosage, active amounts, other details

Current studies on L-alanyl-L-glutamine use a dose of 1-3g a day. More research is needed to determine the optimal dose.

L-Alanyl-L-Glutamine supplementation may be similar to glutamine supplementation, in terms of dose, timing, and purpose.

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Human Effect Matrix

The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (it excludes animal and in vitro studies) to tell you what effects alanylglutamine has on your body, and how strong these effects are.
Grade Level of Evidence
Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials
Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies
Uncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
? The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results.
Outcome Magnitude of effect
? The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Consistency of research results
? Scientific research does not always agree. HIGH or VERY HIGH means that most of the scientific research agrees.
Notes
grade-c Minor - See study
A possible minor antifatigue effect has been noted with higher doses of alanylglutamine in sports lasting an hour in length
grade-c Minor - See study
In subjects with HIV who reported diarrhea in the last two weeks, supplementation of alanylglutamine was more effective than placebo (glycine) in reducing intestinal permeability
grade-c Minor Very High See 2 studies
Higher doses (0.09-0.2g/kg) of oral alanylglutamine appear to increase plasma glutamine, and when compared to glutamine itself this dipeptide is more bioavailable
grade-c Minor - See study
A low dose, yet not the higher antifatigue dose, has once been noted to improve reaction time and shooting accuracy following an hour long basketball game
grade-c - - See study
ACTH does not appear to be differentially affected by alanylglutamine compared to water
grade-c - - See study
Aldosterone during exercise does not appear to be significantly influenced with alanylglutamine relative to water (both used in rehydration protocols)
grade-c - - See study
In a 75% VO2 max cycle until fatigue, rehydration with alanylglutamine failed to outperform water rehydration in overall time until exhaustion
grade-c - - See study
No significant influence on blood glucose relative to control.
grade-c - - See study
No significant interaction with blood pressure during exercise has been noted with acute supplementation of alanylglutamine
grade-c - - See study
C-reactive protein does not appear to be influenced by alanylglutamine
grade-c - - See study
CD4+ Lymphocyte counts in subjects with HIV are not affected by alanylglutamine supplementation.
grade-c - - See study
Cortisol is not influenced by alanylglutamine relative to water during and after an exercise trial.
grade-c - - See study
The kinetics of growth hormone release from exercise are not influenced by alanylglutamine relative to water.
grade-c - Very High See 2 studies
No significant influence of alanylglutamine on heart rate during exercise relative to water
grade-c - - See study
Parameters of hydration including water retention do not appear to be modified with alanylglutamine when compared to the free amino acids or water.
grade-c - - See study
Interleukin-6 does not appear to be influenced during exercise when alanylglutamine is increased prior as rehydration (relative to water)
grade-c - - See study
Lactate production and serum levels during a cycle to fatigue do not appear to differ between alanylglutamine and water
grade-c - - See study
Alanylglutamine does not appear to have any influence on lipid peroxidation (MDA) concentrations during exercise relative to glutamine or water control.
grade-c - - See study
When tested after exercise, alanylglutamine is no different than water in jump performance in athletes
grade-c - - See study
Secretion of testosterone the day surrounding an exercise trial are not influenced by alanylglutamine any differently than water.
grade-c - - See study
Water and alanylglutamine rehydration protocols appear equal in influencing vasopressin kinetics during exercise.
grade-c - - See study
When a high dose is given to subjects with HIV, their viral loads do not appear to be modified.
grade-c - - See study
10 days supplementation of alanylglutamine in subjects with HIV does not modify overall bodyweight.

Studies Excluded from Consideration

Note: The HEM does not include trials using intravenous Alanylglutamine (used in clinical settings for nutrition)

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Things to Note

Is a Form Of

Primary Function:

Also Known As

L-Alanyl-L-Glutamine, Alanyl-Glutamine, Sustamine (brand name)

Do Not Confuse With

Glutamine

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Click here to see all 34 references.