High-density lipoprotein (HDL)

Last Updated: November 2, 2023

High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a particle that carries cholesterol from your blood to your liver. Low levels of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) are associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is why HDL-C is often called the “good cholesterol” (as opposed to LDL-C) — but the reality is more complex.

HDL-C and heart disease

High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are particles that carry cholesterol in the blood stream. Low levels of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C; a marker of HDL levels) in the blood has long been recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD).[1] As a result, HDL is commonly known as "good cholesterol". However, it's increasingly clear that HDL-C is not inherently good or bad.

Studies testing whether higher HDL lowers the risk heart disease have, by and large, failed to find a benefit. Whether HDL is raised by medication (e.g., CEPT inhibitors, high-dose niacin)[2] or genetic differences,[3] the results are similar — no apparent effect on CVD risk.

One explanation for this apparent paradox is that HDL has no role in heart disease and low HDL is merely a marker of disease and unhealthy habits. This is certainly possible, since HDL is lowered by insulin resistance (the cause of type 2 diabetes)[4] and physical inactivity,[5] among other things.

Alternatively, it's possible that what's actually important is HDL functionality, rather than merely HDL levels. According to this hypothesis, some HDL particles have protective effects (e.g., removing cholesterol from arteries), whereas some HDL particles may actually have harmful effects (e.g., promoting inflammation).[6] As a result, increasing HDL-C levels won't reduce the risk of CVD unless it reliably increases the protective functions of HDL particles. However, there is currently much uncertainty regarding these supposedly protective properties of HDL (e.g., how to measure them and how to target them).

Examine Database: High-density lipoprotein (HDL)
What works and what doesn't?

Unlock the full potential of Examine

Get started

Don't miss out on the latest research

  1. ^Simha V, Kudva YCHDL Cholesterol Story Is Dead: Long Live HDL!Diabetes.(2016-Oct)
  2. ^Navjot Kaur, Avaneesh Pandey, Harish Negi, Nusrat Shafiq, Srinivas Reddy, Harpreet Kaur, Neelima Chadha, Samir MalhotraEffect of HDL-raising drugs on cardiovascular outcomes: a systematic review and meta-regressionPLoS One.(2014 Apr 11)
  3. ^Richardson TG, Sanderson E, Palmer TM, Ala-Korpela M, Ference BA, Davey Smith G, Holmes MVEvaluating the relationship between circulating lipoprotein lipids and apolipoproteins with risk of coronary heart disease: A multivariable Mendelian randomisation analysis.PLoS Med.(2020-Mar)
  4. ^Ormazabal V, Nair S, Elfeky O, Aguayo C, Salomon C, Zuñiga FAAssociation between insulin resistance and the development of cardiovascular diseaseCardiovasc Diabetol.(2018 Aug 31)
  5. ^O'Donovan G, Stensel D, Hamer M, Stamatakis EThe association between leisure-time physical activity, low HDL-cholesterol and mortality in a pooled analysis of nine population-based cohorts.Eur J Epidemiol.(2017-Jul)
  6. ^Casula M, Colpani O, Xie S, Catapano AL, Baragetti AHDL in Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease: In Search of a Role.Cells.(2021-Jul-23)
  7. ^World Health OrganizationEffects of saturated fatty acids on serum lipids and lipoproteins: a systematic review and regression analysis(2016)
  8. ^McQueen MJ, Hawken S, Wang X, Ounpuu S, Sniderman A, Probstfield J, Steyn K, Sanderson JE, Hasani M, Volkova E, Kazmi K, Yusuf S, INTERHEART study investigatorsLipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins as risk markers of myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): a case-control studyLancet.(2008 Jul 19)
  9. ^Walldius G, Jungner I, Aastveit AH, Holme I, Furberg CD, Sniderman ADThe apoB/apoA-I ratio is better than the cholesterol ratios to estimate the balance between plasma proatherogenic and antiatherogenic lipoproteins and to predict coronary riskClin Chem Lab Med.(2004)
  10. ^da Luz PL, Cesena FH, Favarato D, Cerqueira ESComparison of serum lipid values in patients with coronary artery disease at 70 years of ageAm J Cardiol.(2005 Dec 15)
  11. ^da Luz PL, Favarato D, Faria-Neto JR Jr, Lemos P, Chagas ACHigh ratio of triglycerides to HDL-cholesterol predicts extensive coronary diseaseClinics (Sao Paulo).(2008 Aug)
  12. ^Hanak V, Munoz J, Teague J, Stanley A Jr, Bittner VAccuracy of the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio for prediction of the low-density lipoprotein phenotype BAm J Cardiol.(2004 Jul 15)
Examine Database References
  1. Grape Juice - Park YK, Lee SH, Park E, Kim JS, Kang MHChanges in antioxidant status, blood pressure, and lymphocyte DNA damage from grape juice supplementationAnn N Y Acad Sci.(2009 Aug)
  2. Ashwagandha - Agnihotri AP, Sontakke SD, Thawani VR, Saoji A, Goswami VSEffects of Withania somnifera in patients of schizophrenia: A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled pilot trial studyIndian J Pharmacol.(2013 Jul)
  3. Grape Juice - O'Byrne DJ, Devaraj S, Grundy SM, Jialal IComparison of the antioxidant effects of Concord grape juice flavonoids alpha-tocopherol on markers of oxidative stress in healthy adultsAm J Clin Nutr.(2002 Dec)
  4. Cocoa Extract - Fraga CG, Actis-Goretta L, Ottaviani JI, Carrasquedo F, Lotito SB, Lazarus S, Schmitz HH, Keen CLRegular consumption of a flavanol-rich chocolate can improve oxidant stress in young soccer playersClin Dev Immunol.(2005 Mar)
  5. Fish Oil - Maki KC, Lawless AL, Kelley KM, Dicklin MR, Schild AL, Rains TMPrescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters reduce fasting and postprandial triglycerides and modestly reduce pancreatic β-cell response in subjects with primary hypertriglyceridemiaProstaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids.(2011 Sep-Oct)
  6. L-Carnitine - Hadier M El-Sheikh, Sahar M El-Haggar, Tamer A ElbedewyComparative study to evaluate the effect of l-carnitine plus glimepiride versus glimepiride alone on insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patientsDiabetes Metab Syndr.(Jan-Feb 2019)
  7. Fish Oil - Paula Simplício da Silva, Mauro Felippe Felix Mediano, Gilberto Marcelo Sperandio da Silva, Patricia Dias de Brito, Claudia Santos de Aguiar Cardoso, Cristiane Fonseca de Almeida, Luiz Henrique Conde Sangenis, Roberta Olmo Pinheiro, Alejandro Marcel Hasslocher-Moreno, Pedro Emmanuel Alvarenga Americano do Brasil, Andrea Silvestre de SousaOmega-3 supplementation on inflammatory markers in patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy: a randomized clinical studyNutr J.(2017 Jun 9)
  8. Black seed - Bin Sayeed MS, Asaduzzaman M, Morshed H, Hossain MM, Kadir MF, Rahman MRThe effect of Nigella sativa Linn. seed on memory, attention and cognition in healthy human volunteersJ Ethnopharmacol.(2013 Jul 30)
  9. Royal Jelly - Morita H, Ikeda T, Kajita K, Fujioka K, Mori I, Okada H, Uno Y, Ishizuka TEffect of royal jelly ingestion for six months on healthy volunteersNutr J.(2012 Sep 21)
  10. Conjugated Linoleic Acid - Moloney F, Yeow TP, Mullen A, Nolan JJ, Roche HMConjugated linoleic acid supplementation, insulin sensitivity, and lipoprotein metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitusAm J Clin Nutr.(2004 Oct)
  11. Red Clover Extract - Blakesmith SJ, Lyons-Wall PM, George C, Joannou GE, Petocz P, Samman SEffects of supplementation with purified red clover (Trifolium pratense) isoflavones on plasma lipids and insulin resistance in healthy premenopausal womenBr J Nutr.(2003 Apr)
  12. Black seed - Sabzghabaee AM, Dianatkhah M, Sarrafzadegan N, Asgary S, Ghannadi AClinical evaluation of Nigella sativa seeds for the treatment of hyperlipidemia: a randomized, placebo controlled clinical trialMed Arh.(2012)
  13. Red Clover Extract - Chedraui P, San Miguel G, Hidalgo L, Morocho N, Ross SEffect of Trifolium pratense-derived isoflavones on the lipid profile of postmenopausal women with increased body mass indexGynecol Endocrinol.(2008 Nov)
  14. Inositol - Minozzi M, D'Andrea G, Unfer VTreatment of hirsutism with myo-inositol: a prospective clinical studyReprod Biomed Online.(2008 Oct)
  15. Conjugated Linoleic Acid - Nazare JA, de la Perrière AB, Bonnet F, Desage M, Peyrat J, Maitrepierre C, Louche-Pelissier C, Bruzeau J, Goudable J, Lassel T, Vidal H, Laville MDaily intake of conjugated linoleic acid-enriched yoghurts: effects on energy metabolism and adipose tissue gene expression in healthy subjectsBr J Nutr.(2007 Feb)
  16. Curcumin - Yang H, Xu W, Zhou Z, Liu J, Li X, Chen L, Weng J, Yu ZCurcumin attenuates urinary excretion of albumin in type II diabetic patients with enhancing nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2) system and repressing inflammatory signaling efficaciesExp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes.(2015 Jun)
  17. Jiaogulan - Huyen VT, Phan DV, Thang P, Ky PT, Hoa NK, Ostenson CGAntidiabetic Effects of Add-On Gynostemma pentaphyllum Extract Therapy with Sulfonylureas in Type 2 Diabetic PatientsEvid Based Complement Alternat Med.(2012)
  18. L-Carnitine - Fabio Galvano, Giovanni Li Volti, Michele Malaguarnera, Teresio Avitabile, Tijana Antic, Marco Vacante, Mariano MalaguarneraEffects of simvastatin and carnitine versus simvastatin on lipoprotein(a) and apoprotein(a) in type 2 diabetes mellitusExpert Opin Pharmacother.(2009 Aug)
  19. Ketogenic Diet - Varady KA, Bhutani S, Klempel MC, Phillips SAImprovements in vascular health by a low-fat diet, but not a high-fat diet, are mediated by changes in adipocyte biologyNutr J.(2011 Jan 20)
  20. Vitamin B3 - Blond E, Rieusset J, Alligier M, Lambert-Porcheron S, Bendridi N, Gabert L, Chetiveaux M, Debard C, Chauvin MA, Normand S, Roth H, de Gouville AC, Krempf M, Vidal H, Goudable J, Laville M, “Niacin” Study GroupNicotinic acid effects on insulin sensitivity and hepatic lipid metabolism: an in vivo to in vitro studyHorm Metab Res.(2014 Jun)
  21. Rooibos - Marnewick JL, Rautenbach F, Venter I, Neethling H, Blackhurst DM, Wolmarans P, Macharia MEffects of rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) on oxidative stress and biochemical parameters in adults at risk for cardiovascular diseaseJ Ethnopharmacol.(2011 Jan 7)
  22. HMB - Wei Hung, Tsung-Han Liu, Chung-Yu Chen, Chen-Kang ChangEffect of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate Supplementation During Energy Restriction in Female Judo AthletesJournal of Exercise Science & Fitness.()
  23. Whey Protein - Pal S, Ellis V, Dhaliwal SEffects of whey protein isolate on body composition, lipids, insulin and glucose in overweight and obese individualsBr J Nutr.(2010 Sep)
  24. Astaxanthin - Macdermid JC, Vincent JI, Gan BS, Grewal RA blinded placebo-controlled randomized trial on the use of astaxanthin as an adjunct to splinting in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndromeHand (N Y).(2012 Mar)
  25. Paleolithic Diet - Ehsan Ghaedi, Mohammad Mohammadi, Hamed Mohammadi, Nahid Ramezani-Jolfaie, Janmohamad Malekzadeh, Mahdieh Hosseinzadeh, Amin Salehi-AbargoueiEffects of a Paleolithic Diet on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled TrialsAdv Nutr.(2019 Jul 1)
  26. Spirulina - Zahra Hamedifard, Alireza Milajerdi, Željko Reiner, Mohsen Taghizadeh, Fariba Kolahdooz, Zatollah AsemiThe effects of spirulina on glycemic control and serum lipoproteins in patients with metabolic syndrome and related disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trialsPhytother Res.(2019 Oct)
  27. Cocoa Extract - Grassi D, Necozione S, Lippi C, Croce G, Valeri L, Pasqualetti P, Desideri G, Blumberg JB, Ferri CCocoa reduces blood pressure and insulin resistance and improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in hypertensivesHypertension.(2005 Aug)
  28. Spirulina - Elias E Mazokopakis, Maria G Papadomanolaki, Andreas A Fousteris, Dimitrios A Kotsiris, Ioannis M Lampadakis, Emmanuel S GanotakisThe hepatoprotective and hypolipidemic effects of Spirulina ( Arthrospira platensis) supplementation in a Cretan population with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a prospective pilot studyAnn Gastroenterol.(2014)
  29. Chromium - I Kato, J H Vogelman, V Dilman, J Karkoszka, K Frenkel, N P Durr, N Orentreich, P TonioloEffect of supplementation with chromium picolinate on antibody titers to 5-hydroxymethyl uracilEur J Epidemiol.(1998 Sep)
  30. Vitamin C - Mason SA, Della Gatta PA, Snow RJ, Russell AP, Wadley GDAscorbic acid supplementation improves skeletal muscle oxidative stress and insulin sensitivity in people with type 2 diabetes: Findings of a randomized controlled studyFree Radic Biol Med.(2016 Apr)
  31. Olive Leaf Extract - Gimeno E, de la Torre-Carbot K, Lamuela-Raventós RM, Castellote AI, Fitó M, de la Torre R, Covas MI, López-Sabater MCChanges in the phenolic content of low density lipoprotein after olive oil consumption in men. A randomized crossover controlled trialBr J Nutr.(2007 Dec)
  32. 16:8 Intermittent Fasting - Kelsey Gabel, Kristin K Hoddy, Nicole Haggerty, Jeehee Song, Cynthia M Kroeger, John F Trepanowski, Satchidananda Panda, Krista A VaradyEffects of 8-hour time restricted feeding on body weight and metabolic disease risk factors in obese adults: A pilot studyNutr Healthy Aging.(2018 Jun 15)
  33. Green Tea Extract - Stendell-Hollis NR, Thomson CA, Thompson PA, Bea JW, Cussler EC, Hakim IAGreen tea improves metabolic biomarkers, not weight or body composition: a pilot study in overweight breast cancer survivorsJ Hum Nutr Diet.(2010 Dec)
  34. Garlic - Ried K, Toben C, Fakler PEffect of garlic on serum lipids: an updated meta-analysisNutr Rev.(2013 May)
  35. Ashwagandha - Auddy, B, et alA Standardized Withania Somnifera Extract Significantly Reduces Stress-Related Parameters in Chronically Stressed Humans: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled StudyJ Am Nut Assn.()
  36. Cocoa Extract - Wan Y, Vinson JA, Etherton TD, Proch J, Lazarus SA, Kris-Etherton PMEffects of cocoa powder and dark chocolate on LDL oxidative susceptibility and prostaglandin concentrations in humansAm J Clin Nutr.(2001 Nov)
  37. Vegan Diet - Hana Kahleova, James McCann, Jihad Alwarith, Emilie Rembert, Andrea Tura, Richard Holubkov, Neal D BarnardA plant-based diet in overweight adults in a 16-week randomized clinical trial: The role of dietary acid loadClin Nutr ESPEN.(2021 Aug)
  38. Spirulina - Reihaneh Zeinalian, Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi, Atefeh Shariat, Maryam Saghafi-AslThe effects of Spirulina Platensis on anthropometric indices, appetite, lipid profile and serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in obese individuals: a randomized double blinded placebo controlled trialBMC Complement Altern Med.(2017 Apr 21)
  39. Coenzyme Q10 - Gholami M, Zarei P, Sadeghi Sedeh B, Rafiei F, Khosrowbeygi AEffects of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on serum values of adiponectin, leptin, 8-isoprostane and malondialdehyde in women with type 2 diabetesGynecol Endocrinol.(2018 Dec)
  40. Vitamin E - Roberts LJ 2nd, Oates JA, Linton MF, Fazio S, Meador BP, Gross MD, Shyr Y, Morrow JDThe relationship between dose of vitamin E and suppression of oxidative stress in humansFree Radic Biol Med.(2007 Nov 15)
  41. Lactobacillus Reuteri - Jones ML, Martoni CJ, Parent M, Prakash SCholesterol-lowering efficacy of a microencapsulated bile salt hydrolase-active Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 30242 yoghurt formulation in hypercholesterolaemic adultsBr J Nutr.(2012 May)
  42. Kefir - GÖLÜNÜK, S et alEffects of traditional fermented beverages on some blood parameters in aerobic exercises.Biomedical Research.()
  43. Chromium - Sharma S, Agrawal RP, Choudhary M, Jain S, Goyal S, Agarwal VBeneficial effect of chromium supplementation on glucose, HbA1C and lipid variables in individuals with newly onset type-2 diabetesJ Trace Elem Med Biol.(2011 Jul)
  44. Astaxanthin - Saito M, Yoshida K, Saito W, Fujiya A, Ohgami K, Kitaichi N, Tsukahara H, Ishida S, Ohno SAstaxanthin increases choroidal blood flow velocityGraefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol.(2012 Feb)
  45. Curcumin - Panahi Y, Khalili N, Sahebi E, Namazi S, Reiner Ž, Majeed M, Sahebkar ACurcuminoids modify lipid profile in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled trialComplement Ther Med.(2017 Aug)
  46. Cocoa Extract - Lívia de Paula Nogueira, Marcela Paranhos Knibel, Márcia Regina Simas Gonçalves Torres, José Firmino Nogueira Neto, Antonio Felipe SanjulianiConsumption of high-polyphenol dark chocolate improves endothelial function in individuals with stage 1 hypertension and excess body weightInt J Hypertens.(2012)
  47. Chromium - Ghosh D, Bhattacharya B, Mukherjee B, Manna B, Sinha M, Chowdhury J, Chowdhury SRole of chromium supplementation in Indians with type 2 diabetes mellitusJ Nutr Biochem.(2002 Nov)
  48. Psyllium - de Bock M, Derraik JG, Brennan CM, Biggs JB, Smith GC, Cameron-Smith D, Wall CR, Cutfield WSPsyllium supplementation in adolescents improves fat distribution & lipid profile: a randomized, participant-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trialPLoS One.(2012)
  49. Saffron - Milajerdi A, Jazayeri S, Hashemzadeh N, Shirzadi E, Derakhshan Z, Djazayeri A, Akhondzadeh SThe effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) hydroalcoholic extract on metabolic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A triple-blinded randomized clinical trialJ Res Med Sci.(2018 Feb 20)
  50. Royal Jelly - Georgiev DB, Metka M, Huber JC, Goudev AR, Manassiev NEffects of an herbal medication containing bee products on menopausal symptoms and cardiovascular risk markers: results of a pilot open-uncontrolled trialMedGenMed.(2004 Dec 16)
  51. L-Carnitine - Joanna J Samulak, Angelika K Sawicka, Emilia Samborowska, Robert A OlekPlasma Trimethylamine-N-oxide following Cessation of L-carnitine Supplementation in Healthy Aged WomenNutrients.(2019 Jun 13)
  52. Fish Oil - Alison M Hill, Jonathan D Buckley, Karen J Murphy, and Peter RC HoweCombining fish-oil supplements with regular aerobic exercise improves body composition and cardiovascular disease risk factorsThe American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.()
  53. Curcumin - Na LX, Li Y, Pan HZ, Zhou XL, Sun DJ, Meng M, Li XX, Sun CHCurcuminoids exert glucose-lowering effect in type 2 diabetes by decreasing serum free fatty acids: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trialMol Nutr Food Res.(2013 Sep)
  54. Conjugated Linoleic Acid - Colakoglu S, Colakoglu M, Taneli F, Cetinoz F, Turkmen MCumulative effects of conjugated linoleic acid and exercise on endurance development, body composition, serum leptin and insulin levelsJ Sports Med Phys Fitness.(2006 Dec)
  55. Vitamin B3 - Kelly JJ, Lawson JA, Campbell LV, Storlien LH, Jenkins AB, Whitworth JA, O'Sullivan AJEffects of nicotinic acid on insulin sensitivity and blood pressure in healthy subjectsJ Hum Hypertens.(2000 Sep)
  56. PQQ - Harris CB, Chowanadisai W, Mishchuk DO, Satre MA, Slupsky CM, Rucker RBDietary pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) alters indicators of inflammation and mitochondrial-related metabolism in human subjectsJ Nutr Biochem.(2013 Dec)
  57. Fish Oil - Maki KC, Lawless AL, Kelley KM, Dicklin MR, Kaden VN, Schild AL, Rains TM, Marshall JWEffects of prescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters on fasting lipid profile in subjects with primary hypercholesterolemiaJ Cardiovasc Pharmacol.(2011 Apr)
  58. Theaflavins - Trautwein EA, Du Y, Meynen E, Yan X, Wen Y, Wang H, Molhuizen HOPurified black tea theaflavins and theaflavins/catechin supplements did not affect serum lipids in healthy individuals with mildly to moderately elevated cholesterol concentrationsEur J Nutr.(2010 Feb)
  59. Vanadium - Jacques-Camarena O, González-Ortiz M, Martínez-Abundis E, López-Madrueño JF, Medina-Santillán REffect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity in patients with impaired glucose toleranceAnn Nutr Metab.(2008)
  60. Betaine - Olthof MR, van Vliet T, Verhoef P, Zock PL, Katan MBEffect of homocysteine-lowering nutrients on blood lipids: results from four randomised, placebo-controlled studies in healthy humansPLoS Med.(2005 May)
  61. Reishi - Chu TT, Benzie IF, Lam CW, Fok BS, Lee KK, Tomlinson BStudy of potential cardioprotective effects of Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi): results of a controlled human intervention trialBr J Nutr.(2012 Apr)
  62. Ketogenic Diet - Partsalaki I, Karvela A, Spiliotis BEMetabolic impact of a ketogenic diet compared to a hypocaloric diet in obese children and adolescentsJ Pediatr Endocrinol Metab.(2012)
  63. Red Clover Extract - Clifton-Bligh PB, Baber RJ, Fulcher GR, Nery ML, Moreton TThe effect of isoflavones extracted from red clover (Rimostil) on lipid and bone metabolismMenopause.(2001 Jul-Aug)
  64. Curcumin - Akazawa N, Choi Y, Miyaki A, Tanabe Y, Sugawara J, Ajisaka R, Maeda SCurcumin ingestion and exercise training improve vascular endothelial function in postmenopausal womenNutr Res.(2012 Oct)
  65. OMAD And 20:4 Intermittent Fasting - Sutton EF, Beyl R, Early KS, Cefalu WT, Ravussin E, Peterson CMEarly Time-Restricted Feeding Improves Insulin Sensitivity, Blood Pressure, and Oxidative Stress Even without Weight Loss in Men with PrediabetesCell Metab.(2018 Jun 5)
  66. Pycnogenol - Devaraj S, Vega-López S, Kaul N, Schönlau F, Rohdewald P, Jialal ISupplementation with a pine bark extract rich in polyphenols increases plasma antioxidant capacity and alters the plasma lipoprotein profileLipids.(2002 Oct)
  67. Shilajit - Sharma P, Jha J, Shrinivas V, Dwivedi LK, Suresh P, Sinha MShilajit: evalution of its effects on blood chemistry of normal human subjectsAnc Sci Life.(2003 Oct)
  68. Curcumin - Panahi Y, Kianpour P, Mohtashami R, Jafari R, Simental-Mendía LE, Sahebkar ACurcumin Lowers Serum Lipids and Uric Acid in Subjects With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Randomized Controlled TrialJ Cardiovasc Pharmacol.(2016 Sep)
  69. Berberine - Derosa G, D'Angelo A, Bonaventura A, Bianchi L, Romano D, Maffioli PEffects of berberine on lipid profile in subjects with low cardiovascular riskExpert Opin Biol Ther.(2013 Apr)
  70. Ketogenic Diet - Volek JS, Sharman MJ, Gómez AL, DiPasquale C, Roti M, Pumerantz A, Kraemer WJComparison of a very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diet on fasting lipids, LDL subclasses, insulin resistance, and postprandial lipemic responses in overweight womenJ Am Coll Nutr.(2004 Apr)
  71. Green Coffee Extract - Watanabe T, Arai Y, Mitsui Y, Kusaura T, Okawa W, Kajihara Y, Saito IThe blood pressure-lowering effect and safety of chlorogenic acid from green coffee bean extract in essential hypertensionClin Exp Hypertens.(2006 Jul)
  72. Cocoa Extract - Di Renzo L, Rizzo M, Sarlo F, Colica C, Iacopino L, Domino E, Sergi D, De Lorenzo AEffects of dark chocolate in a population of normal weight obese women: a pilot studyEur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci.(2013 Aug)
  73. Ketogenic Diet - Yancy WS Jr, Westman EC, McDuffie JR, Grambow SC, Jeffreys AS, Bolton J, Chalecki A, Oddone EZA randomized trial of a low-carbohydrate diet vs orlistat plus a low-fat diet for weight lossArch Intern Med.(2010 Jan 25)
  74. Curcumin - Ferguson JJA, Wolska A, Remaley AT, Stojanovski E, MacDonald-Wicks L, Garg MLBread enriched with phytosterols with or without curcumin modulates lipoprotein profiles in hypercholesterolaemic individuals. A randomised controlled trialFood Funct.(2019 May 22)
  75. Blueberry - Arpita Basu, Mei Du, Misti J Leyva, Karah Sanchez, Nancy M Betts, Mingyuan Wu, Christopher E Aston, Timothy J LyonsBlueberries decrease cardiovascular risk factors in obese men and women with metabolic syndromeJ Nutr.(2010 Sep)
  76. Garlic - Budoff MJ, Takasu J, Flores FR, Niihara Y, Lu B, Lau BH, Rosen RT, Amagase HInhibiting progression of coronary calcification using Aged Garlic Extract in patients receiving statin therapy: a preliminary studyPrev Med.(2004 Nov)
  77. Vitamin B3 - AIM-HIGH Investigators, Boden WE, Probstfield JL, Anderson T, Chaitman BR, Desvignes-Nickens P, Koprowicz K, McBride R, Teo K, Weintraub WNiacin in patients with low HDL cholesterol levels receiving intensive statin therapyN Engl J Med.(2011 Dec 15)
  78. Paleolithic Diet - Barbara Frączek, Aleksandra Pięta, Adrian Burda, Paulina Mazur-Kurach, Florentyna TyrałaPaleolithic Diet-Effect on the Health Status and Performance of Athletes?Nutrients.(2021 Mar 21)
  79. Vitamin C - Tousoulis D, Antoniades C, Vasiliadou C, Kourtellaris P, Koniari K, Marinou K, Charakida M, Ntarladimas I, Siasos G, Stefanadis CEffects of atorvastatin and vitamin C on forearm hyperaemic blood flow, asymmentrical dimethylarginine levels and the inflammatory process in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitusHeart.(2007 Feb)
  80. Fish Oil - Ciubotaru I, Lee YS, Wander RCDietary fish oil decreases C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and triacylglycerol to HDL-cholesterol ratio in postmenopausal women on HRTJ Nutr Biochem.(2003 Sep)
  81. Tetradecyl Thioacetic Acid - Reidar J Pettersen, Mohamed Salem, Jon Skorve, Rune J Ulvik, Rolf K Berge, Jan Erik NordrehaugPharmacology and safety of tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA): phase-1 studyJ Cardiovasc Pharmacol.(2008 Apr)
  82. Inositol - Gerli S, Papaleo E, Ferrari A, Di Renzo GCRandomized, double blind placebo-controlled trial: effects of myo-inositol on ovarian function and metabolic factors in women with PCOSEur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci.(2007 Sep-Oct)
  83. Coenzyme Q10 - Abdollahzad H, et alCoenzyme Q10 supplementation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: Are there any effects on cardiovascular risk factors?Eur J Integr Med..()
  84. L-Carnitine - Aida Malek Mahdavi, Reza Mahdavi, Sousan Kolahi, Maryam Zemestani, Amir-Mansour VatankhahL-Carnitine supplementation improved clinical status without changing oxidative stress and lipid profile in women with knee osteoarthritisNutr Res.(2015 Aug)
  85. Coenzyme Q10 - Singh RB, Neki NS, Kartikey K, Pella D, Kumar A, Niaz MA, Thakur ASEffect of coenzyme Q10 on risk of atherosclerosis in patients with recent myocardial infarctionMol Cell Biochem.(2003 Apr)
  86. Ephedrine - Bogacka I, Gettys TW, de Jonge L, Nguyen T, Smith JM, Xie H, Greenway F, Smith SRThe effect of beta-adrenergic and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma stimulation on target genes related to lipid metabolism in human subcutaneous adipose tissueDiabetes Care.(2007 May)
  87. Quercetin - Talirevic E, Jelena SQuercetin in the treatment of dyslipidemiaMed Arh.(2012)
  88. Grape Seed Extract - Kar P, Laight D, Rooprai HK, Shaw KM, Cummings MEffects of grape seed extract in Type 2 diabetic subjects at high cardiovascular risk: a double blind randomized placebo controlled trial examining metabolic markers, vascular tone, inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin sensitivityDiabet Med.(2009 May)
  89. Pyruvate - Stanko RT, Reynolds HR, Lonchar KD, Arch JEPlasma lipid concentrations in hyperlipidemic patients consuming a high-fat diet supplemented with pyruvate for 6 wkAm J Clin Nutr.(1992 Nov)
  90. Olive Leaf Extract - Weinbrenner T, Fitó M, de la Torre R, Saez GT, Rijken P, Tormos C, Coolen S, Albaladejo MF, Abanades S, Schroder H, Marrugat J, Covas MIOlive oils high in phenolic compounds modulate oxidative/antioxidative status in menJ Nutr.(2004 Sep)
  91. Saffron - Fatemeh Ebrahimi, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Naheed Aryaeian, Naseh Pahlavani, Soudabeh Fallah, Nariman Moradi, Davoud Abbasi, Agha Fatemeh HosseiniEffects Of Saffron Supplementation On Inflammation And Metabolic Responses In Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled TrialDiabetes Metab Syndr Obes.(2019 Oct 14)
  92. Policosanol - Castaño G, Más R, Fernández JC, Illnait J, Fernández L, Alvarez EEffects of policosanol in older patients with type II hypercholesterolemia and high coronary riskJ Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci.(2001 Mar)
  93. Kefir - Alireza Ostadrahimi, Akbar Taghizadeh, Majid Mobasseri, Nazila Farrin, Laleh Payahoo, Zahra Beyramalipoor Gheshlaghi, Morteza VahedjabbariEffect of probiotic fermented milk (kefir) on glycemic control and lipid profile in type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trialIran J Public Health.(2015 Feb)
  94. Bhringaraj - Vasavi Rangineni, D Sharada, Saileshnath SaxenaDiuretic, hypotensive, and hypocholesterolemic effects of Eclipta alba in mild hypertensive subjects: a pilot studyJ Med Food.(2007 Mar)
  95. Astaxanthin - Karppi J, Rissanen TH, Nyyssönen K, Kaikkonen J, Olsson AG, Voutilainen S, Salonen JTEffects of astaxanthin supplementation on lipid peroxidationInt J Vitam Nutr Res.(2007 Jan)
  96. Conjugated Linoleic Acid - Sluijs I, Plantinga Y, de Roos B, Mennen LI, Bots MLDietary supplementation with cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid and aortic stiffness in overweight and obese adultsAm J Clin Nutr.(2010 Jan)
  97. Paleolithic Diet - Eric W Manheimer, Esther J van Zuuren, Zbys Fedorowicz, Hanno PijlPaleolithic nutrition for metabolic syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysisAm J Clin Nutr.(2015 Oct)
  98. Curcumin - Thota RN, Acharya SH, Garg MLCurcumin and/or omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation reduces insulin resistance and blood lipids in individuals with high risk of type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled trialLipids Health Dis.(2019 Jan 26)
  99. Caffeine - Wedick NM, Brennan AM, Sun Q, Hu FB, Mantzoros CS, van Dam RMEffects of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee on biological risk factors for type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trialNutr J.(2011 Sep 13)
  100. L-Carnitine - Bor-Jen Lee, Jun-Shuo Lin, Yi-Chin Lin, Ping-Ting LinEffects of L-carnitine supplementation on lipid profiles in patients with coronary artery diseaseLipids Health Dis.(2016 Jun 17)
  101. Vitamin K - Ozuru R, Sugimoto T, Yamaguchi T, Chihara KTime-dependent effects of vitamin K2 (menatetrenone) on bone metabolism in postmenopausal womenEndocr J.(2002 Jun)
  102. Citrulline - Ochiai M, Hayashi T, Morita M, Ina K, Maeda M, Watanabe F, Morishita KShort-term effects of L-citrulline supplementation on arterial stiffness in middle-aged menInt J Cardiol.(2012 Mar 8)
  103. Reishi - Wachtel-Galor S, Tomlinson B, Benzie IFGanoderma lucidum ("Lingzhi"), a Chinese medicinal mushroom: biomarker responses in a controlled human supplementation studyBr J Nutr.(2004 Feb)
  104. Chromium - Kleefstra N, Houweling ST, Jansman FG, Groenier KH, Gans RO, Meyboom-de Jong B, Bakker SJ, Bilo HJChromium treatment has no effect in patients with poorly controlled, insulin-treated type 2 diabetes in an obese Western population: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialDiabetes Care.(2006 Mar)
  105. Vitamin E - Singh I, Turner AH, Sinclair AJ, Li D, Hawley JAEffects of gamma-tocopherol supplementation on thrombotic risk factorsAsia Pac J Clin Nutr.(2007)
  106. Coffee - Kempf K, Herder C, Erlund I, Kolb H, Martin S, Carstensen M, Koenig W, Sundvall J, Bidel S, Kuha S, Tuomilehto JEffects of coffee consumption on subclinical inflammation and other risk factors for type 2 diabetes: a clinical trialAm J Clin Nutr.(2010 Apr)
  107. Kudzu - Woo J, Lau E, Ho SC, Cheng F, Chan C, Chan AS, Haines CJ, Chan TY, Li M, Sham AComparison of Pueraria lobata with hormone replacement therapy in treating the adverse health consequences of menopauseMenopause.(2003 Jul-Aug)
  108. Vegan Diet - Karen Rees, Lena Al-Khudairy, Andrea Takeda, Saverio StrangesVegan dietary pattern for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseasesCochrane Database Syst Rev.(2021 Feb 25)
  109. Red Clover Extract - Campbell MJ, Woodside JV, Honour JW, Morton MS, Leathem AJEffect of red clover-derived isoflavone supplementation on insulin-like growth factor, lipid and antioxidant status in healthy female volunteers: a pilot studyEur J Clin Nutr.(2004 Jan)
  110. Vitamin B1 - Alaei-Shahmiri F, Soares MJ, Zhao Y, Sherriff JThe impact of thiamine supplementation on blood pressure, serum lipids and C-reactive protein in individuals with hyperglycemia: a randomised, double-blind cross-over trialDiabetes Metab Syndr.(2015 Oct-Dec)
  111. Conjugated Linoleic Acid - Lambert EV, Goedecke JH, Bluett K, Heggie K, Claassen A, Rae DE, West S, Dugas J, Dugas L, Meltzeri S, Charlton K, Mohede IConjugated linoleic acid versus high-oleic acid sunflower oil: effects on energy metabolism, glucose tolerance, blood lipids, appetite and body composition in regularly exercising individualsBr J Nutr.(2007 May)
  112. Conjugated Linoleic Acid - Michelle L Asp, Angela L Collene, Leigh E Norris, Rachel M Cole, Michael B Stout, Szu-Yu Tang, Jason C Hsu, Martha A BeluryTime-dependent effects of safflower oil to improve glycemia, inflammation and blood lipids in obese, post-menopausal women with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-masked, crossover studyClin Nutr.(2011 Aug)
  113. Ecklonia Cava - Lee DH, Park MY, Shim BJ, Youn HJ, Hwang HJ, Shin HC, Jeon HKEffects of Ecklonia cava Polyphenol in Individuals with Hypercholesterolemia: A Pilot StudyJ Med Food.(2012 Nov)
  114. Roselle - Mozaffari-Khosravi H, Jalali-Khanabadi BA, Afkhami-Ardekani M, Fatehi FEffects of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa) on lipid profile and lipoproteins in patients with type II diabetesJ Altern Complement Med.(2009 Aug)
  115. L-Carnitine - S Georgala, K H Schulpis, C Georgala, T MichasL-carnitine supplementation in patients with cystic acne on isotretinoin therapyJ Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol.(1999 Nov)
  116. Grape Juice - Chou EJ, Keevil JG, Aeschlimann S, Wiebe DA, Folts JD, Stein JHEffect of ingestion of purple grape juice on endothelial function in patients with coronary heart diseaseAm J Cardiol.(2001 Sep 1)
  117. Fish Oil - Vega-López S, Kaul N, Devaraj S, Cai RY, German B, Jialal ISupplementation with omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and all-rac alpha-tocopherol alone and in combination failed to exert an anti-inflammatory effect in human volunteersMetabolism.(2004 Feb)
  118. Vitamin C - Bo S, Ciccone G, Durazzo M, Gambino R, Massarenti P, Baldi I, Lezo A, Tiozzo E, Pauletto D, Cassader M, Pagano GEfficacy of antioxidant treatment in reducing resistin serum levels: a randomized studyPLoS Clin Trials.(2007 May 4)
  119. Krill Oil - Stine M Ulven, Bente Kirkhus, Amandine Lamglait, Samar Basu, Elisabeth Elind, Trond Haider, Kjetil Berge, Hogne Vik, Jan I PedersenMetabolic effects of krill oil are essentially similar to those of fish oil but at lower dose of EPA and DHA, in healthy volunteersLipids.(2011 Jan)
  120. Curcumin - Adab Z, Eghtesadi S, Vafa MR, Heydari I, Shojaii A, Haqqani H, Arablou T, Eghtesadi MEffect of turmeric on glycemic status, lipid profile, hs-CRP, and total antioxidant capacity in hyperlipidemic type 2 diabetes mellitus patientsPhytother Res.(2019 Apr)
  121. Kefir - Z Jenko Pražnikar, S Kenig, T Vardjan, M Černelič Bizjak, A PetelinEffects of kefir or milk supplementation on zonulin in overweight subjectsJ Dairy Sci.(2020 May)
  122. Hesperidin - Miwa Y, Yamada M, Sunayama T, Mitsuzumi H, Tsuzaki Y, Chaen H, Mishima Y, Kibata MEffects of glucosyl hesperidin on serum lipids in hyperlipidemic subjects: preferential reduction in elevated serum triglyceride levelJ Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo).(2004 Jun)
  123. L-Carnitine - Giuseppe Derosa, Pamela Maffioli, Ilaria Ferrari, Angela D'Angelo, Elena Fogari, Ilaria Palumbo, Sabrina Randazzo, Arrigo F G CiceroComparison between orlistat plus l-carnitine and orlistat alone on inflammation parameters in obese diabetic patientsFundam Clin Pharmacol.(2011 Oct)
  124. Olive Leaf Extract - Covas MI, Nyyssönen K, Poulsen HE, Kaikkonen J, Zunft HJ, Kiesewetter H, Gaddi A, de la Torre R, Mursu J, Bäumler H, Nascetti S, Salonen JT, Fitó M, Virtanen J, Marrugat J; EUROLIVE Study GroupThe effect of polyphenols in olive oil on heart disease risk factors: a randomized trialAnn Intern Med.(2006 Sep 5)
  125. Pyruvate - Stanko RT, Reynolds HR, Hoyson R, Janosky JE, Wolf RPyruvate supplementation of a low-cholesterol, low-fat diet: effects on plasma lipid concentrations and body composition in hyperlipidemic patientsAm J Clin Nutr.(1994 Feb)
  126. Fish Oil - Woodman RJ, Mori TA, Burke V, Puddey IB, Watts GF, Beilin LJEffects of purified eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids on glycemic control, blood pressure, and serum lipids in type 2 diabetic patients with treated hypertensionAm J Clin Nutr.(2002 Nov)
  127. Apple Cider Vinegar - Kondo T, Kishi M, Fushimi T, Ugajin S, Kaga TVinegar intake reduces body weight, body fat mass, and serum triglyceride levels in obese Japanese subjectsBiosci Biotechnol Biochem.(2009 Aug)
  128. Ketogenic Diet - Phillips SA, Jurva JW, Syed AQ, Syed AQ, Kulinski JP, Pleuss J, Hoffmann RG, Gutterman DDBenefit of low-fat over low-carbohydrate diet on endothelial health in obesityHypertension.(2008 Feb)
  129. DHEA - Martina V, Benso A, Gigliardi VR, Masha A, Origlia C, Granata R, Ghigo EShort-term dehydroepiandrosterone treatment increases platelet cGMP production in elderly male subjectsClin Endocrinol (Oxf).(2006 Mar)
  130. Fish Oil - Bernstein AM, Ding EL, Willett WC, Rimm EBA meta-analysis shows that docosahexaenoic acid from algal oil reduces serum triglycerides and increases HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol in persons without coronary heart diseaseJ Nutr.(2012 Jan)
  131. Coenzyme Q10 - Serag H, El Wakeel L, Adly ACoenzyme Q10 administration has no effect on sICAM-1 and metabolic parameters of pediatrics with type 1 diabetes mellitusInt J Vitam Nutr Res.(2020 Jan 16)
  132. Saffron - Armaghan Moravej Aleali, Reza Amani, Hajieh Shahbazian, Frough Namjooyan, Seyed Mahmoud Latifi, Bahman CheraghianThe effect of hydroalcoholic Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) extract on fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, lipid profile, liver, and renal function tests in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized double-blind clinical trialPhytother Res.(2019 Jun)
  133. Fish Oil - Connor WE, Prince MJ, Ullmann D, Riddle M, Hatcher L, Smith FE, Wilson DThe hypotriglyceridemic effect of fish oil in adult-onset diabetes without adverse glucose controlAnn N Y Acad Sci.(1993 Jun 14)
  134. Curcumin - Rahimi HR, Mohammadpour AH, Dastani M, Jaafari MR, Abnous K, Ghayour Mobarhan M, Kazemi Oskuee RThe effect of nano-curcumin on HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, and lipid profile in diabetic subjects: a randomized clinical trialAvicenna J Phytomed.(2016 Sep-Oct)
  135. Saffron - Ali Sahraian, Sina Jelodar, Zahra Javid, Arash Mowla, Laaya AhmadzadehStudy the effects of saffron on depression and lipid profiles: A double blind comparative studyAsian J Psychiatr.(2016 Aug)
  136. Maca - Meissner HO, Mscisz A, Reich-Bilinska H, Kapczynski W, Mrozikiewicz P, Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska T, Kedzia B, Lowicka A, Barchia IHormone-Balancing Effect of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon): (II) Physiological and Symptomatic Responses of Early-Postmenopausal Women to Standardized doses of Maca in Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Multi-Centre Clinical StudyInt J Biomed Sci.(2006 Dec)
  137. Chromium - Jamilian M, Asemi ZChromium Supplementation and the Effects on Metabolic Status in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled TrialAnn Nutr Metab.(2015)
  138. Pycnogenol - Rainer KochComparative study of Venostasin and Pycnogenol in chronic venous insufficiencyPhytother Res.(2002 Mar)
  139. Pueraria Mirifica - Okamura S, Sawada Y, Satoh T, Sakamoto H, Saito Y, Sumino H, Takizawa T, Kogure T, Chaichantipyuth C, Higuchi Y, Ishikawa T, Sakamaki TPueraria mirifica phytoestrogens improve dyslipidemia in postmenopausal women probably by activating estrogen receptor subtypesTohoku J Exp Med.(2008 Dec)
  140. Potatoes - Siew Ling Tey, Rachel Brown, Andrew Gray, Alexandra Chisholm, Conor DelahuntyNuts improve diet quality compared to other energy-dense snacks while maintaining body weightJ Nutr Metab.(2011)
  141. Garlic - Phelps S, Harris WSGarlic supplementation and lipoprotein oxidation susceptibilityLipids.(1993 May)
  142. Ketogenic Diet - Phillips MCL, Murtagh DKJ, Gilbertson LJ, Asztely FJS, Lynch CDPLow-fat versus ketogenic diet in Parkinson's disease: A pilot randomized controlled trialMov Disord.(2018 Aug)
  143. Policosanol - Cubeddu LX, Cubeddu RJ, Heimowitz T, Restrepo B, Lamas GA, Weinberg GBComparative lipid-lowering effects of policosanol and atorvastatin: a randomized, parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialAm Heart J.(2006 Nov)
  144. Black seed - Qidwai W, Hamza HB, Qureshi R, Gilani AEffectiveness, safety, and tolerability of powdered Nigella sativa (kalonji) seed in capsules on serum lipid levels, blood sugar, blood pressure, and body weight in adults: results of a randomized, double-blind controlled trialJ Altern Complement Med.(2009 Jun)
  145. Fish Oil - Cazzola R, Russo-Volpe S, Miles EA, Rees D, Banerjee T, Roynette CE, Wells SJ, Goua M, Wahle KW, Calder PC, Cestaro BAge- and dose-dependent effects of an eicosapentaenoic acid-rich oil on cardiovascular risk factors in healthy male subjectsAtherosclerosis.(2007 Jul)
  146. Chromium - Yazaki Y, Faridi Z, Ma Y, Ali A, Northrup V, Njike VY, Liberti L, Katz DLA pilot study of chromium picolinate for weight lossJ Altern Complement Med.(2010 Mar)
  147. Astaxanthin - Coombes JS, Sharman JE, Fassett RGAstaxanthin has no effect on arterial stiffness, oxidative stress, or inflammation in renal transplant recipients: a randomized controlled trial (the XANTHIN trial)Am J Clin Nutr.(2016 Jan)
  148. Saffron - Karimi-Nazari E, et alEffect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on lipid profile, glycemic indices and antioxidant status among overweight/obese prediabetic individuals: A double-blinded, randomized controlled trialClin Nutr ESPEN.()
  149. Hemp Protein - Ursula S Schwab, James C Callaway, Arja T Erkkilä, Jukka Gynther, Matti I J Uusitupa, Tomi JärvinenEffects of hempseed and flaxseed oils on the profile of serum lipids, serum total and lipoprotein lipid concentrations and haemostatic factorsEur J Nutr.(2006 Dec)
  150. Tetradecyl Thioacetic Acid - Fredriksen J, Ueland T, Dyrøy E, Halvorsen B, Melby K, Melbye L, Skalhegg BS, Bohov P, Skorve J, Berge RK, Aukrust P, Frøland SSLipid-lowering and anti-inflammatory effects of tetradecylthioacetic acid in HIV-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapyEur J Clin Invest.(2004 Oct)
  151. L-Carnitine - Moein Askarpour, Amir Hadi, Michael E Symonds, Maryam Miraghajani, Omid Sadeghi, Ali Sheikhi, Ehsan GhaediEfficacy of l-carnitine supplementation for management of blood lipids: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of randomized controlled trialsNutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis.(2019 Nov)
  152. Fish Oil - Eslick GD, Howe PR, Smith C, Priest R, Bensoussan ABenefits of fish oil supplementation in hyperlipidemia: a systematic review and meta-analysisInt J Cardiol.(2009 Jul 24)
  153. Japanese Knotweed - Ghanim H, Sia CL, Abuaysheh S, Korzeniewski K, Patnaik P, Marumganti A, Chaudhuri A, Dandona PAn antiinflammatory and reactive oxygen species suppressive effects of an extract of Polygonum cuspidatum containing resveratrolJ Clin Endocrinol Metab.(2010 Sep)
  154. Betaine - Schwab U, Alfthan G, Aro A, Uusitupa MLong-term effect of betaine on risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome in healthy subjectsEur J Clin Nutr.(2011 Jan)
  155. Chromium - Bahijiri SM, Mira SA, Mufti AM, Ajabnoor MAThe effects of inorganic chromium and brewer's yeast supplementation on glucose tolerance, serum lipids and drug dosage in individuals with type 2 diabetesSaudi Med J.(2000 Sep)
  156. Curcumin - Ferguson JJA, Stojanovski E, MacDonald-Wicks L, Garg MLCurcumin potentiates cholesterol-lowering effects of phytosterols in hypercholesterolaemic individuals. A randomised controlled trialMetabolism.(2018 May)
  157. Artichoke Extract - Englisch W, Beckers C, Unkauf M, Ruepp M, Zinserling VEfficacy of Artichoke dry extract in patients with hyperlipoproteinemiaArzneimittelforschung.(2000 Mar)
  158. Grape Seed Extract - Vigna GB, Costantini F, Aldini G, Carini M, Catapano A, Schena F, Tangerini A, Zanca R, Bombardelli E, Morazzoni P, Mezzetti A, Fellin R, Maffei Facino REffect of a standardized grape seed extract on low-density lipoprotein susceptibility to oxidation in heavy smokersMetabolism.(2003 Oct)
  159. Cocoa Extract - Engler MB, Engler MM, Chen CY, Malloy MJ, Browne A, Chiu EY, Kwak HK, Milbury P, Paul SM, Blumberg J, Mietus-Snyder MLFlavonoid-rich dark chocolate improves endothelial function and increases plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adultsJ Am Coll Nutr.(2004 Jun)
  160. Cocoa Extract - Crews WD Jr, Harrison DW, Wright JWA double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of the effects of dark chocolate and cocoa on variables associated with neuropsychological functioning and cardiovascular health: clinical findings from a sample of healthy, cognitively intact older adultsAm J Clin Nutr.(2008 Apr)
  161. Ketogenic Diet - Foster GD, Wyatt HR, Hill JO, McGuckin BG, Brill C, Mohammed BS, Szapary PO, Rader DJ, Edman JS, Klein SA randomized trial of a low-carbohydrate diet for obesityN Engl J Med.(2003 May 22)
  162. Fenugreek - Gupta A, Gupta R, Lal BEffect of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seeds on glycaemic control and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a double blind placebo controlled studyJ Assoc Physicians India.(2001 Nov)
  163. L-Carnitine - Giuseppe Derosa, Pamela Maffioli, Sibilla A T Salvadeo, Ilaria Ferrari, Alessia Gravina, Roberto Mereu, Angela D'Angelo, Ilaria Palumbo, Sabrina Randazzo, Arrigo F G CiceroEffects of combination of sibutramine and L-carnitine compared with sibutramine monotherapy on inflammatory parameters in diabetic patientsMetabolism.(2011 Mar)
  164. Gamma Oryzanol - Fry AC, Bonner E, Lewis DL, Johnson RL, Stone MH, Kraemer WJThe effects of gamma-oryzanol supplementation during resistance exercise trainingInt J Sport Nutr.(1997 Dec)
  165. Fish Oil - Dawczynski C, Martin L, Wagner A, Jahreis Gn-3 LC-PUFA-enriched dairy products are able to reduce cardiovascular risk factors: a double-blind, cross-over studyClin Nutr.(2010 Oct)
  166. L-Carnitine - Francesco Brescia, Elisabetta Balestra, Maria Grazia Iasella, Aurelia Bellomo DamatoEffects of combined treatment with simvastatin and L-carnitine on triglyceride levels in diabetic patients with hyperlipidaemiaClin Drug Investig.(2002 Nov)
  167. Garlic - Breithaupt-Grögler K, Ling M, Boudoulas H, Belz GGProtective effect of chronic garlic intake on elastic properties of aorta in the elderlyCirculation.(1997 Oct 21)
  168. Hemp Protein - Kaul N, Kreml R, Austria JA, Richard MN, Edel AL, Dibrov E, Hirono S, Zettler ME, Pierce GNA comparison of fish oil, flaxseed oil and hempseed oil supplementation on selected parameters of cardiovascular health in healthy volunteersJ Am Coll Nutr.(2008 Feb)
  169. Black seed - Dehkordi FR, Kamkhah AFAntihypertensive effect of Nigella sativa seed extract in patients with mild hypertensionFundam Clin Pharmacol.(2008 Aug)
  170. Astaxanthin - Mashhadi NS, Zakerkish M, Mohammadiasl J, Zarei M, Mohammadshahi M, Haghighizadeh MHAstaxanthin improves glucose metabolism and reduces blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitusAsia Pac J Clin Nutr.(2018)
  171. Red Clover Extract - Hidalgo LA, Chedraui PA, Morocho N, Ross S, San Miguel GThe effect of red clover isoflavones on menopausal symptoms, lipids and vaginal cytology in menopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studyGynecol Endocrinol.(2005 Nov)
  172. Saffron - Jamal Rahmani, Nicla Manzari, Jacqueline Thompson, Cain C T Clark, Gemma Villanueva, Hamed Kord Varkaneh, Parvin MirmiranThe effect of saffron on weight and lipid profile: A systematic review, meta-analysis, and dose-response of randomized clinical trialsPhytother Res.(2019 Sep)
  173. L-Carnitine - M Florentin, M S Elisaf, C V Rizos, V Nikolaou, E Bilianou, C Pitsavos, E N LiberopoulosL-Carnitine/Simvastatin Reduces Lipoprotein (a) Levels Compared with Simvastatin Monotherapy: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled StudyLipids.(2017 Jan)
  174. Saffron - Modaghegh MH, Shahabian M, Esmaeili HA, Rajbai O, Hosseinzadeh HSafety evaluation of saffron (Crocus sativus) tablets in healthy volunteersPhytomedicine.(2008 Dec)
  175. Curcumin - Alwi I, Santoso T, Suyono S, Sutrisna B, Suyatna FD, Kresno SB, Ernie SThe effect of curcumin on lipid level in patients with acute coronary syndromeActa Med Indones.(2008 Oct)
  176. Coenzyme Q10 - Zhang P, Yang C, Guo H, Wang J, Lin S, Li H, Yang Y, Ling WTreatment of coenzyme Q10 for 24 weeks improves lipid and glycemic profile in dyslipidemic individualsJ Clin Lipidol.(2018 Mar - Apr)
  177. Black seed - Abdullah O Bamosa, Huda Kaatabi, Fatma M Lebdaa, Abdul-Muhssen Al Elq, Ali Al-SultanbEffect of Nigella sativa seeds on the glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitusIndian J Physiol Pharmacol.(Oct-Dec 2010)
  178. Chromium - Kim CW, Kim BT, Park KH, Kim KM, Lee DJ, Yang SW, Joo NSEffects of short-term chromium supplementation on insulin sensitivity and body composition in overweight children: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studyJ Nutr Biochem.(2011 Nov)
  179. Vitamin C - Ghaffari et alThe effects of vitamin C on diabetic patients Pharm Lett.()
  180. L-Carnitine - Mariano Malaguarnera, Marco Vacante, Teresio Avitabile, Marcella Malaguarnera, Lisa Cammalleri, Massimo MottaL-Carnitine supplementation reduces oxidized LDL cholesterol in patients with diabetesAm J Clin Nutr.(2009 Jan)
  181. Curcumin - Amin F, Islam N, Anila N, Gilani AHClinical efficacy of the co-administration of Turmeric and Black seeds (Kalongi) in metabolic syndrome - a double blind randomized controlled trial - TAK-MetS trialComplement Ther Med.(2015 Apr)
  182. Melatonin - Koziróg M, Poliwczak AR, Duchnowicz P, Koter-Michalak M, Sikora J, Broncel MMelatonin treatment improves blood pressure, lipid profile, and parameters of oxidative stress in patients with metabolic syndromeJ Pineal Res.(2011 Apr)
  183. Coleus Forskohlii - Madhavi Jagtap, H M Chandola, B RavishankarClinical efficacy of Coleus forskohlii (Willd.) Briq. (Makandi) in hypertension of geriatric populationAyu.(2011 Jan)
  184. L-Carnitine - A R Rahbar, R Shakerhosseini, N Saadat, F Taleban, A Pordal, B GollestanEffect of L-carnitine on plasma glycemic and lipidemic profile in patients with type II diabetes mellitusEur J Clin Nutr.(2005 Apr)
  185. Fish Oil - McManus RM, Jumpson J, Finegood DT, Clandinin MT, Ryan EAA comparison of the effects of n-3 fatty acids from linseed oil and fish oil in well-controlled type II diabetesDiabetes Care.(1996 May)
  186. Betaine - Schwab U, Törrönen A, Toppinen L, Alfthan G, Saarinen M, Aro A, Uusitupa MBetaine supplementation decreases plasma homocysteine concentrations but does not affect body weight, body composition, or resting energy expenditure in human subjectsAm J Clin Nutr.(2002 Nov)
  187. Astaxanthin - Choi HD, Youn YK, Shin WGPositive effects of astaxanthin on lipid profiles and oxidative stress in overweight subjectsPlant Foods Hum Nutr.(2011 Nov)
  188. Fish Oil - Davidson MH, Stein EA, Bays HE, Maki KC, Doyle RT, Shalwitz RA, Ballantyne CM, Ginsberg HN, COMBination of prescription Omega-3 with Simvastatin (COMBOS) InvestigatorsEfficacy and tolerability of adding prescription omega-3 fatty acids 4 g/d to simvastatin 40 mg/d in hypertriglyceridemic patients: an 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studyClin Ther.(2007 Jul)
  189. Olive Leaf Extract - Marrugat J, Covas MI, Fitó M, Schröder H, Miró-Casas E, Gimeno E, López-Sabater MC, de la Torre R, Farré M; SOLOS InvestigatorsEffects of differing phenolic content in dietary olive oils on lipids and LDL oxidation--a randomized controlled trialEur J Nutr.(2004 Jun)
  190. Grape Juice - Castilla P, Echarri R, Dávalos A, Cerrato F, Ortega H, Teruel JL, Lucas MF, Gómez-Coronado D, Ortuño J, Lasunción MAConcentrated red grape juice exerts antioxidant, hypolipidemic, and antiinflammatory effects in both hemodialysis patients and healthy subjectsAm J Clin Nutr.(2006 Jul)
  191. Policosanol - Swanson B, Keithley JK, Sha BE, Fogg L, Nerad J, Novak RM, Adeyemi O, Spear GTPolicosanol for managing human immunodeficiency virus-related dyslipidemia in a medically underserved population: a randomized, controlled clinical trialAltern Ther Health Med.(2011 Mar-Apr)
  192. Microlactin - Sharpe SJ, Gamble GD, Sharpe DNCholesterol-lowering and blood pressure effects of immune milkAm J Clin Nutr.(1994 Apr)
  193. Curcumin - Mirzabeigi P, Mohammadpour AH, Salarifar M, Gholami K, Mojtahedzadeh M, Javadi MRThe Effect of Curcumin on some of Traditional and Non-traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Pilot Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled TrialIran J Pharm Res.(2015 Spring)
  194. Berberine - Yan HM, Xia MF, Wang Y, Chang XX, Yao XZ, Rao SX, Zeng MS, Tu YF, Feng R, Jia WP, Liu J, Deng W, Jiang JD, Gao XEfficacy of Berberine in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver DiseasePLoS One.(2015 Aug 7)
  195. 16:8 Intermittent Fasting - Grant M Tinsley, M Lane Moore, Austin J Graybeal, Antonio Paoli, Youngdeok Kim, Joaquin U Gonzales, John R Harry, Trisha A VanDusseldorp, Devin N Kennedy, Megan R CruzTime-restricted feeding plus resistance training in active females: a randomized trialAm J Clin Nutr.(2019 Sep 1)
  196. Cocoa Extract - Balzer J, Rassaf T, Heiss C, Kleinbongard P, Lauer T, Merx M, Heussen N, Gross HB, Keen CL, Schroeter H, Kelm MSustained benefits in vascular function through flavanol-containing cocoa in medicated diabetic patients a double-masked, randomized, controlled trialJ Am Coll Cardiol.(2008 Jun 3)
  197. Hesperidin - Miwa Y, Mitsuzumi H, Sunayama T, Yamada M, Okada K, Kubota M, Chaen H, Mishima Y, Kibata MGlucosyl hesperidin lowers serum triglyceride level in hypertriglyceridemic subjects through the improvement of very low-density lipoprotein metabolic abnormalityJ Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo).(2005 Dec)
  198. Ginger - Alizadeh-Navaei R, Roozbeh F, Saravi M, Pouramir M, Jalali F, Moghadamnia AAInvestigation of the effect of ginger on the lipid levels. A double blind controlled clinical trialSaudi Med J.(2008 Sep)
  199. Apple Cider Vinegar - Khezri, S, et alBeneficial effects of Apple Cider Vinegar on weight management, Visceral Adiposity Index and lipid profile in overweight or obese subjects receiving restricted calorie diet: A randomized clinical trialJ. Funct. Foods.()
  200. Fish Oil - Zulyniak MA, Perreault M, Gerling C, Spriet LL, Mutch DMFish oil supplementation alters circulating eicosanoid concentrations in young healthy menMetabolism.(2013 Mar 20)
  201. Vitamin B3 - Westphal S, Borucki K, Taneva E, Makarova R, Luley CExtended-release niacin raises adiponectin and leptinAtherosclerosis.(2007 Aug)
  202. Zinc - Kelishadi R, Hashemipour M, Adeli K, Tavakoli N, Movahedian-Attar A, Shapouri J, Poursafa P, Rouzbahani AEffect of zinc supplementation on markers of insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and inflammation among prepubescent children with metabolic syndromeMetab Syndr Relat Disord.(2010 Dec)
  203. Amla - Muhammad Shoaib Akhtar, Ayesha Ramzan, Amanat Ali, Maqsood AhmadEffect of Amla fruit (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) on blood glucose and lipid profile of normal subjects and type 2 diabetic patientsInt J Food Sci Nutr.(2011 Sep)
  204. Vitamin B3 - Valeria Nasser Figueiredo, Felipe Vendrame, Bruno A Colontoni, Thiago Quinaglia, Jose Roberto Matos-Souza, Filipe Azevedo Moura, Otavio R Coelho, Eliana C de Faria, Andrei C SpositoShort-term effects of extended-release niacin with and without the addition of laropiprant on endothelial function in individuals with low HDL-C: a randomized, controlled crossover trialClin Ther.(2014 Jun 1)
  205. Saffron - Soukhtanloo M, et alEffect of saffron on serum leptin levels in patients with metabolic syndrome, a double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial studyProg Nutr.()
  206. Medium-chain Triglycerides - Han JR, Deng B, Sun J, Chen CG, Corkey BE, Kirkland JL, Ma J, Guo WEffects of dietary medium-chain triglyceride on weight loss and insulin sensitivity in a group of moderately overweight free-living type 2 diabetic Chinese subjectsMetabolism.(2007 Jul)
  207. Vitamin B3 - T Sakai, V S Kamanna, M L KashyapNiacin, but not gemfibrozil, selectively increases LP-AI, a cardioprotective subfraction of HDL, in patients with low HDL cholesterolArterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol.(2001 Nov)
  208. Fish Oil - Warner JG Jr, Ullrich IH, Albrink MJ, Yeater RACombined effects of aerobic exercise and omega-3 fatty acids in hyperlipidemic personsMed Sci Sports Exerc.(1989 Oct)
  209. Vitamin C - Kim MK, Sasaki S, Sasazuki S, Okubo S, Hayashi M, Tsugane SLong-term vitamin C supplementation has no markedly favourable effect on serum lipids in middle-aged Japanese subjectsBr J Nutr.(2004 Jan)
  210. Ketogenic Diet - Parker N Hyde, Teryn N Sapper, Christopher D Crabtree, Richard A LaFountain, Madison L Bowling, Alex Buga, Brandon Fell, Fionn T McSwiney, Ryan M Dickerson, Vincent J Miller, Debbie Scandling, Orlando P Simonetti, Stephen D Phinney, William J Kraemer, Sarah A King, Ronald M Krauss, Jeff S VolekDietary carbohydrate restriction improves metabolic syndrome independent of weight lossJCI Insight.(2019 Jun 20)
  211. Theanine - Shinsuke Hidese, Miho Ota, Chisato Wakabayashi, Takamasa Noda, Hayato Ozawa, Tsutomu Okubo, Hiroshi KunugiEffects of chronic l-theanine administration in patients with major depressive disorder: an open-label studyActa Neuropsychiatr.(2017 Apr)
  212. Policosanol - Francini-Pesenti F, Beltramolli D, Dall'acqua S, Brocadello FEffect of sugar cane policosanol on lipid profile in primary hypercholesterolemiaPhytother Res.(2008 Mar)
  213. Spirulina - Parikh P, Mani U, Iyer URole of Spirulina in the Control of Glycemia and Lipidemia in Type 2 Diabetes MellitusJ Med Food.(2001 Winter)
  214. Grape Seed Extract - Sivaprakasapillai B, Edirisinghe I, Randolph J, Steinberg F, Kappagoda TEffect of grape seed extract on blood pressure in subjects with the metabolic syndromeMetabolism.(2009 Dec)
  215. DHEA - Igwebuike A, Irving BA, Bigelow ML, Short KR, McConnell JP, Nair KSLack of dehydroepiandrosterone effect on a combined endurance and resistance exercise program in postmenopausal womenJ Clin Endocrinol Metab.(2008 Feb)
  216. Yerba Mate - de Morais EC, Stefanuto A, Klein GA, Boaventura BC, de Andrade F, Wazlawik E, Di Pietro PF, Maraschin M, da Silva ELConsumption of yerba mate ( Ilex paraguariensis ) improves serum lipid parameters in healthy dyslipidemic subjects and provides an additional LDL-cholesterol reduction in individuals on statin therapyJ Agric Food Chem.(2009 Sep 23)
  217. Guggul - Szapary PO, Wolfe ML, Bloedon LT, Cucchiara AJ, DerMarderosian AH, Cirigliano MD, Rader DJGuggulipid for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia: a randomized controlled trialJAMA.(2003 Aug 13)
  218. Garlic - Sobenin IA, Pryanishnikov VV, Kunnova LM, Rabinovich YA, Martirosyan DM, Orekhov ANThe effects of time-released garlic powder tablets on multifunctional cardiovascular risk in patients with coronary artery diseaseLipids Health Dis.(2010 Oct 19)
  219. L-Carnitine - Eun Shil Hong, Eun Ky Kim, Seon Mee Kang, Ah Reum Khang, Sung Hee Choi, Kyong Soo Park, Hak Chul Jang, Soo LimEffect of carnitine-orotate complex on glucose metabolism and fatty liver: a double-blind, placebo-controlled studyJ Gastroenterol Hepatol.(2014)
  220. L-Carnitine - Jun-jie Zhang, Zhi-bing Wu, You-jin Cai, Bin Ke, Ying-juan Huang, Chao-ping Qiu, Yu-bing Yang, Lan-ying Shi, Jian QinL-carnitine ameliorated fasting-induced fatigue, hunger, and metabolic abnormalities in patients with metabolic syndrome: a randomized controlled studyNutr J.(2014 Nov 26)
  221. Vitamin D - Seibert E, Lehmann U, Riedel A, Ulrich C, Hirche F, Brandsch C, Dierkes J, Girndt M, Stangl GIVitamin D3 supplementation does not modify cardiovascular risk profile of adults with inadequate vitamin D statusEur J Nutr.(2015 Nov 30)
  222. Spirulina - Patricia V Torres-Duran, Aldo Ferreira-Hermosillo, Marco A Juarez-OropezaAntihyperlipemic and antihypertensive effects of Spirulina maxima in an open sample of Mexican population: a preliminary reportLipids Health Dis.(2007 Nov 26)
  223. Cocoa Extract - Davison K, Coates AM, Buckley JD, Howe PREffect of cocoa flavanols and exercise on cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight and obese subjectsInt J Obes (Lond).(2008 Aug)
  224. Astaxanthin - Baralic I, Andjelkovic M, Djordjevic B, Dikic N, Radivojevic N, Suzin-Zivkovic V, Radojevic-Skodric S, Pejic SEffect of Astaxanthin Supplementation on Salivary IgA, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in Young Soccer PlayersEvid Based Complement Alternat Med.(2015)
  225. Nattokinase - Yang NC, Chou CW, Chen CY, Hwang KL, Yang YCCombined nattokinase with red yeast rice but not nattokinase alone has potent effects on blood lipids in human subjects with hyperlipidemia.Asia Pac J Clin Nutr.(2009)
  226. Magnesium - Guerrero-Romero F, Rodríguez-Morán MThe effect of lowering blood pressure by magnesium supplementation in diabetic hypertensive adults with low serum magnesium levels: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trialJ Hum Hypertens.(2009 Apr)
  227. Ashwagandha - Raut AA, Rege NN, Tadvi FM, Solanki PV, Kene KR, Shirolkar SG, Pandey SN, Vaidya RA, Vaidya ABExploratory study to evaluate tolerability, safety, and activity of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) in healthy volunteersJ Ayurveda Integr Med.(2012 Jul)
  228. Garlic - Sobenin IA, Andrianova IV, Demidova ON, Gorchakova T, Orekhov ANLipid-lowering effects of time-released garlic powder tablets in double-blinded placebo-controlled randomized studyJ Atheroscler Thromb.(2008 Dec)
  229. Berberine - Dong H, Wang N, Zhao L, Lu FBerberine in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systemic review and meta-analysisEvid Based Complement Alternat Med.(2012)
  230. Creatine - Earnest CP, Almada AL, Mitchell TLHigh-performance capillary electrophoresis-pure creatine monohydrate reduces blood lipids in men and womenClin Sci (Lond).(1996 Jul)
  231. Garlic - Adler AJ, Holub BJEffect of garlic and fish-oil supplementation on serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in hypercholesterolemic menAm J Clin Nutr.(1997 Feb)
  232. Fish Oil - Ilowite NT, Copperman N, Leicht T, Kwong T, Jacobson MSEffects of dietary modification and fish oil supplementation on dyslipoproteinemia in pediatric systemic lupus erythematosusJ Rheumatol.(1995 Jul)
  233. Spirulina - R Samuels, U V Mani, U M Iyer, U S NayakHypocholesterolemic effect of spirulina in patients with hyperlipidemic nephrotic syndromeJ Med Food.(Summer 2002)
  234. Policosanol - Illnait J, Castaño G, Alvarez E, Fernández L, Mas R, Mendoza S, Gamez REffects of policosanol (10 mg/d) versus aspirin (100 mg/d) in patients with intermittent claudication: a 10-week, randomized, comparative studyAngiology.(2008 Jun-Jul)
  235. Phosphatidylserine - Kato-Kataoka A, Sakai M, Ebina R, Nonaka C, Asano T, Miyamori TSoybean-derived phosphatidylserine improves memory function of the elderly Japanese subjects with memory complaintsJ Clin Biochem Nutr.(2010 Nov)
  236. Saffron - Babak Roshanravan, Saeed Samarghandian, Milad Ashrafizadeh, Alireza Amirabadizadeh, Farhad Saeedi, Tahereh FarkhondehMetabolic Impact of Saffron and Crocin: An Updated Systematic and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Clinical TrialsArch Physiol Biochem.(2020 Feb 4)
  237. Chromium - Aghdassi E, Arendt BM, Salit IE, Mohammed SS, Jalali P, Bondar H, Allard JPIn patients with HIV-infection, chromium supplementation improves insulin resistance and other metabolic abnormalities: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trialCurr HIV Res.(2010 Mar)
  238. DHEA - Jedrzejuk D, Medras M, Milewicz A, Demissie MDehydroepiandrosterone replacement in healthy men with age-related decline of DHEA-S: effects on fat distribution, insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolismAging Male.(2003 Sep)
  239. Black seed - Kalus U, Pruss A, Bystron J, Jurecka M, Smekalova A, Lichius JJ, Kiesewetter HEffect of Nigella sativa (black seed) on subjective feeling in patients with allergic diseasesPhytother Res.(2003 Dec)
  240. Tribulus Terrestris - Samani NB, Jokar A, Soveid M, Heydari M, Mosavat SHEfficacy of Tribulus Terrestris Extract on the Serum Glucose and Lipids of Women with Diabetes MellitusIran J Med Sci.(2016 May)
  241. Resveratrol - Magyar K, Halmosi R, Palfi A, Feher G, Czopf L, Fulop A, Battyany I, Sumegi B, Toth K, Szabados ECardioprotection by resveratrol: A human clinical trial in patients with stable coronary artery diseaseClin Hemorheol Microcirc.(2012 Jan 1)
  242. Cocoa Extract - Grassi D, Lippi C, Necozione S, Desideri G, Ferri CShort-term administration of dark chocolate is followed by a significant increase in insulin sensitivity and a decrease in blood pressure in healthy personsAm J Clin Nutr.(2005 Mar)
  243. Conjugated Linoleic Acid - Tricon S, Burdge GC, Jones EL, Russell JJ, El-Khazen S, Moretti E, Hall WL, Gerry AB, Leake DS, Grimble RF, Williams CM, Calder PC, Yaqoob PEffects of dairy products naturally enriched with cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid on the blood lipid profile in healthy middle-aged menAm J Clin Nutr.(2006 Apr)
  244. Chromium - Racek J, Trefil L, Rajdl D, Mudrová V, Hunter D, Senft VInfluence of chromium-enriched yeast on blood glucose and insulin variables, blood lipids, and markers of oxidative stress in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitusBiol Trace Elem Res.(2006 Mar)
  245. Red Clover Extract - Schult TM, Ensrud KE, Blackwell T, Ettinger B, Wallace R, Tice JAEffect of isoflavones on lipids and bone turnover markers in menopausal womenMaturitas.(2004 Jul 15)
  246. Grape Juice - Hollis JH, Houchins JA, Blumberg JB, Mattes RDEffects of concord grape juice on appetite, diet, body weight, lipid profile, and antioxidant status of adultsJ Am Coll Nutr.(2009 Oct)
  247. Green Tea Extract - Hsu CH, Tsai TH, Kao YH, Hwang KC, Tseng TY, Chou PEffect of green tea extract on obese women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trialClin Nutr.(2008 Jun)
  248. Vitamin E - Meydani SN, Meydani M, Blumberg JB, Leka LS, Pedrosa M, Diamond R, Schaefer EJAssessment of the safety of supplementation with different amounts of vitamin E in healthy older adultsAm J Clin Nutr.(1998 Aug)
  249. Spirulina - Marco Antonio Hernández-Lepe, Abraham Wall-Medrano, José Alberto López-Díaz, Marco Antonio Juárez-Oropeza, Rosa Patricia Hernández-Torres, Arnulfo Ramos-JiménezHypolipidemic Effect of Arthrospira ( Spirulina) maxima Supplementation and a Systematic Physical Exercise Program in Overweight and Obese Men: A Double-Blind, Randomized, and Crossover Controlled TrialMar Drugs.(2019 May 7)
  250. Berberine - Pérez-Rubio KG, González-Ortiz M, Martínez-Abundis E, Robles-Cervantes JA, Espinel-Bermúdez MCEffect of berberine administration on metabolic syndrome, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretionMetab Syndr Relat Disord.(2013 Oct)
  251. Fish Oil - Fakhrzadeh H, Ghaderpanahi M, Sharifi F, Mirarefin M, Badamchizade Z, Kamrani AA, Larijani BThe effects of low dose n-3 fatty acids on serum lipid profiles and insulin resistance of the elderly: a randomized controlled clinical trialInt J Vitam Nutr Res.(2010 Apr)
  252. Soy Lecithin - Mourad AM, de Carvalho Pincinato E, Mazzola PG, Sabha M, Moriel PInfluence of soy lecithin administration on hypercholesterolemiaCholesterol.(2010)
  253. Ephedrine - Boozer CN, Daly PA, Homel P, Solomon JL, Blanchard D, Nasser JA, Strauss R, Meredith THerbal ephedra/caffeine for weight loss: a 6-month randomized safety and efficacy trialInt J Obes Relat Metab Disord.(2002 May)
  254. Ketogenic Diet - Boden G, Sargrad K, Homko C, Mozzoli M, Stein TPEffect of a low-carbohydrate diet on appetite, blood glucose levels, and insulin resistance in obese patients with type 2 diabetesAnn Intern Med.(2005 Mar 15)
  255. Dill - Kojuri J, Vosoughi AR, Akrami MEffects of anethum graveolens and garlic on lipid profile in hyperlipidemic patientsLipids Health Dis.(2007 Mar 1)
  256. Red Clover Extract - Atkinson C, Oosthuizen W, Scollen S, Loktionov A, Day NE, Bingham SAModest protective effects of isoflavones from a red clover-derived dietary supplement on cardiovascular disease risk factors in perimenopausal women, and evidence of an interaction with ApoE genotype in 49-65 year-old womenJ Nutr.(2004 Jul)
  257. Gamma Oryzanol - Berger A, Rein D, Schäfer A, Monnard I, Gremaud G, Lambelet P, Bertoli CSimilar cholesterol-lowering properties of rice bran oil, with varied gamma-oryzanol, in mildly hypercholesterolemic menEur J Nutr.(2005 Mar)
  258. Royal Jelly - Hang Guo, Ai Saiga, Mikako Sato, Izumi Miyazawa, Makoto Shibata, Yoshihisa Takahata, Fumiki MorimatsuRoyal jelly supplementation improves lipoprotein metabolism in humansJ Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo).(2007 Aug)
  259. L-Carnitine - Vincenzo Solfrizzi, Cristiano Capurso, Anna M Colacicco, Alessia D'Introno, Cristina Fontana, Sabrina A Capurso, Francesco Torres, Anna M Gadaleta, Aleardo Koverech, Antonio Capurso, Francesco PanzaEfficacy and tolerability of combined treatment with L-carnitine and simvastatin in lowering lipoprotein(a) serum levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitusAtherosclerosis.(2006 Oct)
  260. African Mango - Ngondi JL, Oben JE, Minka SRThe effect of Irvingia gabonensis seeds on body weight and blood lipids of obese subjects in CameroonLipids Health Dis.(2005 May 25)
  261. Fish Oil - Schuchardt JP, Neubronner J, Kressel G, Merkel M, von Schacky C, Hahn AModerate doses of EPA and DHA from re-esterified triacylglycerols but not from ethyl-esters lower fasting serum triacylglycerols in statin-treated dyslipidemic subjects: Results from a six month randomized controlled trialProstaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids.(2011 Dec)
  262. Krill Oil - Bunea R, El Farrah K, Deutsch LEvaluation of the effects of Neptune Krill Oil on the clinical course of hyperlipidemiaAltern Med Rev.(2004 Dec)
  263. Conjugated Linoleic Acid - Ribeiro AS, Pina FL, Dodero SR, Silva DR, Schoenfeld BJ, Sugihara Júnior P, Fernandes RR, Barbosa DS, Cyrino ES, Tirapegui JEffect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Associated With Aerobic Exercise on Body Fat and Lipid Profile in Obese Women: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, and Placebo-Controlled TrialInt J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab.(2016 Apr)
  264. Kefir - Yasamin Fathi, Shiva Faghih, Mohammad Javad Zibaeenezhad, Sayed Hamid Reza TabatabaeiKefir drink leads to a similar weight loss, compared with milk, in a dairy-rich non-energy-restricted diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women: a randomized controlled trialEur J Nutr.(2016 Feb)
  265. Garlic - Gómez-Arbeláez D, Lahera V, Oubiña P, Valero-Muñoz M, de Las Heras N, Rodríguez Y, García RG, Camacho PA, López-Jaramillo PAged garlic extract improves adiponectin levels in subjects with metabolic syndrome: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover studyMediators Inflamm.(2013)
  266. Red Clover Extract - Knight DC, Howes JB, Eden JAThe effect of Promensil, an isoflavone extract, on menopausal symptomsClimacteric.(1999 Jun)
  267. Bitter Cucumber - Rahbar AR, Nabipour IThe hypolipidemic effect of Citrullus colocynthis on patients with hyperlipidemiaPak J Biol Sci.(2010 Dec 15)
  268. Spirulina - Juárez-Oropeza MA, Mascher D, Torres-Durán PV, Farias JM, Paredes-Carbajal MCEffects of dietary Spirulina on vascular reactivityJ Med Food.(2009 Feb)
  269. OMAD And 20:4 Intermittent Fasting - Stote KS, Baer DJ, Spears K, Paul DR, Harris GK, Rumpler WV, Strycula P, Najjar SS, Ferrucci L, Ingram DK, Longo DL, Mattson MPA controlled trial of reduced meal frequency without caloric restriction in healthy, normal-weight, middle-aged adultsAm J Clin Nutr.(2007 Apr)
  270. Fish Oil - Dangardt F, Osika W, Chen Y, Nilsson U, Gan LM, Gronowitz E, Strandvik B, Friberg POmega-3 fatty acid supplementation improves vascular function and reduces inflammation in obese adolescentsAtherosclerosis.(2010 Oct)
  271. Conjugated Linoleic Acid - Anne J Wanders, Ingeborg A Brouwer, Els Siebelink, Martijn B KatanEffect of a high intake of conjugated linoleic acid on lipoprotein levels in healthy human subjectsPLoS One.(2010 Feb 3)
  272. Curcumin - Kim SW, Ha KC, Choi EK, Jung SY, Kim MG, Kwon DY, Yang HJ, Kim MJ, Kang HJ, Back HI, Kim SY, Park SH, Baek HY, Kim YJ, Lee JY, Chae SWThe effectiveness of fermented turmeric powder in subjects with elevated alanine transaminase levels: a randomised controlled studyBMC Complement Altern Med.(2013 Mar 8)
  273. Astaxanthin - Yoshida H, Yanai H, Ito K, Tomono Y, Koikeda T, Tsukahara H, Tada NAdministration of natural astaxanthin increases serum HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin in subjects with mild hyperlipidemiaAtherosclerosis.(2010 Apr)
  274. Olive Leaf Extract - Castañer O, Covas MI, Khymenets O, Nyyssonen K, Konstantinidou V, Zunft HF, de la Torre R, Muñoz-Aguayo D, Vila J, Fitó MProtection of LDL from oxidation by olive oil polyphenols is associated with a downregulation of CD40-ligand expression and its downstream products in vivo in humansAm J Clin Nutr.(2012 May)
  275. Inositol - Gerli S, Mignosa M, Di Renzo GCEffects of inositol on ovarian function and metabolic factors in women with PCOS: a randomized double blind placebo-controlled trialEur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci.(2003 Nov-Dec)
  276. Bitter Cucumber - Huseini HF, Darvishzadeh F, Heshmat R, Jafariazar Z, Raza M, Larijani BThe clinical investigation of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) schrad fruit in treatment of Type II diabetic patients: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trialPhytother Res.(2009 Aug)
  277. Spirulina - Ferreira-Hermosillo A, Torres-Duran PV, Juarez-Oropeza MAHepatoprotective effects of Spirulina maxima in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a case seriesJ Med Case Rep.(2010 Apr 7)
  278. 16:8 Intermittent Fasting - Tatiana Moro, Grant Tinsley, Antonino Bianco, Giuseppe Marcolin, Quirico Francesco Pacelli, Giuseppe Battaglia, Antonio Palma, Paulo Gentil, Marco Neri, Antonio PaoliEffects of eight weeks of time-restricted feeding (16/8) on basal metabolism, maximal strength, body composition, inflammation, and cardiovascular risk factors in resistance-trained malesJ Transl Med.(2016 Oct 13)
  279. L-Carnitine - Bruls Y, et alCarnitine supplementation improves metabolic flexibility and skeletal muscle acetylcarnitine formation in volunteers with impaired glucose tolerance: A randomised controlled trialEBioMedicine.()
  280. Green Tea Extract - Batista Gde A, Cunha CL, Scartezini M, von der Heyde R, Bitencourt MG, Melo SFProspective double-blind crossover study of Camellia sinensis (green tea) in dyslipidemiasArq Bras Cardiol.(2009 Aug)
  281. Garlic - K Rahman, D BillingtonDietary supplementation with aged garlic extract inhibits ADP-induced platelet aggregation in humansJ Nutr.(2000 Nov)
  282. Perilla - Minggang Wei, Peihua Xiong, Ling Zhang, Mei Fei, Aiping Chen, Fengling LiPerilla oil and exercise decrease expressions of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and highly sensitive C-reactive protein in patients with hyperlipidemiaJ Tradit Chin Med.(2013 Apr)
  283. Whey Protein - Vatani DS, Golzar FAChanges in antioxidant status and cardiovascular risk factors of overweight young men after six weeks supplementation of whey protein isolate and resistance trainingAppetite.(2012 Aug 10)
  284. Conjugated Linoleic Acid - Tine Tholstrup, Marianne Raff, Ellen M Straarup, Pia Lund, Samar Basu, Jens M BruunAn oil mixture with trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid increases markers of inflammation and in vivo lipid peroxidation compared with cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid in postmenopausal womenJ Nutr.(2008 Aug)
  285. Blueberry - Stull AJ, Cash KC, Johnson WD, Champagne CM, Cefalu WTBioactives in blueberries improve insulin sensitivity in obese, insulin-resistant men and womenJ Nutr.(2010 Oct)
  286. Boron - Rogoveanu OC, Mogoşanu GD, Bejenaru C, Bejenaru LE, Croitoru O, Neamţu J, Pietrzkowski Z, Reyes-Izquierdo T, Biţă A, Scorei ID, Scorei RIEffects of Calcium Fructoborate on Levels of C-Reactive Protein, Total Cholesterol, Low-Density Lipoprotein, Triglycerides, IL-1β, IL-6, and MCP-1: a Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical StudyBiol Trace Elem Res.(2015 Feb)
  287. Garlic - Avci A, Atli T, Ergüder IB, Varli M, Devrim E, Aras S, Durak IEffects of garlic consumption on plasma and erythrocyte antioxidant parameters in elderly subjectsGerontology.(2008)
  288. Vegan Diet - Neal D Barnard, Joshua Cohen, David J A Jenkins, Gabrielle Turner-McGrievy, Lise Gloede, Brent Jaster, Kim Seidl, Amber A Green, Stanley TalpersA low-fat vegan diet improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized clinical trial in individuals with type 2 diabetesDiabetes Care.(2006 Aug)
  289. Rooibos - Débora Villaño, Monia Pecorari, Maria Francesca Testa, Anna Raguzzini, Angelique Stalmach, Alan Crozier, Claudio Tubili, Mauro SerafiniUnfermented and fermented rooibos teas (Aspalathus linearis) increase plasma total antioxidant capacity in healthy humansFood Chemistry.()
  290. Chromium - Iqbal N, Cardillo S, Volger S, Bloedon LT, Anderson RA, Boston R, Szapary POChromium picolinate does not improve key features of metabolic syndrome in obese nondiabetic adultsMetab Syndr Relat Disord.(2009 Apr)
  291. Vitamin C - Mahmoudabadi MM, Djalali M, Djazayery SA, Keshavarz SA, Eshraghian MR, Yaraghi AA, Askari G, Ghiasvand R, Zarei MEffects of eicosapentaenoic acid and vitamin C on glycemic indices, blood pressure, and serum lipids in type 2 diabetic Iranian malesJ Res Med Sci.(2011 Mar)
  292. Vegan Diet - Ann-Charlotte Elkan, Beatrice Sjöberg, Björn Kolsrud, Bo Ringertz, Ingiäld Hafström, Johan FrostegårdGluten-free vegan diet induces decreased LDL and oxidized LDL levels and raised atheroprotective natural antibodies against phosphorylcholine in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized studyArthritis Res Ther.(2008)
  293. Hesperidin - Rizza S, Muniyappa R, Iantorno M, Kim JA, Chen H, Pullikotil P, Senese N, Tesauro M, Lauro D, Cardillo C, Quon MJCitrus polyphenol hesperidin stimulates production of nitric oxide in endothelial cells while improving endothelial function and reducing