Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)

Last Updated: September 21, 2023

LDL carries cholesterol from the liver to other parts of the body. Because higher levels of LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) tend to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), LDL-C is often called the “bad cholesterol” (as opposed to HDL-C) — but the reality is more complex.


Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) are proteins that carry hydrophobic molecules through extracellular fluid. More precisely, they carry cholesterol from the liver to other parts of the body, via the bloodstream.

The greater the number of LDL particles (LDL-P) in the blood, the more likely some will pass into artery walls, become oxidized, and kickstart plaque formation,[1] leading to atherosclerosis. Therefore, to predict cardiovascular disease (CVD), LDL-P matters more than LDL cholesterol (LDL-C),[2][3] which is simply a measure of the amount of the cholesterol carried by LDL particles.

If two people have the same LDL-C but one has cholesterol-rich LDL (large, “fluffy” particles) and the other cholesterol-poor LDL (smaller, denser particles), the second will have a greater LDL-P (more LDL particles total) and be at greater risk of heart disease.

To predict heart disease, LDL-P (the number of LDL particles) matters more than LDL-C (the amount of cholesterol those particles carry). There is one molecule of apolipoprotein B (apoB) in each LDL particle, so apoB is a good estimate of LDL-P.

Examine Database: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
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  1. ^Tabas I, Williams KJ, Borén JSubendothelial lipoprotein retention as the initiating process in atherosclerosis: update and therapeutic implicationsCirculation.(2007 Oct 16)
  2. ^Allaire J, Vors C, Couture P, Lamarche BLDL particle number and size and cardiovascular risk: anything new under the sun?Curr Opin Lipidol.(2017 Jun)
  3. ^Otvos JD, Mora S, Shalaurova I, Greenland P, Mackey RH, Goff DC JrClinical implications of discordance between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and particle numberJ Clin Lipidol.(2011 Mar-Apr)
Examine Database References
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  89. Tetradecyl Thioacetic Acid - Løvås K, Røst TH, Skorve J, Ulvik RJ, Gudbrandsen OA, Bohov P, Wensaas AJ, Rustan AC, Berge RK, Husebye ESTetradecylthioacetic acid attenuates dyslipidaemia in male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, possibly by dual PPAR-alpha/delta activation and increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidationDiabetes Obes Metab.(2009 Apr)
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  91. Paleolithic Diet - Ehsan Ghaedi, Mohammad Mohammadi, Hamed Mohammadi, Nahid Ramezani-Jolfaie, Janmohamad Malekzadeh, Mahdieh Hosseinzadeh, Amin Salehi-AbargoueiEffects of a Paleolithic Diet on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled TrialsAdv Nutr.(2019 Jul 1)
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  93. L-Carnitine - Vincenzo Solfrizzi, Cristiano Capurso, Anna M Colacicco, Alessia D'Introno, Cristina Fontana, Sabrina A Capurso, Francesco Torres, Anna M Gadaleta, Aleardo Koverech, Antonio Capurso, Francesco PanzaEfficacy and tolerability of combined treatment with L-carnitine and simvastatin in lowering lipoprotein(a) serum levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitusAtherosclerosis.(2006 Oct)
  94. Ketogenic Diet - Sharman MJ, Gómez AL, Kraemer WJ, Volek JSVery low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets affect fasting lipids and postprandial lipemia differently in overweight menJ Nutr.(2004 Apr)
  95. Vitamin B3 - Kelly JJ, Lawson JA, Campbell LV, Storlien LH, Jenkins AB, Whitworth JA, O'Sullivan AJEffects of nicotinic acid on insulin sensitivity and blood pressure in healthy subjectsJ Hum Hypertens.(2000 Sep)
  96. Garlic - Phelps S, Harris WSGarlic supplementation and lipoprotein oxidation susceptibilityLipids.(1993 May)
  97. Quercetin - Talirevic E, Jelena SQuercetin in the treatment of dyslipidemiaMed Arh.(2012)
  98. Vegan Diet - Li SS, Blanco Mejia S, Lytvyn L, Stewart SE, Viguiliouk E, Ha V, de Souza RJ, Leiter LA, Kendall CWC, Jenkins DJA, Sievenpiper JLEffect of Plant Protein on Blood Lipids: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled TrialsJ Am Heart Assoc.(2017 Dec 20)
  99. Vitamin B3 - Blond E, Rieusset J, Alligier M, Lambert-Porcheron S, Bendridi N, Gabert L, Chetiveaux M, Debard C, Chauvin MA, Normand S, Roth H, de Gouville AC, Krempf M, Vidal H, Goudable J, Laville M, “Niacin” Study GroupNicotinic acid effects on insulin sensitivity and hepatic lipid metabolism: an in vivo to in vitro studyHorm Metab Res.(2014 Jun)
  100. Black seed - Sabzghabaee AM, Dianatkhah M, Sarrafzadegan N, Asgary S, Ghannadi AClinical evaluation of Nigella sativa seeds for the treatment of hyperlipidemia: a randomized, placebo controlled clinical trialMed Arh.(2012)
  101. Coenzyme Q10 - Mohseni M, Vafa M, Zarrati M, Shidfar F, Hajimiresmail SJ, Rahimi Forushani ABeneficial Effects of Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation on Lipid Profile and Intereukin-6 and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Reduction, Preliminary Results of a Double-blind Trial in Acute Myocardial InfarctionInt J Prev Med.(2015 Aug 7)
  102. Curcumin - Cicero AFG, Sahebkar A, Fogacci F, Bove M, Giovannini M, Borghi CEffects of phytosomal curcumin on anthropometric parameters, insulin resistance, cortisolemia and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease indices: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trialEur J Nutr.(2019 Feb 22)
  103. Blueberry - Arpita Basu, Mei Du, Misti J Leyva, Karah Sanchez, Nancy M Betts, Mingyuan Wu, Christopher E Aston, Timothy J LyonsBlueberries decrease cardiovascular risk factors in obese men and women with metabolic syndromeJ Nutr.(2010 Sep)
  104. OMAD And 20:4 Intermittent Fasting - Stote KS, Baer DJ, Spears K, Paul DR, Harris GK, Rumpler WV, Strycula P, Najjar SS, Ferrucci L, Ingram DK, Longo DL, Mattson MPA controlled trial of reduced meal frequency without caloric restriction in healthy, normal-weight, middle-aged adultsAm J Clin Nutr.(2007 Apr)
  105. 16:8 Intermittent Fasting - Tatiana Moro, Grant Tinsley, Antonino Bianco, Giuseppe Marcolin, Quirico Francesco Pacelli, Giuseppe Battaglia, Antonio Palma, Paulo Gentil, Marco Neri, Antonio PaoliEffects of eight weeks of time-restricted feeding (16/8) on basal metabolism, maximal strength, body composition, inflammation, and cardiovascular risk factors in resistance-trained malesJ Transl Med.(2016 Oct 13)
  106. Policosanol - Mirkin A, Mas R, Martinto M, Boccanera R, Robertis A, Poudes R, Fuster A, Lastreto E, Yañez M, Irico G, McCook B, Farré AEfficacy and tolerability of policosanol in hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal womenInt J Clin Pharmacol Res.(2001)
  107. Chromium - Król E, Krejpcio Z, Byks H, Bogdański P, Pupek-Musialik DEffects of chromium brewer's yeast supplementation on body mass, blood carbohydrates, and lipids and minerals in type 2 diabetic patientsBiol Trace Elem Res.(2011 Nov)
  108. Curcumin - Kim SW, Ha KC, Choi EK, Jung SY, Kim MG, Kwon DY, Yang HJ, Kim MJ, Kang HJ, Back HI, Kim SY, Park SH, Baek HY, Kim YJ, Lee JY, Chae SWThe effectiveness of fermented turmeric powder in subjects with elevated alanine transaminase levels: a randomised controlled studyBMC Complement Altern Med.(2013 Mar 8)
  109. Magnesium - Lee S, Park HK, Son SP, Lee CW, Kim IJ, Kim HJEffects of oral magnesium supplementation on insulin sensitivity and blood pressure in normo-magnesemic nondiabetic overweight Korean adultsNutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis.(2009 Dec)
  110. Fish Oil - Paula Simplício da Silva, Mauro Felippe Felix Mediano, Gilberto Marcelo Sperandio da Silva, Patricia Dias de Brito, Claudia Santos de Aguiar Cardoso, Cristiane Fonseca de Almeida, Luiz Henrique Conde Sangenis, Roberta Olmo Pinheiro, Alejandro Marcel Hasslocher-Moreno, Pedro Emmanuel Alvarenga Americano do Brasil, Andrea Silvestre de SousaOmega-3 supplementation on inflammatory markers in patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy: a randomized clinical studyNutr J.(2017 Jun 9)
  111. Vegan Diet - Rami S Najjar, Carolyn E Moore, Baxter D MontgomeryConsumption of a defined, plant-based diet reduces lipoprotein(a), inflammation, and other atherogenic lipoproteins and particles within 4 weeksClin Cardiol.(2018 Aug)
  112. Olive Leaf Extract - Marrugat J, Covas MI, Fitó M, Schröder H, Miró-Casas E, Gimeno E, López-Sabater MC, de la Torre R, Farré M; SOLOS InvestigatorsEffects of differing phenolic content in dietary olive oils on lipids and LDL oxidation--a randomized controlled trialEur J Nutr.(2004 Jun)
  113. DHEA - Jedrzejuk D, Medras M, Milewicz A, Demissie MDehydroepiandrosterone replacement in healthy men with age-related decline of DHEA-S: effects on fat distribution, insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolismAging Male.(2003 Sep)
  114. Potatoes - Siew Ling Tey, Rachel Brown, Andrew Gray, Alexandra Chisholm, Conor DelahuntyNuts improve diet quality compared to other energy-dense snacks while maintaining body weightJ Nutr Metab.(2011)
  115. L-Carnitine - Joanna J Samulak, Angelika K Sawicka, Emilia Samborowska, Robert A OlekPlasma Trimethylamine-N-oxide following Cessation of L-carnitine Supplementation in Healthy Aged WomenNutrients.(2019 Jun 13)
  116. Saffron - Milajerdi A, Jazayeri S, Hashemzadeh N, Shirzadi E, Derakhshan Z, Djazayeri A, Akhondzadeh SThe effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) hydroalcoholic extract on metabolic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A triple-blinded randomized clinical trialJ Res Med Sci.(2018 Feb 20)
  117. Curcumin - Usharani P, Mateen AA, Naidu MU, Raju YS, Chandra NEffect of NCB-02, atorvastatin and placebo on endothelial function, oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, 8-week studyDrugs R D.(2008)
  118. Cocoa Extract - Muniyappa R, Hall G, Kolodziej TL, Karne RJ, Crandon SK, Quon MJCocoa consumption for 2 wk enhances insulin-mediated vasodilatation without improving blood pressure or insulin resistance in essential hypertensionAm J Clin Nutr.(2008 Dec)
  119. Saffron - Nasim Abedimanesh, S Zahra Bathaie, Saeed Abedimanesh, Behrooz Motlagh, Ahmad Separham, Alireza OstadrahimiSaffron and crocin improved appetite, dietary intakes and body composition in patients with coronary artery diseaseJ Cardiovasc Thorac Res.(2017)
  120. Japanese Knotweed - Ghanim H, Sia CL, Abuaysheh S, Korzeniewski K, Patnaik P, Marumganti A, Chaudhuri A, Dandona PAn antiinflammatory and reactive oxygen species suppressive effects of an extract of Polygonum cuspidatum containing resveratrolJ Clin Endocrinol Metab.(2010 Sep)
  121. Cocoa Extract - Fraga CG, Actis-Goretta L, Ottaviani JI, Carrasquedo F, Lotito SB, Lazarus S, Schmitz HH, Keen CLRegular consumption of a flavanol-rich chocolate can improve oxidant stress in young soccer playersClin Dev Immunol.(2005 Mar)
  122. Fish Oil - Alison M Hill, Jonathan D Buckley, Karen J Murphy, and Peter RC HoweCombining fish-oil supplements with regular aerobic exercise improves body composition and cardiovascular disease risk factorsThe American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.()
  123. Cocoa Extract - West SG, McIntyre MD, Piotrowski MJ, Poupin N, Miller DL, Preston AG, Wagner P, Groves LF, Skulas-Ray ACEffects of dark chocolate and cocoa consumption on endothelial function and arterial stiffness in overweight adultsBr J Nutr.(2014 Feb)
  124. Curcumin - Adibian M, Hodaei H, Nikpayam O, Sohrab G, Hekmatdoost A, Hedayati MThe effects of curcumin supplementation on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, serum adiponectin, and lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialPhytother Res.(2019 May)
  125. Fish Oil - Boberg M, Pollare T, Siegbahn A, Vessby BSupplementation with n-3 fatty acids reduces triglycerides but increases PAI-1 in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitusEur J Clin Invest.(1992 Oct)
  126. Hesperidin - Mohammadi M, Ramezani-Jolfaie N, Lorzadeh E, Khoshbakht Y, Salehi-Abargouei AHesperidin, a major flavonoid in orange juice, might not affect lipid profile and blood pressure: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trialsPhytother Res.(2019 Mar)
  127. Lactobacillus Reuteri - Jones ML, Martoni CJ, Di Pietro E, Simon RR, Prakash SEvaluation of clinical safety and tolerance of a Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 30242 supplement capsule: a randomized control trialRegul Toxicol Pharmacol.(2012 Jul)
  128. Curcumin - Ferguson JJA, Wolska A, Remaley AT, Stojanovski E, MacDonald-Wicks L, Garg MLBread enriched with phytosterols with or without curcumin modulates lipoprotein profiles in hypercholesterolaemic individuals. A randomised controlled trialFood Funct.(2019 May 22)
  129. Spirulina - R Samuels, U V Mani, U M Iyer, U S NayakHypocholesterolemic effect of spirulina in patients with hyperlipidemic nephrotic syndromeJ Med Food.(Summer 2002)
  130. Medium-chain Triglycerides - Han JR, Deng B, Sun J, Chen CG, Corkey BE, Kirkland JL, Ma J, Guo WEffects of dietary medium-chain triglyceride on weight loss and insulin sensitivity in a group of moderately overweight free-living type 2 diabetic Chinese subjectsMetabolism.(2007 Jul)
  131. Rooibos - Débora Villaño, Monia Pecorari, Maria Francesca Testa, Anna Raguzzini, Angelique Stalmach, Alan Crozier, Claudio Tubili, Mauro SerafiniUnfermented and fermented rooibos teas (Aspalathus linearis) increase plasma total antioxidant capacity in healthy humansFood Chemistry.()
  132. Garcinia - Kim JE, Jeon SM, Park KH, Lee WS, Jeong TS, McGregor RA, Choi MSDoes Glycine max leaves or Garcinia Cambogia promote weight-loss or lower plasma cholesterol in overweight individuals: a randomized control trialNutr J.(2011 Sep 21)
  133. Saffron - Babak Roshanravan, Saeed Samarghandian, Milad Ashrafizadeh, Alireza Amirabadizadeh, Farhad Saeedi, Tahereh FarkhondehMetabolic Impact of Saffron and Crocin: An Updated Systematic and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Clinical TrialsArch Physiol Biochem.(2020 Feb 4)
  134. Fish Oil - Poppitt SD, Howe CA, Lithander FE, Silvers KM, Lin RB, Croft J, Ratnasabapathy Y, Gibson RA, Anderson CSEffects of moderate-dose omega-3 fish oil on cardiovascular risk factors and mood after ischemic stroke: a randomized, controlled trialStroke.(2009 Nov)
  135. Vegan Diet - Ann-Charlotte Elkan, Beatrice Sjöberg, Björn Kolsrud, Bo Ringertz, Ingiäld Hafström, Johan FrostegårdGluten-free vegan diet induces decreased LDL and oxidized LDL levels and raised atheroprotective natural antibodies against phosphorylcholine in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized studyArthritis Res Ther.(2008)
  136. Cocoa Extract - Grassi D, Necozione S, Lippi C, Croce G, Valeri L, Pasqualetti P, Desideri G, Blumberg JB, Ferri CCocoa reduces blood pressure and insulin resistance and improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in hypertensivesHypertension.(2005 Aug)
  137. Spirulina - Lee EH, Park JE, Choi YJ, Huh KB, Kim WYA randomized study to establish the effects of spirulina in type 2 diabetes mellitus patientsNutr Res Pract.(2008 Winter)
  138. Fish Oil - Schectman G, Kaul S, Kissebah AHEffect of fish oil concentrate on lipoprotein composition in NIDDMDiabetes.(1988 Nov)
  139. Vegan Diet - Neal D Barnard, Jihad Alwarith, Emilie Rembert, Liz Brandon, Minh Nguyen, Andrea Goergen, Taylor Horne, Gabriel F do Nascimento, Kundanika Lakkadi, Andrea Tura, Richard Holubkov, Hana KahleovaA Mediterranean Diet and Low-Fat Vegan Diet to Improve Body Weight and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: A Randomized, Cross-over TrialJ Am Coll Nutr.(2021 Feb 5)
  140. Theanine - Shinsuke Hidese, Miho Ota, Chisato Wakabayashi, Takamasa Noda, Hayato Ozawa, Tsutomu Okubo, Hiroshi KunugiEffects of chronic l-theanine administration in patients with major depressive disorder: an open-label studyActa Neuropsychiatr.(2017 Apr)
  141. Spirulina - Juárez-Oropeza MA, Mascher D, Torres-Durán PV, Farias JM, Paredes-Carbajal MCEffects of dietary Spirulina on vascular reactivityJ Med Food.(2009 Feb)
  142. Astaxanthin - Karppi J, Rissanen TH, Nyyssönen K, Kaikkonen J, Olsson AG, Voutilainen S, Salonen JTEffects of astaxanthin supplementation on lipid peroxidationInt J Vitam Nutr Res.(2007 Jan)
  143. Policosanol - Illnait J, Castaño G, Alvarez E, Fernández L, Mas R, Mendoza S, Gamez REffects of policosanol (10 mg/d) versus aspirin (100 mg/d) in patients with intermittent claudication: a 10-week, randomized, comparative studyAngiology.(2008 Jun-Jul)
  144. Fish Oil - Maki KC, McKenney JM, Reeves MS, Lubin BC, Dicklin MREffects of adding prescription omega-3 acid ethyl esters to simvastatin (20 mg/day) on lipids and lipoprotein particles in men and women with mixed dyslipidemiaAm J Cardiol.(2008 Aug 15)
  145. Fish Oil - Annuzzi G, Rivellese A, Capaldo B, Di Marino L, Iovine C, Marotta G, Riccardi GA controlled study on the effects of n-3 fatty acids on lipid and glucose metabolism in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patientsAtherosclerosis.(1991 Mar)
  146. Magnesium - Mooren FC, Krüger K, Völker K, Golf SW, Wadepuhl M, Kraus AOral magnesium supplementation reduces insulin resistance in non-diabetic subjects - a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trialDiabetes Obes Metab.(2011 Mar)
  147. Whey Protein - Pal S, Ellis V, Dhaliwal SEffects of whey protein isolate on body composition, lipids, insulin and glucose in overweight and obese individualsBr J Nutr.(2010 Sep)
  148. Pomegranate seed oil - Mirmiran P, Fazeli MR, Asghari G, Shafiee A, Azizi FEffect of pomegranate seed oil on hyperlipidaemic subjects: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trialBr J Nutr.(2010 Aug)
  149. Curcumin - Funamoto M, Sunagawa Y, Katanasaka Y, Miyazaki Y, Imaizumi A, Kakeya H, Yamakage H, Satoh-Asahara N, Komiyama M, Wada H, Hasegawa K, Morimoto THighly absorptive curcumin reduces serum atherosclerotic low-density lipoprotein levels in patients with mild COPDInt J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis.(2016 Aug 26)
  150. Policosanol - Kassis AN, Jones PJLack of cholesterol-lowering efficacy of Cuban sugar cane policosanols in hypercholesterolemic personsAm J Clin Nutr.(2006 Nov)
  151. Krill Oil - Bunea R, El Farrah K, Deutsch LEvaluation of the effects of Neptune Krill Oil on the clinical course of hyperlipidemiaAltern Med Rev.(2004 Dec)
  152. Black seed - Kalus U, Pruss A, Bystron J, Jurecka M, Smekalova A, Lichius JJ, Kiesewetter HEffect of Nigella sativa (black seed) on subjective feeling in patients with allergic diseasesPhytother Res.(2003 Dec)
  153. Pyruvate - Stanko RT, Reynolds HR, Hoyson R, Janosky JE, Wolf RPyruvate supplementation of a low-cholesterol, low-fat diet: effects on plasma lipid concentrations and body composition in hyperlipidemic patientsAm J Clin Nutr.(1994 Feb)
  154. Potatoes - E A Johnston, K S Petersen, P M Kris-EthertonDaily intake of non-fried potato does not affect markers of glycaemia and is associated with better diet quality compared with refined grains: a randomised, crossover study in healthy adultsBr J Nutr.(2020 May 14)
  155. Panax Ginseng - Kim SY, Seo SK, Choi YM, Jeon YE, Lim KJ, Cho S, Choi YS, Lee BSEffects of red ginseng supplementation on menopausal symptoms and cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women: a double-blind randomized controlled trialMenopause.(2012 Apr)
  156. Ephedrine - Boozer CN, Daly PA, Homel P, Solomon JL, Blanchard D, Nasser JA, Strauss R, Meredith THerbal ephedra/caffeine for weight loss: a 6-month randomized safety and efficacy trialInt J Obes Relat Metab Disord.(2002 May)
  157. Rose Hip - Andersson U, Berger K, Högberg A, Landin-Olsson M, Holm CEffects of rose hip intake on risk markers of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over investigation in obese personsEur J Clin Nutr.(2012 May)
  158. Fish Oil - Schuchardt JP, Neubronner J, Kressel G, Merkel M, von Schacky C, Hahn AModerate doses of EPA and DHA from re-esterified triacylglycerols but not from ethyl-esters lower fasting serum triacylglycerols in statin-treated dyslipidemic subjects: Results from a six month randomized controlled trialProstaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids.(2011 Dec)
  159. Fish Oil - Morgan WA, Raskin P, Rosenstock JA comparison of fish oil or corn oil supplements in hyperlipidemic subjects with NIDDMDiabetes Care.(1995 Jan)
  160. Eleuthero - Lee YJ, Chung HY, Kwak HK, Yoon SThe effects of A. senticosus supplementation on serum lipid profiles, biomarkers of oxidative stress, and lymphocyte DNA damage in postmenopausal womenBiochem Biophys Res Commun.(2008 Oct 10)
  161. Astaxanthin - Chen JT, Kotani KEffects of Astaxanthin on Liver and Leukocyte Parameters in Healthy Climacteric Women: Preliminary DataJ Med Food.(2017 Jul)
  162. Conjugated Linoleic Acid - Racine NM, Watras AC, Carrel AL, Allen DB, McVean JJ, Clark RR, O'Brien AR, O'Shea M, Scott CE, Schoeller DAEffect of conjugated linoleic acid on body fat accretion in overweight or obese childrenAm J Clin Nutr.(2010 May)
  163. Black seed - Abdullah O Bamosa, Huda Kaatabi, Fatma M Lebdaa, Abdul-Muhssen Al Elq, Ali Al-SultanbEffect of Nigella sativa seeds on the glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitusIndian J Physiol Pharmacol.(Oct-Dec 2010)
  164. Cocoa Extract - Hamed MS, Gambert S, Bliden KP, Bailon O, Singla A, Antonino MJ, Hamed F, Tantry US, Gurbel PADark chocolate effect on platelet activity, C-reactive protein and lipid profile: a pilot studySouth Med J.(2008 Dec)
  165. Fish Oil - M Gorety Jacobo-Cejudo, Roxana Valdés-Ramos, Ana L Guadarrama-López, Rosa-Virgen Pardo-Morales, Beatriz E Martínez-Carrillo, Laurence S HarbigeEffect of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation on Metabolic and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus PatientsNutrients.(2017 Jun 3)
  166. Conjugated Linoleic Acid - Anne J Wanders, Ingeborg A Brouwer, Els Siebelink, Martijn B KatanEffect of a high intake of conjugated linoleic acid on lipoprotein levels in healthy human subjectsPLoS One.(2010 Feb 3)
  167. Grape Seed Extract - Vigna GB, Costantini F, Aldini G, Carini M, Catapano A, Schena F, Tangerini A, Zanca R, Bombardelli E, Morazzoni P, Mezzetti A, Fellin R, Maffei Facino REffect of a standardized grape seed extract on low-density lipoprotein susceptibility to oxidation in heavy smokersMetabolism.(2003 Oct)
  168. Spirulina - Reyhaneh Yousefi, Azadeh Mottaghi, Atoosa SaidpourSpirulina platensis effectively ameliorates anthropometric measurements and obesity-related metabolic disorders in obese or overweight healthy individuals: A randomized controlled trialComplement Ther Med.(2018 Oct)
  169. Olive Leaf Extract - Castañer O, Covas MI, Khymenets O, Nyyssonen K, Konstantinidou V, Zunft HF, de la Torre R, Muñoz-Aguayo D, Vila J, Fitó MProtection of LDL from oxidation by olive oil polyphenols is associated with a downregulation of CD40-ligand expression and its downstream products in vivo in humansAm J Clin Nutr.(2012 May)
  170. L-Carnitine - Chen Y, Abbate M, Tang L, Cai G, Gong Z, Wei R, Zhou J, Chen XL-Carnitine supplementation for adults with end-stage kidney disease requiring maintenance hemodialysis: a systematic review and meta-analysisAm J Clin Nutr.(2014 Feb)
  171. Coenzyme Q10 - Singh RB, Neki NS, Kartikey K, Pella D, Kumar A, Niaz MA, Thakur ASEffect of coenzyme Q10 on risk of atherosclerosis in patients with recent myocardial infarctionMol Cell Biochem.(2003 Apr)
  172. Berberine - Derosa G, D'Angelo A, Bonaventura A, Bianchi L, Romano D, Maffioli PEffects of berberine on lipid profile in subjects with low cardiovascular riskExpert Opin Biol Ther.(2013 Apr)
  173. Grape Juice - Dohadwala MM, Hamburg NM, Holbrook M, Kim BH, Duess MA, Levit A, Titas M, Chung WB, Vincent FB, Caiano TL, Frame AA, Keaney JF Jr, Vita JAEffects of Concord grape juice on ambulatory blood pressure in prehypertension and stage 1 hypertensionAm J Clin Nutr.(2010 Nov)
  174. Vitamin B1 - Alaei-Shahmiri F, Soares MJ, Zhao Y, Sherriff JThe impact of thiamine supplementation on blood pressure, serum lipids and C-reactive protein in individuals with hyperglycemia: a randomised, double-blind cross-over trialDiabetes Metab Syndr.(2015 Oct-Dec)
  175. Red Clover Extract - Chedraui P, San Miguel G, Hidalgo L, Morocho N, Ross SEffect of Trifolium pratense-derived isoflavones on the lipid profile of postmenopausal women with increased body mass indexGynecol Endocrinol.(2008 Nov)
  176. Policosanol - Swanson B, Keithley JK, Sha BE, Fogg L, Nerad J, Novak RM, Adeyemi O, Spear GTPolicosanol for managing human immunodeficiency virus-related dyslipidemia in a medically underserved population: a randomized, controlled clinical trialAltern Ther Health Med.(2011 Mar-Apr)
  177. L-Carnitine - Giuseppe Derosa, Arrigo F G Cicero, Antonio Gaddi, Amedeo Mugellini, Leonardina Ciccarelli, Roberto FogariThe effect of L-carnitine on plasma lipoprotein(a) levels in hypercholesterolemic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitusClin Ther.(2003 May)
  178. Astaxanthin - Mashhadi NS, Zakerkish M, Mohammadiasl J, Zarei M, Mohammadshahi M, Haghighizadeh MHAstaxanthin improves glucose metabolism and reduces blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitusAsia Pac J Clin Nutr.(2018)
  179. Ketogenic Diet - Urbain P, Strom L, Morawski L, Wehrle A, Deibert P, Bertz HImpact of a 6-week non-energy-restricted ketogenic diet on physical fitness, body composition and biochemical parameters in healthy adultsNutr Metab (Lond).(2017 Feb 20)
  180. DHEA - Libè R, Barbetta L, Dall'Asta C, Salvaggio F, Gala C, Beck-Peccoz P, Ambrosi BEffects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation on hormonal, metabolic and behavioral status in patients with hypoadrenalismJ Endocrinol Invest.(2004 Sep)
  181. Soy Lecithin - Mourad AM, de Carvalho Pincinato E, Mazzola PG, Sabha M, Moriel PInfluence of soy lecithin administration on hypercholesterolemiaCholesterol.(2010)
  182. Fish Oil - Maki KC, Lawless AL, Kelley KM, Dicklin MR, Schild AL, Rains TMPrescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters reduce fasting and postprandial triglycerides and modestly reduce pancreatic β-cell response in subjects with primary hypertriglyceridemiaProstaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids.(2011 Sep-Oct)
  183. Curcumin - Campbell MS, Ouyang A, I M K, Charnigo RJ, Westgate PM, Fleenor BSInfluence of enhanced bioavailable curcumin on obesity-associated cardiovascular disease risk factors and arterial function: A double-blinded, randomized, controlled trialNutrition.(2019 Jun)
  184. L-Carnitine - Mansooreh Samimi, Mehri Jamilian, Faraneh Afshar Ebrahimi, Maryam Rahimi, Banafsheh Tajbakhsh, Zatollah AsemiOral carnitine supplementation reduces body weight and insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialClin Endocrinol (Oxf).(2016 Jun)
  185. Amla - Muhammad Shoaib Akhtar, Ayesha Ramzan, Amanat Ali, Maqsood AhmadEffect of Amla fruit (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) on blood glucose and lipid profile of normal subjects and type 2 diabetic patientsInt J Food Sci Nutr.(2011 Sep)
  186. L-Carnitine - Hadier M El-Sheikh, Sahar M El-Haggar, Tamer A ElbedewyComparative study to evaluate the effect of l-carnitine plus glimepiride versus glimepiride alone on insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patientsDiabetes Metab Syndr.(Jan-Feb 2019)
  187. Conjugated Linoleic Acid - Laso N, Brugué E, Vidal J, Ros E, Arnaiz JA, Carné X, Vidal S, Mas S, Deulofeu R, Lafuente AEffects of milk supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (isomers cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12) on body composition and metabolic syndrome componentsBr J Nutr.(2007 Oct)
  188. Chia seeds - Nieman DC, Cayea EJ, Austin MD, Henson DA, McAnulty SR, Jin FChia seed does not promote weight loss or alter disease risk factors in overweight adultsNutr Res.(2009 Jun)
  189. Yerba Mate - de Morais EC, Stefanuto A, Klein GA, Boaventura BC, de Andrade F, Wazlawik E, Di Pietro PF, Maraschin M, da Silva ELConsumption of yerba mate ( Ilex paraguariensis ) improves serum lipid parameters in healthy dyslipidemic subjects and provides an additional LDL-cholesterol reduction in individuals on statin therapyJ Agric Food Chem.(2009 Sep 23)
  190. Conjugated Linoleic Acid - Colakoglu S, Colakoglu M, Taneli F, Cetinoz F, Turkmen MCumulative effects of conjugated linoleic acid and exercise on endurance development, body composition, serum leptin and insulin levelsJ Sports Med Phys Fitness.(2006 Dec)
  191. Hesperidin - Rizza S, Muniyappa R, Iantorno M, Kim JA, Chen H, Pullikotil P, Senese N, Tesauro M, Lauro D, Cardillo C, Quon MJCitrus polyphenol hesperidin stimulates production of nitric oxide in endothelial cells while improving endothelial function and reducing inflammatory markers in patients with metabolic syndromeJ Clin Endocrinol Metab.(2011 May)
  192. Betaine - Schwab U, Alfthan G, Aro A, Uusitupa MLong-term effect of betaine on risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome in healthy subjectsEur J Clin Nutr.(2011 Jan)
  193. Curcumin - Yang H, Xu W, Zhou Z, Liu J, Li X, Chen L, Weng J, Yu ZCurcumin attenuates urinary excretion of albumin in type II diabetic patients with enhancing nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2) system and repressing inflammatory signaling efficaciesExp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes.(2015 Jun)
  194. Grape Juice - O'Byrne DJ, Devaraj S, Grundy SM, Jialal IComparison of the antioxidant effects of Concord grape juice flavonoids alpha-tocopherol on markers of oxidative stress in healthy adultsAm J Clin Nutr.(2002 Dec)
  195. Horse Chestnut - Rainer KochComparative study of Venostasin and Pycnogenol in chronic venous insufficiencyPhytother Res.(2002 Mar)
  196. Ashwagandha - Auddy, B, et alA Standardized Withania Somnifera Extract Significantly Reduces Stress-Related Parameters in Chronically Stressed Humans: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled StudyJ Am Nut Assn.()
  197. Betaine - Schwab U, Törrönen A, Toppinen L, Alfthan G, Saarinen M, Aro A, Uusitupa MBetaine supplementation decreases plasma homocysteine concentrations but does not affect body weight, body composition, or resting energy expenditure in human subjectsAm J Clin Nutr.(2002 Nov)
  198. Spirulina - Elias E Mazokopakis, Maria G Papadomanolaki, Andreas A Fousteris, Dimitrios A Kotsiris, Ioannis M Lampadakis, Emmanuel S GanotakisThe hepatoprotective and hypolipidemic effects of Spirulina ( Arthrospira platensis) supplementation in a Cretan population with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a prospective pilot studyAnn Gastroenterol.(2014)
  199. Red Clover Extract - Nestel P, Cehun M, Chronopoulos A, DaSilva L, Teede H, McGrath BA biochanin-enriched isoflavone from red clover lowers LDL cholesterol in menEur J Clin Nutr.(2004 Mar)
  200. Vegan Diet - Hana Kahleova, Andrea Tura, Martin Hill, Richard Holubkov, Neal D BarnardA Plant-Based Dietary Intervention Improves Beta-Cell Function and Insulin Resistance in Overweight Adults: A 16-Week Randomized Clinical TrialNutrients.(2018 Feb 9)
  201. Curcumin - Rahmani S, Asgary S, Askari G, Keshvari M, Hatamipour M, Feizi A, Sahebkar ATreatment of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease with Curcumin: A Randomized Placebo-controlled TrialPhytother Res.(2016 Sep)
  202. Chromium - Jamilian M, Asemi ZChromium Supplementation and the Effects on Metabolic Status in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled TrialAnn Nutr Metab.(2015)
  203. Green Coffee Extract - Watanabe T, Arai Y, Mitsui Y, Kusaura T, Okawa W, Kajihara Y, Saito IThe blood pressure-lowering effect and safety of chlorogenic acid from green coffee bean extract in essential hypertensionClin Exp Hypertens.(2006 Jul)
  204. Bitter Cucumber - Rahbar AR, Nabipour IThe hypolipidemic effect of Citrullus colocynthis on patients with hyperlipidemiaPak J Biol Sci.(2010 Dec 15)
  205. Vegan Diet - Yoko Yokoyama, Susan M Levin, Neal D BarnardAssociation between plant-based diets and plasma lipids: a systematic review and meta-analysisNutr Rev.(2017 Sep 1)
  206. Olive Leaf Extract - Susalit E, Agus N, Effendi I, Tjandrawinata RR, Nofiarny D, Perrinjaquet-Moccetti T, Verbruggen MOlive (Olea europaea) leaf extract effective in patients with stage-1 hypertension: comparison with CaptoprilPhytomedicine.(2011 Feb 15)
  207. Psyllium - Sierra M, García JJ, Fernández N, Diez MJ, Calle APTherapeutic effects of psyllium in type 2 diabetic patientsEur J Clin Nutr.(2002 Sep)
  208. Boron - Rogoveanu OC, Mogoşanu GD, Bejenaru C, Bejenaru LE, Croitoru O, Neamţu J, Pietrzkowski Z, Reyes-Izquierdo T, Biţă A, Scorei ID, Scorei RIEffects of Calcium Fructoborate on Levels of C-Reactive Protein, Total Cholesterol, Low-Density Lipoprotein, Triglycerides, IL-1β, IL-6, and MCP-1: a Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical StudyBiol Trace Elem Res.(2015 Feb)
  209. Ecklonia Cava - Lee DH, Park MY, Shim BJ, Youn HJ, Hwang HJ, Shin HC, Jeon HKEffects of Ecklonia cava Polyphenol in Individuals with Hypercholesterolemia: A Pilot StudyJ Med Food.(2012 Nov)
  210. Lactobacillus Reuteri - Wolf BW, Wheeler KB, Ataya DG, Garleb KASafety and tolerance of Lactobacillus reuteri supplementation to a population infected with the human immunodeficiency virusFood Chem Toxicol.(1998 Dec)
  211. Blueberry - Stull AJ, Cash KC, Johnson WD, Champagne CM, Cefalu WTBioactives in blueberries improve insulin sensitivity in obese, insulin-resistant men and womenJ Nutr.(2010 Oct)
  212. Red Clover Extract - Atkinson C, Oosthuizen W, Scollen S, Loktionov A, Day NE, Bingham SAModest protective effects of isoflavones from a red clover-derived dietary supplement on cardiovascular disease risk factors in perimenopausal women, and evidence of an interaction with ApoE genotype in 49-65 year-old womenJ Nutr.(2004 Jul)
  213. Vitamin C - Mason SA, Rasmussen B, van Loon LJC, Salmon J, Wadley GDAscorbic acid supplementation improves postprandial glycaemic control and blood pressure in individuals with type 2 diabetes: Findings of a randomized cross-over trialDiabetes Obes Metab.(2019 Mar)
  214. 16:8 Intermittent Fasting - Kelsey Gabel, Jarrad Marcell, Kate Cares, Faiza Kalam, Sofia Cienfuegos, Mark Ezpeleta, Krista A VaradyEffect of time restricted feeding on the gut microbiome in adults with obesity: A pilot studyNutr Health.(2020 Jun)
  215. Black seed - Bin Sayeed MS, Asaduzzaman M, Morshed H, Hossain MM, Kadir MF, Rahman MRThe effect of Nigella sativa Linn. seed on memory, attention and cognition in healthy human volunteersJ Ethnopharmacol.(2013 Jul 30)
  216. Grape Seed Extract - Sivaprakasapillai B, Edirisinghe I, Randolph J, Steinberg F, Kappagoda TEffect of grape seed extract on blood pressure in subjects with the metabolic syndromeMetabolism.(2009 Dec)
  217. Royal Jelly - Georgiev DB, Metka M, Huber JC, Goudev AR, Manassiev NEffects of an herbal medication containing bee products on menopausal symptoms and cardiovascular risk markers: results of a pilot open-uncontrolled trialMedGenMed.(2004 Dec 16)
  218. Grape Juice - Albers AR, Varghese S, Vitseva O, Vita JA, Freedman JEThe antiinflammatory effects of purple grape juice consumption in subjects with stable coronary artery diseaseArterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol.(2004 Nov)
  219. Pomegranate seed oil - Yuan G, Sinclair AJ, Xu C, Li DIncorporation and metabolism of punicic acid in healthy young humansMol Nutr Food Res.(2009 Oct)
  220. Theaflavins - Trautwein EA, Du Y, Meynen E, Yan X, Wen Y, Wang H, Molhuizen HOPurified black tea theaflavins and theaflavins/catechin supplements did not affect serum lipids in healthy individuals with mildly to moderately elevated cholesterol concentrationsEur J Nutr.(2010 Feb)
  221. Garlic - K Rahman, D BillingtonDietary supplementation with aged garlic extract inhibits ADP-induced platelet aggregation in humansJ Nutr.(2000 Nov)
  222. Chromium - Kleefstra N, Houweling ST, Bakker SJ, Verhoeven S, Gans RO, Meyboom-de Jong B, Bilo HJChromium treatment has no effect in patients with type 2 diabetes in a Western population: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialDiabetes Care.(2007 May)
  223. Apple Cider Vinegar - Oanetta, C. Jonk, Y, Shapiro, AProspective randomized clinical trial evaluating the impact of vinegar on lipids in non-diabeticsWorld J. Cardiovasc. Dis.()
  224. Garlic - Budoff MJ, Takasu J, Flores FR, Niihara Y, Lu B, Lau BH, Rosen RT, Amagase HInhibiting progression of coronary calcification using Aged Garlic Extract in patients receiving statin therapy: a preliminary studyPrev Med.(2004 Nov)
  225. Kefir - GÖLÜNÜK, S et alEffects of traditional fermented beverages on some blood parameters in aerobic exercises.Biomedical Research.()
  226. 16:8 Intermittent Fasting - Kelsey Gabel, Kristin K Hoddy, Nicole Haggerty, Jeehee Song, Cynthia M Kroeger, John F Trepanowski, Satchidananda Panda, Krista A VaradyEffects of 8-hour time restricted feeding on body weight and metabolic disease risk factors in obese adults: A pilot studyNutr Healthy Aging.(2018 Jun 15)
  227. L-Carnitine - M Florentin, M S Elisaf, C V Rizos, V Nikolaou, E Bilianou, C Pitsavos, E N LiberopoulosL-Carnitine/Simvastatin Reduces Lipoprotein (a) Levels Compared with Simvastatin Monotherapy: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled StudyLipids.(2017 Jan)
  228. Curcumin - Panahi Y, Khalili N, Hosseini MS, Abbasinazari M, Sahebkar ALipid-modifying effects of adjunctive therapy with curcuminoids-piperine combination in patients with metabolic syndrome: results of a randomized controlled trialComplement Ther Med.(2014 Oct)
  229. Cocoa Extract - Lívia de Paula Nogueira, Marcela Paranhos Knibel, Márcia Regina Simas Gonçalves Torres, José Firmino Nogueira Neto, Antonio Felipe SanjulianiConsumption of high-polyphenol dark chocolate improves endothelial function in individuals with stage 1 hypertension and excess body weightInt J Hypertens.(2012)
  230. Cocoa Extract - Di Renzo L, Rizzo M, Sarlo F, Colica C, Iacopino L, Domino E, Sergi D, De Lorenzo AEffects of dark chocolate in a population of normal weight obese women: a pilot studyEur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci.(2013 Aug)
  231. Grape Juice - Chou EJ, Keevil JG, Aeschlimann S, Wiebe DA, Folts JD, Stein JHEffect of ingestion of purple grape juice on endothelial function in patients with coronary heart diseaseAm J Cardiol.(2001 Sep 1)
  232. Inositol - Minozzi M, D'Andrea G, Unfer VTreatment of hirsutism with myo-inositol: a prospective clinical studyReprod Biomed Online.(2008 Oct)
  233. Ketogenic Diet - Noakes M, Foster PR, Keogh JB, James AP, Mamo JC, Clifton PMComparison of isocaloric very low carbohydrate/high saturated fat and high carbohydrate/low saturated fat diets on body composition and cardiovascular riskNutr Metab (Lond).(2006 Jan 11)
  234. Green Tea Extract - Matsuyama T, Tanaka Y, Kamimaki I, Nagao T, Tokimitsu ICatechin safely improved higher levels of fatness, blood pressure, and cholesterol in childrenObesity (Silver Spring).(2008 Jun)
  235. Melatonin - Koziróg M, Poliwczak AR, Duchnowicz P, Koter-Michalak M, Sikora J, Broncel MMelatonin treatment improves blood pressure, lipid profile, and parameters of oxidative stress in patients with metabolic syndromeJ Pineal Res.(2011 Apr)
  236. Nattokinase - Yang NC, Chou CW, Chen CY, Hwang KL, Yang YCCombined nattokinase with red yeast rice but not nattokinase alone has potent effects on blood lipids in human subjects with hyperlipidemia.Asia Pac J Clin Nutr.(2009)
  237. Red Clover Extract - Nestel PJ, Pomeroy S, Kay S, Komesaroff P, Behrsing J, Cameron JD, West LIsoflavones from red clover improve systemic arterial compliance but not plasma lipids in menopausal womenJ Clin Endocrinol Metab.(1999 Mar)
  238. Fish Oil - Dawczynski C, Martin L, Wagner A, Jahreis Gn-3 LC-PUFA-enriched dairy products are able to reduce cardiovascular risk factors: a double-blind, cross-over studyClin Nutr.(2010 Oct)
  239. Paleolithic Diet - C Mellberg, S Sandberg, M Ryberg, M Eriksson, S Brage, C Larsson, T Olsson, B LindahlLong-term effects of a Palaeolithic-type diet in obese postmenopausal women: a 2-year randomized trialEur J Clin Nutr.(2014 Mar)
  240. Garlic - Avci A, Atli T, Ergüder IB, Varli M, Devrim E, Aras S, Durak IEffects of garlic consumption on plasma and erythrocyte antioxidant parameters in elderly subjectsGerontology.(2008)
  241. Vitamin B3 - AIM-HIGH Investigators, Boden WE, Probstfield JL, Anderson T, Chaitman BR, Desvignes-Nickens P, Koprowicz K, McBride R, Teo K, Weintraub WNiacin in patients with low HDL cholesterol levels receiving intensive statin therapyN Engl J Med.(2011 Dec 15)
  242. Licorice - Bell ZW, Canale RE, Bloomer RJA dual investigation of the effect of dietary supplementation with licorice flavonoid oil on anthropometric and biochemical markers of health and adiposityLipids Health Dis.(2011 Feb 10)
  243. Garlic - Simons LA, Balasubramaniam S, von Konigsmark M, Parfitt A, Simons J, Peters WOn the effect of garlic on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in mild hypercholesterolaemiaAtherosclerosis.(1995 Mar)
  244. Grape Juice - Park YK, Lee SH, Park E, Kim JS, Kang MHChanges in antioxidant status, blood pressure, and lymphocyte DNA damage from grape juice supplementationAnn N Y Acad Sci.(2009 Aug)
  245. Vegan Diet - Neal D Barnard, Joshua Cohen, David J A Jenkins, Gabrielle Turner-McGrievy, Lise Gloede, Brent Jaster, Kim Seidl, Amber A Green, Stanley TalpersA low-fat vegan diet improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized clinical trial in individuals with type 2 diabetesDiabetes Care.(2006 Aug)
  246. Policosanol - Castaño G, Más R, Fernández JC, Fernández L, Illnait J, López EEffects of policosanol on older patients with hypertension and type II hypercholesterolaemiaDrugs R D.(2002)
  247. Vitamin C - Mason SA, Della Gatta PA, Snow RJ, Russell AP, Wadley GDAscorbic acid supplementation improves skeletal muscle oxidative stress and insulin sensitivity in people with type 2 diabetes: Findings of a randomized controlled studyFree Radic Biol Med.(2016 Apr)
  248. Chromium - Ali A, Ma Y, Reynolds J, Wise JP Sr, Inzucchi SE, Katz DLChromium effects on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in persons at risk for diabetes mellitusEndocr Pract.(2011 Jan-Feb)
  249. Black seed - Datau EA, Wardhana, Surachmanto EE, Pandelaki K, Langi JA, FiasEfficacy of Nigella sativa on serum free testosterone and metabolic disturbances in central obese maleActa Med Indones.(2010 Jul)
  250. Cocoa Extract - Crews WD Jr, Harrison DW, Wright JWA double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of the effects of dark chocolate and cocoa on variables associated with neuropsychological functioning and cardiovascular health: clinical findings from a sample of healthy, cognitively intact older adultsAm J Clin Nutr.(2008 Apr)
  251. Fish Oil - Connor WE, Prince MJ, Ullmann D, Riddle M, Hatcher L, Smith FE, Wilson DThe hypotriglyceridemic effect of fish oil in adult-onset diabetes without adverse glucose controlAnn N Y Acad Sci.(1993 Jun 14)
  252. Kefir - Ghizi ACdS et alKefir improves blood parameters and reduces cardiovascular risks in patients with metabolic syndromePharmaNutrition.()
  253. Krill Oil - Stine M Ulven, Bente Kirkhus, Amandine Lamglait, Samar Basu, Elisabeth Elind, Trond Haider, Kjetil Berge, Hogne Vik, Jan I PedersenMetabolic effects of krill oil are essentially similar to those of fish oil but at lower dose of EPA and DHA, in healthy volunteersLipids.(2011 Jan)
  254. Pycnogenol - Devaraj S, Vega-López S, Kaul N, Schönlau F, Rohdewald P, Jialal ISupplementation with a pine bark extract rich in polyphenols increases plasma antioxidant capacity and alters the plasma lipoprotein profileLipids.(2002 Oct)
  255. Fish Oil - Bernstein AM, Ding EL, Willett WC, Rimm EBA meta-analysis shows that docosahexaenoic acid from algal oil reduces serum triglycerides and increases HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol in persons without coronary heart diseaseJ Nutr.(2012 Jan)
  256. Hesperidin - Miwa Y, Yamada M, Sunayama T, Mitsuzumi H, Tsuzaki Y, Chaen H, Mishima Y, Kibata MEffects of glucosyl hesperidin on serum lipids in hyperlipidemic subjects: preferential reduction in elevated serum triglyceride levelJ Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo).(2004 Jun)
  257. Bhringaraj - Vasavi Rangineni, D Sharada, Saileshnath SaxenaDiuretic, hypotensive, and hypocholesterolemic effects of Eclipta alba in mild hypertensive subjects: a pilot studyJ Med Food.(2007 Mar)
  258. Astaxanthin - Yoshida H, Yanai H, Ito K, Tomono Y, Koikeda T, Tsukahara H, Tada NAdministration of natural astaxanthin increases serum HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin in subjects with mild hyperlipidemiaAtherosclerosis.(2010 Apr)
  259. African Mango - Ngondi JL, Oben JE, Minka SRThe effect of Irvingia gabonensis seeds on body weight and blood lipids of obese subjects in CameroonLipids Health Dis.(2005 May 25)
  260. L-Carnitine - Eun Shil Hong, Eun Ky Kim, Seon Mee Kang, Ah Reum Khang, Sung Hee Choi, Kyong Soo Park, Hak Chul Jang, Soo LimEffect of carnitine-orotate complex on glucose metabolism and fatty liver: a double-blind, placebo-controlled studyJ Gastroenterol Hepatol.(2014)
  261. Vitamin C - Kim MK, Sasaki S, Sasazuki S, Okubo S, Hayashi M, Tsugane SLong-term vitamin C supplementation has no markedly favourable effect on serum lipids in middle-aged Japanese subjectsBr J Nutr.(2004 Jan)
  262. Paleolithic Diet - Mohammad Hassan Sohouli, Somaye Fatahi, Abolfazl Lari, Mojtaba Lotfi, Maryam Seifishahpar, Mihnea-Alexandru Găman, Seyedeh Tayebeh Rahideh, Saud K AlBatati, Abdullah M AlHossan, Sara A Alkhalifa, Sara A Alomar, Ahmed Abu-ZaidThe effect of paleolithic diet on glucose metabolism and lipid profile among patients with metabolic disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trialsCrit Rev Food Sci Nutr.(2021 Jan 25)
  263. Olive Leaf Extract - de Bock M, Derraik JG, Brennan CM, Biggs JB, Morgan PE, Hodgkinson SC, Hofman PL, Cutfield WSOlive (Olea europaea L.) Leaf Polyphenols Improve Insulin Sensitivity in Middle-Aged Overweight Men: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover TrialPLoS One.(2013)
  264. Vegan Diet - Karen Rees, Lena Al-Khudairy, Andrea Takeda, Saverio StrangesVegan dietary pattern for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseasesCochrane Database Syst Rev.(2021 Feb 25)
  265. Policosanol - Cubeddu LX, Cubeddu RJ, Heimowitz T, Restrepo B, Lamas GA, Weinberg GBComparative lipid-lowering effects of policosanol and atorvastatin: a randomized, parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialAm Heart J.(2006 Nov)
  266. L-Carnitine - Jun-jie Zhang, Zhi-bing Wu, You-jin Cai, Bin Ke, Ying-juan Huang, Chao-ping Qiu, Yu-bing Yang, Lan-ying Shi, Jian QinL-carnitine ameliorated fasting-induced fatigue, hunger, and metabolic abnormalities in patients with metabolic syndrome: a randomized controlled studyNutr J.(2014 Nov 26)
  267. Curcumin - Rahimi HR, Mohammadpour AH, Dastani M, Jaafari MR, Abnous K, Ghayour Mobarhan M, Kazemi Oskuee RThe effect of nano-curcumin on HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, and lipid profile in diabetic subjects: a randomized clinical trialAvicenna J Phytomed.(2016 Sep-Oct)
  268. Chromium - Aghdassi E, Arendt BM, Salit IE, Mohammed SS, Jalali P, Bondar H, Allard JPIn patients with HIV-infection, chromium supplementation improves insulin resistance and other metabolic abnormalities: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trialCurr HIV Res.(2010 Mar)
  269. Green Tea Extract - Hsu CH, Tsai TH, Kao YH, Hwang KC, Tseng TY, Chou PEffect of green tea extract on obese women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trialClin Nutr.(2008 Jun)
  270. Vanadium - N Cohen, M Halberstam, P Shlimovich, C J Chang, H Shamoon, L RossettiOral vanadyl sulfate improves hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitusJ Clin Invest.(1995 Jun)
  271. Curcumin - Ferguson JJA, Stojanovski E, MacDonald-Wicks L, Garg MLCurcumin potentiates cholesterol-lowering effects of phytosterols in hypercholesterolaemic individuals. A randomised controlled trialMetabolism.(2018 May)
  272. Quercetin - Randi L. Edwards, Tiffany Lyon, Sheldon E. Litwin, Alexander Rabovsky, J. David Symons, and Thunder JaliliQuercetin Reduces Blood Pressure in Hypertensive SubjectsAmerican Society for Nutrition.()
  273. Yerba Mate - Brunna Cristina Bremer Boaventura, Patrícia Faria Di Pietro, Aliny Stefanuto, Graziela Alessandra Klein, Elayne Cristina de Morais, Fernanda de Andrade, Elisabeth Wazlawik, Edson Luiz da SilvaAssociation of mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) intake and dietary intervention and effects on oxidative stress biomarkers of dyslipidemic subjectsNutrition.(2012 Jun)
  274. Conjugated Linoleic Acid - Michelle L Asp, Angela L Collene, Leigh E Norris, Rachel M Cole, Michael B Stout, Szu-Yu Tang, Jason C Hsu, Martha A BeluryTime-dependent effects of safflower oil to improve glycemia, inflammation and blood lipids in obese, post-menopausal women with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-masked, crossover studyClin Nutr.(2011 Aug)
  275. Ketogenic Diet - Ranjan A, Schmidt S, Damm-Frydenberg C, Holst JJ, Madsbad S, Nørgaard KShort-term effects of a low carbohydrate diet on glycaemic variables and cardiovascular risk markers in patients with type 1 diabetes: A randomized open-label crossover trialDiabetes Obes Metab.(2017 Oct)
  276. Benfotiamine - Alkhalaf A, Klooster A, van Oeveren W, Achenbach U, Kleefstra N, Slingerland RJ, Mijnhout GS, Bilo HJ, Gans RO, Navis GJ, Bakker SJA double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial on benfotiamine treatment in patients with diabetic nephropathyDiabetes Care.(2010 Jul)
  277. Red Clover Extract - Howes JB, Sullivan D, Lai N, Nestel P, Pomeroy S, West L, Eden JA, Howes LGThe effects of dietary supplementation with isoflavones from red clover on the lipoprotein profiles of post menopausal women with mild to moderate hypercholesterolaemiaAtherosclerosis.(2000 Sep)
  279. Garlic - Steiner M, Khan AH, Holbert D, Lin RIA double-blind crossover study in moderately hypercholesterolemic men that compared the effect of aged garlic extract and placebo administration on blood lipidsAm J Clin Nutr.(1996 Dec)
  280. Curcumin - Panahi Y, Khalili N, Sahebi E, Namazi S, Reiner Ž, Majeed M, Sahebkar ACurcuminoids modify lipid profile in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled trialComplement Ther Med.(2017 Aug)
  281. 16:8 Intermittent Fasting - Dorothea Kesztyüs, Petra Cermak, Markus Gulich, Tibor KesztyüsAdherence to Time-Restricted Feeding and Impact on Abdominal Obesity in Primary Care Patients: Results of a Pilot Study in a Pre-Post DesignNutrients.(2019 Nov 21)
  282. Potatoes - Eunice Mah, Jacqueline A Schulz, Valerie N Kaden, Andrea L Lawless, Jose Rotor, Libertie B Mantilla, DeAnn J LiskaCashew consumption reduces total and LDL cholesterol: a randomized, crossover, controlled-feeding trialAm J Clin Nutr.(2017 May)
  283. Vitamin E - Meydani SN, Meydani M, Blumberg JB, Leka LS, Pedrosa M, Diamond R, Schaefer EJAssessment of the safety of supplementation with different amounts of vitamin E in healthy older adultsAm J Clin Nutr.(1998 Aug)
  284. Roselle - Gurrola-Díaz CM, García-López PM, Sánchez-Enríquez S, Troyo-Sanromán R, Andrade-González I, Gómez-Leyva JFEffects of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract powder and preventive treatment (diet) on the lipid profiles of patients with metabolic syndrome (MeSy)Phytomedicine.(2010 Jun)
  285. Policosanol - Backes JM, Gibson CA, Ruisinger JF, Moriarty PMModified-policosanol does not reduce plasma lipoproteins in hyperlipidemic patients when used alone or in combination with statin therapyLipids.(2011 Oct)
  286. 16:8 Intermittent Fasting - Grant M Tinsley, M Lane Moore, Austin J Graybeal, Antonio Paoli, Youngdeok Kim, Joaquin U Gonzales, John R Harry, Trisha A VanDusseldorp, Devin N Kennedy, Megan R CruzTime-restricted feeding plus resistance training in active females: a randomized trialAm J Clin Nutr.(2019 Sep 1)
  287. Artichoke Extract - P. Nazni , T. Poongodi Vijayakumar , P. Alagianambi and M. AmirthaveniHypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Effect of Cynara Scolymus among Selected Type 2 Diabetic IndividualsPakistan Journal of Nutrition.()
  288. Korean black raspberry - Ji Eun Lee, Eunkyo Park, Jung Eun Lee, Joong Hyuck Auh, Hyung-Kyoon Choi, Jaehwi Lee, Soomuk Cho, Jung-Hyun KimEffects of a Rubus coreanus Miquel supplement on plasma antioxidant capacity in healthy Korean menNutr Res Pract.(2011 Oct)
  289. Coenzyme Q10 - Serag H, El Wakeel L, Adly ACoenzyme Q10 administration has no effect on sICAM-1 and metabolic parameters of pediatrics with type 1 diabetes mellitusInt J Vitam Nutr Res.(2020 Jan 16)
  290. Saffron - Ali Sahraian, Sina Jelodar, Zahra Javid, Arash Mowla, Laaya AhmadzadehStudy the effects of saffron on depression and lipid profiles: A double blind comparative studyAsian J Psychiatr.(2016 Aug)
  291. Garlic - Kojuri J, Vosoughi AR, Akrami MEffects of anethum graveolens and garlic on lipid profile in hyperlipidemic patientsLipids Health Dis.(2007 Mar 1)
  292. Curcumin - Na LX, Li Y, Pan HZ, Zhou XL, Sun DJ, Meng M, Li XX, Sun CHCurcuminoids exert glucose-lowering effect in type 2 diabetes by decreasing serum free fatty acids: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trialMol Nutr Food Res.(2013 Sep)
  293. Saffron - Mostafa Asadollahi, Parisa Nikdokht, Boshra Hatef, Seyed Shahabeddin Sadr, Hedayat Sahraei, Farhad Assarzadegan, Gila Pirzad JahromiProtective properties of the aqueous extract of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in ischemic stroke, randomized clinical trialJ Ethnopharmacol.(2019 Jun 28)
  294. Zinc - Seet RC, Lee CY, Lim EC, Quek AM, Huang H, Huang SH, Looi WF, Long LH, Halliwell BOral zinc supplementation does not improve oxidative stress or vascular function in patients with type 2 diabetes with normal zinc levelsAtherosclerosis.(2011 Nov)
  295. Black Cohosh - Spangler L, Newton KM, Grothaus LC, Reed SD, Ehrlich K, LaCroix AZThe effects of black cohosh therapies on lipids, fibrinogen, glucose and insulinMaturitas.(2007 Jun 20)
  296. Chromium - Sharma S, Agrawal RP, Choudhary M, Jain S, Goyal S, Agarwal VBeneficial effect of chromium supplementation on glucose, HbA1C and lipid variables in individuals with newly onset type-2 diabetesJ Trace Elem Med Biol.(2011 Jul)
  297. Lactobacillus Reuteri - Jones ML, Martoni CJ, Prakash SCholesterol lowering and inhibition of sterol absorption by Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 30242: a randomized controlled trialEur J Clin Nutr.(2012 Nov)
  298. Rooibos - Marnewick JL, Rautenbach F, Venter I, Neethling H, Blackhurst DM, Wolmarans P, Macharia MEffects of rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) on oxidative stress and biochemical parameters in adults at risk for cardiovascular diseaseJ Ethnopharmacol.(2011 Jan 7)
  299. Spirulina - Park HJ, Lee YJ, Ryu HK, Kim MH, Chung HW, Kim WYA randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study to establish the effects of spirulina in elderly KoreansAnn Nutr Metab.(2008)
  300. Curcumin - Kocher A, Bohnert L, Schiborr C, Frank JHighly bioavailable micellar curcuminoids accumulate in blood, are safe and do not reduce blood lipids and inflammation markers in moderately hyperlipidemic individualsMol Nutr Food Res.(2016 Jul)
  301. Ashwagandha - B Andallu, B RadhikaHypoglycemic, diuretic and hypocholesterolemic effect of winter cherry (Withania somnifera, Dunal) rootIndian J Exp Biol.(2000 Jun)
  302. L-Carnitine - S Georgala, K H Schulpis, C Georgala, T MichasL-carnitine supplementation in patients with cystic acne on isotretinoin therapyJ Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol.(1999 Nov)
  303. Pyruvate - Stanko RT, Reynolds HR, Lonchar KD, Arch JEPlasma lipid concentrations in hyperlipidemic patients consuming a high-fat diet supplemented with pyruvate for 6 wkAm J Clin Nutr.(1992 Nov)
  304. Chromium - Pei D, Hsieh CH, Hung YJ, Li JC, Lee CH, Kuo SWThe influence of chromium chloride-containing milk to glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialMetabolism.(2006 Jul)
  305. Conjugated Linoleic Acid - Tricon S, Burdge GC, Jones EL, Russell JJ, El-Khazen S, Moretti E, Hall WL, Gerry AB, Leake DS, Grimble RF, Williams CM, Calder PC, Yaqoob PEffects of dairy products naturally enriched with cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid on the blood lipid profile in healthy middle-aged menAm J Clin Nutr.(2006 Apr)
  306. Saffron - Paria Azimi, Reza Ghiasvand, Awat Feizi, Mitra Hariri, Behnoud AbbasiEffects of Cinnamon, Cardamom, Saffron, and Ginger Consumption on Markers of Glycemic Control, Lipid Profile, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in Type 2 Diabetes PatientsRev Diabet Stud.(Fall-Winter 2014)
  307. Vitamin E - Roberts LJ 2nd, Oates JA, Linton MF, Fazio S, Meador BP, Gross MD, Shyr Y, Morrow JDThe relationship between dose of vitamin E and suppression of oxidative stress in humansFree Radic Biol Med.(2007 Nov 15)
  308. Cocoa Extract - Davison K, Coates AM, Buckley JD, Howe PREffect of cocoa flavanols and exercise on cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight and obese subjectsInt J Obes (Lond).(2008 Aug)
  309. Gamma Oryzanol - Berger A, Rein D, Schäfer A, Monnard I, Gremaud G, Lambelet P, Bertoli CSimilar cholesterol-lowering properties of rice bran oil, with varied gamma-oryzanol, in mildly hypercholesterolemic menEur J Nutr.(2005 Mar)
  310. Curcumin - Amin F, Islam N, Anila N, Gilani AHClinical efficacy of the co-administration of Turmeric and Black seeds (Kalongi) in metabolic syndrome - a double blind randomized controlled trial - TAK-MetS trialComplement Ther Med.(2015 Apr)
  311. Black seed - Najmi A, Nasiruddin M, Khan RA, Haque SFEffect of Nigella sativa oil on various clinical and biochemical parameters of insulin resistance syndromeInt J Diabetes Dev Ctries.(2008 Jan)
  312. Cocoa Extract - Tokede OA, Gaziano JM, Djoussé LEffects of cocoa products/dark chocolate on serum lipids: a meta-analysisEur J Clin Nutr.(2011 Aug)
  313. L-Carnitine - Jee Hyun An, Yoon Jung Kim, Kyeong Jin Kim, Sun Hwa Kim, Nam Hoon Kim, Hee Young Kim, Nan Hee Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Dong Seop Choi, Sin Gon KimL-carnitine supplementation for the management of fatigue in patients with hypothyroidism on levothyroxine treatment: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialEndocr J.(2016 Oct 29)
  314. Spirulina - Reihaneh Zeinalian, Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi, Atefeh Shariat, Maryam Saghafi-AslThe effects of Spirulina Platensis on anthropometric indices, appetite, lipid profile and serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in obese individuals: a randomized double blinded placebo controlled trialBMC Complement Altern Med.(2017 Apr 21)
  315. Berberine - Dong H, Wang N, Zhao L, Lu FBerberine in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systemic review and meta-analysisEvid Based Complement Alternat Med.(2012)
  316. Berberine - Yan HM, Xia MF, Wang Y, Chang XX, Yao XZ, Rao SX, Zeng MS, Tu YF, Feng R, Jia WP, Liu J, Deng W, Jiang JD, Gao XEfficacy of Berberine in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver DiseasePLoS One.(2015 Aug 7)
  317. Reishi - Wachtel-Galor S, Tomlinson B, Benzie IFGanoderma lucidum ("Lingzhi"), a Chinese medicinal mushroom: biomarker responses in a controlled human supplementation studyBr J Nutr.(2004 Feb)
  318. Cocoa Extract - Wan Y, Vinson JA, Etherton TD, Proch J, Lazarus SA, Kris-Etherton PMEffects of cocoa powder and dark chocolate on LDL oxidative susceptibility and prostaglandin concentrations in humansAm J Clin Nutr.(2001 Nov)
  319. Maca - Meissner HO, Mscisz A, Reich-Bilinska H, Kapczynski W, Mrozikiewicz P, Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska T, Kedzia B, Lowicka A, Barchia IHormone-Balancing Effect of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon): (II) Physiological and Symptomatic Responses of Early-Postmenopausal Women to Standardized doses of Maca in Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Multi-Centre Clinical StudyInt J Biomed Sci.(2006 Dec)
  320. Green Tea Extract - Wu AH, Spicer D, Stanczyk FZ, Tseng CC, Yang CS, Pike MCEffect of 2-month controlled green tea intervention on lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and hormone levels in healthy postmenopausal womenCancer Prev Res (Phila).(2012 Mar)
  321. Ketogenic Diet - Volek JS, Sharman MJ, Gómez AL, DiPasquale C, Roti M, Pumerantz A, Kraemer WJComparison of a very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diet on fasting lipids, LDL subclasses, insulin resistance, and postprandial lipemic responses in overweight womenJ Am Coll Nutr.(2004 Apr)
  322. OMAD And 20:4 Intermittent Fasting - B D Horne, J B Muhlestein, D L Lappé, H T May, J F Carlquist, O Galenko, K D Brunisholz, J L AndersonRandomized cross-over trial of short-term water-only fasting: metabolic and cardiovascular consequencesNutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis.(2013 Nov)
  323. Astaxanthin - Choi HD, Youn YK, Shin WGPositive effects of astaxanthin on lipid profiles and oxidative stress in overweight subjectsPlant Foods Hum Nutr.(2011 Nov)
  324. Red Clover Extract - Blakesmith SJ, Lyons-Wall PM, George C, Joannou GE, Petocz P, Samman SEffects of supplementation with purified red clover (Trifolium pratense) isoflavones on plasma lipids and insulin resistance in healthy premenopausal womenBr J Nutr.(2003 Apr)
  325. Tetradecyl Thioacetic Acid - Reidar J Pettersen, Mohamed Salem, Jon Skorve, Rune J Ulvik, Rolf K Berge, Jan Erik NordrehaugPharmacology and safety of tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA): phase-1 studyJ Cardiovasc Pharmacol.(2008 Apr)
  326. Resveratrol - Magyar K, Halmosi R, Palfi A, Feher G, Czopf L, Fulop A, Battyany I, Sumegi B, Toth K, Szabados ECardioprotection by resveratrol: A human clinical trial in patients with stable coronary artery diseaseClin Hemorheol Microcirc.(2012 Jan 1)
  327. Saffron - Marzie Zilaee, Seyed Ahmad Hosseini, Sima Jafarirad, Farhad Abolnezhadian, Bahman Cheraghian, Foroogh Namjoyan, Ataollah GhadiriAn evaluation of the effects of saffron supplementation on the asthma clinical symptoms and asthma severity in patients with mild and moderate persistent allergic asthma: a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trialRespir Res.(2019 Feb 22)
  328. Policosanol - Dulin MF, Hatcher LF, Sasser HC, Barringer TAPolicosanol is ineffective in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia: a randomized controlled trialAm J Clin Nutr.(2006 Dec)
  329. Conjugated Linoleic Acid - Venkatramanan S, Joseph SV, Chouinard PY, Jacques H, Farnworth ER, Jones PJMilk enriched with conjugated linoleic acid fails to alter blood lipids or body composition in moderately overweight, borderline hyperlipidemic individualsJ Am Coll Nutr.(2010 Apr)
  330. Hesperidin - Demonty I, Lin Y, Zebregs YE, Vermeer MA, van der Knaap HC, Jäkel M, Trautwein EAThe citrus flavonoids hesperidin and naringin do not affect serum cholesterol in moderately hypercholesterolemic men and womenJ Nutr.(2010 Sep)
  331. DHEA - Igwebuike A, Irving BA, Bigelow ML, Short KR, McConnell JP, Nair KSLack of dehydroepiandrosterone effect on a combined endurance and resistance exercise program in postmenopausal womenJ Clin Endocrinol Metab.(2008 Feb)
  332. Vitamin C - Gutierrez AD, Duran-Valdez E, Robinson I, de Serna DG, Schade DSDoes short-term vitamin C reduce cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes?Endocr Pract.(2013 Sep-Oct)
  333. Shilajit - Sharma P, Jha J, Shrinivas V, Dwivedi LK, Suresh P, Sinha MShilajit: evalution of its effects on blood chemistry of normal human subjectsAnc Sci Life.(2003 Oct)
  334. Guggul - Szapary PO, Wolfe ML, Bloedon LT, Cucchiara AJ, DerMarderosian AH, Cirigliano MD, Rader DJGuggulipid for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia: a randomized controlled trialJAMA.(2003 Aug 13)
  335. Red Clover Extract - Schult TM, Ensrud KE, Blackwell T, Ettinger B, Wallace R, Tice JAEffect of isoflavones on lipids and bone turnover markers in menopausal womenMaturitas.(2004 Jul 15)
  336. Coenzyme Q10 - Abdollahzad H, et alCoenzyme Q10 supplementation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: Are there any effects on cardiovascular risk factors?Eur J Integr Med..()
  337. Paleolithic Diet - Barbara Frączek, Aleksandra Pięta, Adrian Burda, Paulina Mazur-Kurach, Florentyna TyrałaPaleolithic Diet-Effect on the Health Status and Performance of Athletes?Nutrients.(2021 Mar 21)
  338. Fish Oil - Oelrich B, Dewell A, Gardner CDEffect of fish oil supplementation on serum triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and LDL subfractions in hypertriglyceridemic adultsNutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis.(2011 Sep 15)
  339. Vitamin E - Singh I, Turner AH, Sinclair AJ, Li D, Hawley JAEffects of gamma-tocopherol supplementation on thrombotic risk factorsAsia Pac J Clin Nutr.(2007)
  340. Ginger - Alizadeh-Navaei R, Roozbeh F, Saravi M, Pouramir M, Jalali F, Moghadamnia AAInvestigation of the effect of ginger on the lipid levels. A double blind controlled clinical trialSaudi Med J.(2008 Sep)
  341. Fish Oil - L Axelrod, J Camuso, E Williams, K Kleinman, E Briones, D SchoenfeldEffects of a Small Quantity of omega-3 Fatty Acids on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in NIDDM. A Randomized, Prospective, Double-Blind, Controlled StudyDiabetes Care.(1994 Jan)
  342. Chromium - Kleefstra N, Houweling ST, Jansman FG, Groenier KH, Gans RO, Meyboom-de Jong B, Bakker SJ, Bilo HJChromium treatment has no effect in patients with poorly controlled, insulin-treated type 2 diabetes in an obese Western population: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialDiabetes Care.(2006 Mar)
  343. Fish Oil - Maki KC, Lawless AL, Kelley KM, Dicklin MR, Kaden VN, Schild AL, Rains TM, Marshall JWEffects of prescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters on fasting lipid profile in subjects with primary hypercholesterolemiaJ Cardiovasc Pharmacol.(2011 Apr)
  344. Zinc - Hashemipour M, Kelishadi R, Shapouri J, Sarrafzadegan N, Amini M, Tavakoli N, Movahedian-Attar A, Mirmoghtadaee P, Poursafa PEffect of zinc supplementation on insulin resistance and components of the metabolic syndrome in prepubertal obese childrenHormones (Athens).(2009 Oct-Dec)
  345. Yerba Mate - Klein GA, Stefanuto A, Boaventura BC, de Morais EC, Cavalcante Lda S, de Andrade F, Wazlawik E, Di Pietro PF, Maraschin M, da Silva ELMate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) improves glycemic and lipid profiles of type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes individuals: a pilot studyJ Am Coll Nutr.(2011 Oct)
  346. Creatine - Schilling BK, Stone MH, Utter A, Kearney JT, Johnson M, Coglianese R, Smith L, O'Bryant HS, Fry AC, Starks M, Keith R, Stone MECreatine supplementation and health variables: a retrospective studyMed Sci Sports Exerc.(2001 Feb)
  347. Vegan Diet - Hana Kahleova, James McCann, Jihad Alwarith, Emilie Rembert, Andrea Tura, Richard Holubkov, Neal D BarnardA plant-based diet in overweight adults in a 16-week randomized clinical trial: The role of dietary acid loadClin Nutr ESPEN.(2021 Aug)
  348. Fish Oil - Fakhrzadeh H, Ghaderpanahi M, Sharifi F, Mirarefin M, Badamchizade Z, Kamrani AA, Larijani BThe effects of low dose n-3 fatty acids on serum lipid profiles and insulin resistance of the elderly: a randomized controlled clinical trialInt J Vitam Nutr Res.(2010 Apr)
  349. L-Carnitine - Bloomer RJ, Tschume LC, Smith WAGlycine propionyl-L-carnitine modulates lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide in human subjectsInt J Vitam Nutr Res.(2009 May)
  350. Fish Oil - Schirmer SH, Werner CM, Binder SB, Faas ME, Custodis F, Böhm M, Laufs UEffects of omega-3 fatty acids on postprandial triglycerides and monocyte activationAtherosclerosis.(2012 Nov)
  351. Zinc - Kelishadi R, Hashemipour M, Adeli K, Tavakoli N, Movahedian-Attar A, Shapouri J, Poursafa P, Rouzbahani AEffect of zinc supplementation on markers of insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and inflammation among prepubescent children with metabolic syndromeMetab Syndr Relat Disord.(2010 Dec)
  352. Cocoa Extract - Grassi D, Desideri G, Necozione S, Lippi C, Casale R, Properzi G, Blumberg JB, Ferri CBlood pressure is reduced and insulin sensitivity increased in glucose-intolerant, hypertensive subjects after 15 days of consuming high-polyphenol dark chocolateJ Nutr.(2008 Sep)
  353. Ketogenic Diet - Partsalaki I, Karvela A, Spiliotis BEMetabolic impact of a ketogenic diet compared to a hypocaloric diet in obese children and adolescentsJ Pediatr Endocrinol Metab.(2012)
  354. Psyllium - Rodríguez-Morán M, Guerrero-Romero F, Lazcano-Burciaga GLipid- and glucose-lowering efficacy of Plantago Psyllium in type II diabetesJ Diabetes Complications.(1998 Sep-Oct)
  355. Soy Protein - Sonia Blanco Mejia, Mark Messina, Siying S Li, Effie Viguiliouk, Laura Chiavaroli, Tauseef A Khan, Korbua Srichaikul, Arash Mirrahimi, John L Sievenpiper, Penny Kris-Etherton, David J A JenkinsA Meta-Analysis of 46 Studies Identified by the FDA Demonstrates That Soy Protein Decreases Circulating LDL and Total Cholesterol Concentrations in AdultsJ Nutr.(2019 Jun 1)
  356. Ketogenic Diet - Yancy WS Jr, Westman EC, McDuffie JR, Grambow SC, Jeffreys AS, Bolton J, Chalecki A, Oddone EZA randomized trial of a low-carbohydrate diet vs orlistat plus a low-fat diet for weight lossArch Intern Med.(2010 Jan 25)
  357. Pterostilbene - Riche DM, Riche KD, Blackshear CT, McEwen CL, Sherman JJ, Wofford MR, Griswold MEPterostilbene on metabolic parameters: a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trialEvid Based Complement Alternat Med.(2014)
  358. Microlactin - Sharpe SJ, Gamble GD, Sharpe DNCholesterol-lowering and blood pressure effects of immune milkAm J Clin Nutr.(1994 Apr)
  359. Fish Oil - Ciubotaru I, Lee YS, Wander RCDietary fish oil decreases C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and triacylglycerol to HDL-cholesterol ratio in postmenopausal women on HRTJ Nutr Biochem.(2003 Sep)
  360. L-Carnitine - Aida Malek Mahdavi, Reza Mahdavi, Sousan Kolahi, Maryam Zemestani, Amir-Mansour VatankhahL-Carnitine supplementation improved clinical status without changing oxidative stress and lipid profile in women with knee osteoarthritisNutr Res.(2015 Aug)
  361. Conjugated Linoleic Acid - Sato K, Shinohara N, Honma T, Ito J, Arai T, Nosaka N, Aoyama T, Tsuduki T, Ikeda IThe change in conjugated linoleic acid concentration in blood of Japanese fed a conjugated linoleic acid dietJ Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo).(2011)
  362. Spirulina - Patricia V Torres-Duran, Aldo Ferreira-Hermosillo, Marco A Juarez-OropezaAntihyperlipemic and antihypertensive effects of Spirulina maxima in an open sample of Mexican population: a preliminary reportLipids Health Dis.(2007 Nov 26)
  363. Cocoa Extract - Grassi D, Lippi C, Necozione S, Desideri G, Ferri CShort-term administration of dark chocolate is followed by a significant increase in insulin sensitivity and a decrease in blood pressure in healthy personsAm J Clin Nutr.(2005 Mar)
  364. Yacon - Genta S, Cabrera W, Habib N, Pons J, Carillo IM, Grau A, Sánchez SYacon syrup: beneficial effects on obesity and insulin resistance in humansClin Nutr.(2009 Apr)
  365. Saffron - Modaghegh MH, Shahabian M, Esmaeili HA, Rajbai O, Hosseinzadeh HSafety evaluation of saffron (Crocus sativus) tablets in healthy volunteersPhytomedicine.(2008 Dec)
  366. Vitamin B3 - Valeria Nasser Figueiredo, Felipe Vendrame, Bruno A Colontoni, Thiago Quinaglia, Jose Roberto Matos-Souza, Filipe Azevedo Moura, Otavio R Coelho, Eliana C de Faria, Andrei C SpositoShort-term effects of extended-release niacin with and without the addition of laropiprant on endothelial function in individuals with low HDL-C: a randomized, controlled crossover trialClin Ther.(2014 Jun 1)
  367. Jiaogulan - Huyen VT, Phan DV, Thang P, Ky PT, Hoa NK, Ostenson CGAntidiabetic Effects of Add-On Gynostemma pentaphyllum Extract Therapy with Sulfonylureas in Type 2 Diabetic PatientsEvid Based Complement Alternat Med.(2012)
  368. Psyllium - Sartore G, Reitano R, Barison A, Magnanini P, Cosma C, Burlina S, Manzato E, Fedele D, Lapolla AThe effects of psyllium on lipoproteins in type II diabetic patientsEur J Clin Nutr.(2009 Oct)
  369. OMAD And 20:4 Intermittent Fasting - Sutton EF, Beyl R, Early KS, Cefalu WT, Ravussin E, Peterson CMEarly Time-Restricted Feeding Improves Insulin Sensitivity, Blood Pressure, and Oxidative Stress Even without Weight Loss in Men with PrediabetesCell Metab.(2018 Jun 5)
  370. Garlic - Ried K, Toben C, Fakler PEffect of garlic on serum lipids: an updated meta-analysisNutr Rev.(2013 May)
  371. Apple Cider Vinegar - Khezri, S, et alBeneficial effects of Apple Cider Vinegar on weight management, Visceral Adiposity Index and lipid profile in overweight or obese subjects receiving restricted calorie diet: A randomized clinical trialJ. Funct. Foods.()
  372. Royal Jelly - Hang Guo, Ai Saiga, Mikako Sato, Izumi Miyazawa, Makoto Shibata, Yoshihisa Takahata, Fumiki MorimatsuRoyal jelly supplementation improves lipoprotein metabolism in humansJ Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo).(2007 Aug)
  373. Garlic - Adler AJ, Holub BJEffect of garlic and fish-oil supplementation on serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in hypercholesterolemic menAm J Clin Nutr.(1997 Feb)
  374. Vitamin K - Ozuru R, Sugimoto T, Yamaguchi T, Chihara KTime-dependent effects of vitamin K2 (menatetrenone) on bone metabolism in postmenopausal womenEndocr J.(2002 Jun)
  375. Fish Oil - Woodman RJ, Mori TA, Burke V, Puddey IB, Watts GF, Beilin LJEffects of purified eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids on glycemic control, blood pressure, and serum lipids in type 2 diabetic patients with treated hypertensionAm J Clin Nutr.(2002 Nov)
  376. Grape Juice - Castilla P, Echarri R, Dávalos A, Cerrato F, Ortega H, Teruel JL, Lucas MF, Gómez-Coronado D, Ortuño J, Lasunción MAConcentrated red grape juice exerts antioxidant, hypolipidemic, and antiinflammatory effects in both hemodialysis patients and healthy subjectsAm J Clin Nutr.(2006 Jul)
  377. Chromium - Yazaki Y, Faridi Z, Ma Y, Ali A, Northrup V, Njike VY, Liberti L, Katz DLA pilot study of chromium picolinate for weight lossJ Altern Complement Med.(2010 Mar)
  378. Ashwagandha - Ziegenfuss TN, Kedia AW, Sandrock JE, Raub BJ, Kerksick CM, Lopez HLEffects of an Aqueous Extract of Withania somnifera on Strength Training Adaptations and Recovery: The STAR TrialNutrients.(2018 Nov 20)
  379. Boron - Militaru C, Donoiu I, Craciun A, Scorei ID, Bulearca AM, Scorei RIOral resveratrol and calcium fructoborate supplementation in subjects with stable angina pectoris: effects on lipid profiles, inflammation markers, and quality of lifeNutrition.(2013 Jan)
  380. Kefir - Z Jenko Pražnikar, S Kenig, T Vardjan, M Černelič Bizjak, A PetelinEffects of kefir or milk supplementation on zonulin in overweight subjectsJ Dairy Sci.(2020 May)
  381. Garlic - Breithaupt-Grögler K, Ling M, Boudoulas H, Belz GGProtective effect of chronic garlic intake on elastic properties of aorta in the elderlyCirculation.(1997 Oct 21)
  382. Phosphatidylserine - Kato-Kataoka A, Sakai M, Ebina R, Nonaka C, Asano T, Miyamori TSoybean-derived phosphatidylserine improves memory function of the elderly Japanese subjects with memory complaintsJ Clin Biochem Nutr.(2010 Nov)
  383. Chromium - Iqbal N, Cardillo S, Volger S, Bloedon LT, Anderson RA, Boston R, Szapary POChromium picolinate does not improve key features of metabolic syndrome in obese nondiabetic adultsMetab Syndr Relat Disord.(2009 Apr)
  384. Ketogenic Diet - Varady KA, Bhutani S, Klempel MC, Phillips SAImprovements in vascular health by a low-fat diet, but not a high-fat diet, are mediated by changes in adipocyte biologyNutr J.(2011 Jan 20)
  385. Fish Oil - Wei MY, Jacobson TAEffects of eicosapentaenoic acid versus docosahexaenoic acid on serum lipids: a systematic review and meta-analysisCurr Atheroscler Rep.(2011 Dec)
  386. Vanadium - Jacques-Camarena O, González-Ortiz M, Martínez-Abundis E, López-Madrueño JF, Medina-Santillán REffect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity in patients with impaired glucose toleranceAnn Nutr Metab.(2008)
  387. Inositol - Maeba R, Hara H, Ishikawa H, Hayashi S, Yoshimura N, Kusano J, Takeoka Y, Yasuda D, Okazaki T, Kinoshita M, Teramoto TMyo-inositol treatment increases serum plasmalogens and decreases small dense LDL, particularly in hyperlipidemic subjects with metabolic syndromeJ Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo).(2008 Jun)
  388. Chromium - Ghosh D, Bhattacharya B, Mukherjee B, Manna B, Sinha M, Chowdhury J, Chowdhury SRole of chromium supplementation in Indians with type 2 diabetes mellitusJ Nutr Biochem.(2002 Nov)
  389. Fish Oil - Warner JG Jr, Ullrich IH, Albrink MJ, Yeater RACombined effects of aerobic exercise and omega-3 fatty acids in hyperlipidemic personsMed Sci Sports Exerc.(1989 Oct)
  390. Sea Buckthorn - Johansson AK, Korte H, Yang B, Stanley JC, Kallio HPSea buckthorn berry oil inhibits platelet aggregationJ Nutr Biochem.(2000 Oct)
  391. Kudzu - Woo J, Lau E, Ho SC, Cheng F, Chan C, Chan AS, Haines CJ, Chan TY, Li M, Sham AComparison of Pueraria lobata with hormone replacement therapy in treating the adverse health consequences of menopauseMenopause.(2003 Jul-Aug)
  392. L-Carnitine - Sani Hlais, Dana R Abou Reslan, Hiba K Sarieddine, Lara Nasreddine, Ghazi Taan, Sami Azar, Omar A ObeidEffect of lysine, vitamin B(6), and carnitine supplementation on the lipid profile of male patients with hypertriglyceridemia: a 12-week, open-label, randomized, placebo-controlled trialClin Ther.(2012 Aug)
  393. Red Clover Extract - Howes JB, Tran D, Brillante D, Howes LGEffects of dietary supplementation with isoflavones from red clover on ambulatory blood pressure and endothelial function in postmenopausal type 2 diabetesDiabetes Obes Metab.(2003 Sep)
  394. Fish Oil - Vega-López S, Kaul N, Devaraj S, Cai RY, German B, Jialal ISupplementation with omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and all-rac alpha-tocopherol alone and in combination failed to exert an anti-inflammatory effect in human volunteersMetabolism.(2004 Feb)
  395. Curcumin - Alwi I, Santoso T, Suyono S, Sutrisna B, Suyatna FD, Kresno SB, Ernie SThe effect of curcumin on lipid level in patients with acute coronary syndromeActa Med Indones.(2008 Oct)
  396. Ketogenic Diet - Phillips SA, Jurva JW, Syed AQ, Syed AQ, Kulinski JP, Pleuss J, Hoffmann RG, Gutterman DDBenefit of low-fat over low-carbohydrate diet on endothelial health in obesityHypertension.(2008 Feb)
  397. L-Carnitine - Moein Askarpour, Amir Hadi, Michael E Symonds, Maryam Miraghajani, Omid Sadeghi, Ali Sheikhi, Ehsan GhaediEfficacy of l-carnitine supplementation for management of blood lipids: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of randomized controlled trialsNutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis.(2019 Nov)
  398. Apple Cider Vinegar - Kondo T, Kishi M, Fushimi T, Ugajin S, Kaga TVinegar intake reduces body weight, body fat mass, and serum triglyceride levels in obese Japanese subjectsBiosci Biotechnol Biochem.(2009 Aug)
  399. Cocoa Extract - Engler MB, Engler MM, Chen CY, Malloy MJ, Browne A, Chiu EY, Kwak HK, Milbury P, Paul SM, Blumberg J, Mietus-Snyder MLFlavonoid-rich dark chocolate improves endothelial function and increases plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adultsJ Am Coll Nutr.(2004 Jun)
  400. Royal Jelly - Morita H, Ikeda T, Kajita K, Fujioka K, Mori I, Okada H, Uno Y, Ishizuka TEffect of royal jelly ingestion for six months on healthy volunteersNutr J.(2012 Sep 21)
  401. Saffron - Soukhtanloo M, et alEffect of saffron on serum leptin levels in patients with metabolic syndrome, a double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial studyProg Nutr.()
  402. Pueraria Mirifica - Okamura S, Sawada Y, Satoh T, Sakamoto H, Saito Y, Sumino H, Takizawa T, Kogure T, Chaichantipyuth C, Higuchi Y, Ishikawa T, Sakamaki TPueraria mirifica phytoestrogens improve dyslipidemia in postmenopausal women probably by activating estrogen receptor su