Last Updated: September 28 2022

Theaflavins are a group of molecules that are found in black tea (due to an additional fermentation process from green tea) that are said to be the bioactives of black tea.

Theaflavins is most often used for


Theaflavins are a group of molecules that are created from green tea catechins when heat treatment damages the catechin molecule and they begin to resynthesize in various configurations; Theaflavins are the product of two catechin molecules binding together on the C ring, and similar to catechins can come in various gallated forms (whether there is gallic acid molecules bound to them or not).

Currently, Theaflavins appear to have really poor oral bioavailability and absorption. For systemic effects after absorption, it is likely that the bioactivity of Theaflavins (which is present) is due to a metabolite that is not Theaflavins. For most evidence outside of the gastrointestinal tract (mouth to anus), the molecule of Theaflavins per se may not be relevant unless below the 1 nanomolar range.

For effects within the gastrointestinal tract, Theaflavins appear to have promising anti-ulceration and oral cavity health properties that should be active at the concentrations found in black tea. Either black tea or supplementation also appears to reduce the absorption of fatty acids, cholesterol, and starches from the intestinal tract which can reduce nutrient absorption quantities (and secondary to inhibiting starch absorption, there may be some probiotic effects similar to dietary fiber).

What else is Theaflavins known as?
Theaflavins should not be confused with:
  • L-Theanine (a similar sounding compound also found in tea)
Dosage information

Theaflavins for purposes that do not require absorption (oral health, stomach ulceration, intestinal or colonic interactions) can have bioactivity in the doses found in Black Tea (this may also be advisable as the capsule of a supplement would need to break for it to influence the stomach or oral cavity)

There is currently no evidence to support the best oral dose of supplementation, although studies tend to use 700mg of Theaflavins once a day (this is said to be 30 cups of Black Tea, but that is a variable claim due to varying levels of Theaflavins in Black Tea to start)

Currently no evidence to support the best time of day or manner to take Theaflavin supplementation, although if using it for the purposes of hindering fat or carbohydrate absorption it would need to be taken alongside a meal containing those nutrients.

Join our supplement information course

Examine Database: Theaflavins
What works and what doesn't?

Unlock the full potential of Examine

Get started

Don't miss out on the latest research

1.^Balentine DA, Wiseman SA, Bouwens LCThe chemistry of tea flavonoidsCrit Rev Food Sci Nutr.(1997 Dec)
2.^Sang S, Lambert JD, Ho CT, Yang CSThe chemistry and biotransformation of tea constituentsPharmacol Res.(2011 Aug)
3.^Yao JW, Lin F, Tao T, Lin CJAffinity interactions between natural pigments and human whole salivaArch Oral Biol.(2011 Mar)
6.^Knaze V, Zamora-Ros R, Luján-Barroso L, Romieu I, Scalbert A, Slimani N, Riboli E, van Rossum CT, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Trichopoulou A, Dilis V, Tsiotas K, Skeie G, Engeset D, Quirós JR, Molina E, Huerta JM, Crowe F, Wirfäl E, Ericson U, Peeters PH, Kaaks R, Teucher B, Johansson G, Johansson I, Tumino R, Boeing H, Drogan D, Amiano P, Mattiello A, Khaw KT, Luben R, Krogh V, Ardanáz E, Sacerdote C, Salvini S, Overvad K, Tjønneland A, Olsen A, Boutron-Ruault MC, Fagherazzi G, Perquier F, González CAIntake estimation of total and individual flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins and theaflavins, their food sources and determinants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) studyBr J Nutr.(2012 Sep 28)
10.^Sakakibara H, Honda Y, Nakagawa S, Ashida H, Kanazawa KSimultaneous determination of all polyphenols in vegetables, fruits, and teasJ Agric Food Chem.(2003 Jan 29)
11.^Li Y, Shibahara A, Matsuo Y, Tanaka T, Kouno IReaction of the black tea pigment theaflavin during enzymatic oxidation of tea catechinsJ Nat Prod.(2010 Jan)
12.^Lin LZ, Chen P, Harnly JMNew phenolic components and chromatographic profiles of green and fermented teasJ Agric Food Chem.(2008 Sep 10)
13.^Chen H, Hayek S, Rivera Guzman J, Gillitt ND, Ibrahim SA, Jobin C, Sang SThe microbiota is essential for the generation of black tea theaflavins-derived metabolitesPLoS One.(2012)
15.^Menet MC, Sang S, Yang CS, Ho CT, Rosen RTAnalysis of theaflavins and thearubigins from black tea extract by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometryJ Agric Food Chem.(2004 May 5)
16.^Kuhnert NUnraveling the structure of the black tea thearubiginsArch Biochem Biophys.(2010 Sep 1)
18.^Kusano R, Andou H, Fujieda M, Tanaka T, Matsuo Y, Kouno IPolymer-like polyphenols of black tea and their lipase and amylase inhibitory activitiesChem Pharm Bull (Tokyo).(2008 Mar)
20.^Sang S, Tian S, Stark RE, Yang CS, Ho CTNew dibenzotropolone derivatives characterized from black tea using LC/MS/MSBioorg Med Chem.(2004 Jun 1)
22.^Henning SM, Aronson W, Niu Y, Conde F, Lee NH, Seeram NP, Lee RP, Lu J, Harris DM, Moro A, Hong J, Pak-Shan L, Barnard RJ, Ziaee HG, Csathy G, Go VL, Wang H, Heber DTea polyphenols and theaflavins are present in prostate tissue of humans and mice after green and black tea consumptionJ Nutr.(2006 Jul)
24.^Mulder TP, van Platerink CJ, Wijnand Schuyl PJ, van Amelsvoort JMAnalysis of theaflavins in biological fluids using liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometryJ Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl.(2001 Sep 5)
26.^Rajavelu A, Tulyasheva Z, Jaiswal R, Jeltsch A, Kuhnert NThe inhibition of the mammalian DNA methyltransferase 3a (Dnmt3a) by dietary black tea and coffee polyphenolsBMC Biochem.(2011 Apr 21)
30.^Noberini R, Koolpe M, Lamberto I, Pasquale EBInhibition of Eph receptor-ephrin ligand interaction by tea polyphenolsPharmacol Res.(2012 Oct)
34.^Nishimuta H, Ohtani H, Tsujimoto M, Ogura K, Hiratsuka A, Sawada YInhibitory effects of various beverages on human recombinant sulfotransferase isoforms SULT1A1 and SULT1A3Biopharm Drug Dispos.(2007 Dec)
35.^Sirk TW, Brown EF, Friedman M, Sum AKMolecular binding of catechins to biomembranes: relationship to biological activityJ Agric Food Chem.(2009 Aug 12)
38.^Cameron AR, Anton S, Melville L, Houston NP, Dayal S, McDougall GJ, Stewart D, Rena GBlack tea polyphenols mimic insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 signalling to the longevity factor FOXO1aAging Cell.(2008 Jan)
39.^Peng C, Chan HY, Li YM, Huang Y, Chen ZYBlack tea theaflavins extend the lifespan of fruit fliesExp Gerontol.(2009 Dec)
40.^Li YM, Chan HY, Huang Y, Chen ZYGreen tea catechins upregulate superoxide dismutase and catalase in fruit fliesMol Nutr Food Res.(2007 May)
41.^Grelle G, Otto A, Lorenz M, Frank RF, Wanker EE, Bieschke JBlack tea theaflavins inhibit formation of toxic amyloid-β and α-synuclein fibrilsBiochemistry.(2011 Dec 13)
42.^Bieschke J, Russ J, Friedrich RP, Ehrnhoefer DE, Wobst H, Neugebauer K, Wanker EEEGCG remodels mature alpha-synuclein and amyloid-beta fibrils and reduces cellular toxicityProc Natl Acad Sci U S A.(2010 Apr 27)
43.^Ehrnhoefer DE, Duennwald M, Markovic P, Wacker JL, Engemann S, Roark M, Legleiter J, Marsh JL, Thompson LM, Lindquist S, Muchowski PJ, Wanker EEGreen tea (-)-epigallocatechin-gallate modulates early events in huntingtin misfolding and reduces toxicity in Huntington's disease modelsHum Mol Genet.(2006 Sep 15)
45.^Cai F, Li CR, Wu JL, Chen JG, Liu C, Min Q, Yu W, Ouyang CH, Chen JHTheaflavin ameliorates cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats through its anti-inflammatory effect and modulation of STAT-1Mediators Inflamm.(2006)
47.^Guo Y, Jones WK, Xuan YT, Tang XL, Bao W, Wu WJ, Han H, Laubach VE, Ping P, Yang Z, Qiu Y, Bolli RThe late phase of ischemic preconditioning is abrogated by targeted disruption of the inducible NO synthase geneProc Natl Acad Sci U S A.(1999 Sep 28)
48.^Takagi Y, Harada J, Chiarugi A, Moskowitz MASTAT1 is activated in neurons after ischemia and contributes to ischemic brain injuryJ Cereb Blood Flow Metab.(2002 Nov)
51.^Anandhan A, Tamilselvam K, Radhiga T, Rao S, Essa MM, Manivasagam TTheaflavin, a black tea polyphenol, protects nigral dopaminergic neurons against chronic MPTP/probenecid induced Parkinson's diseaseBrain Res.(2012 Jan 18)
53.^Kobayashi M, Ichitani M, Suzuki Y, Unno T, Sugawara T, Yamahira T, Kato M, Takihara T, Sagesaka Y, Kakuda T, Ikeda IBlack-tea polyphenols suppress postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia by suppressing lymphatic transport of dietary fat in ratsJ Agric Food Chem.(2009 Aug 12)
54.^Matsumoto N, Okushio K, Hara YEffect of black tea polyphenols on plasma lipids in cholesterol-fed ratsJ Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo).(1998 Apr)
57.^Javadov SA, Clarke S, Das M, Griffiths EJ, Lim KH, Halestrap APIschaemic preconditioning inhibits opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pores in the reperfused rat heartJ Physiol.(2003 Jun 1)
58.^Dreger H, Lorenz M, Kehrer A, Baumann G, Stangl K, Stangl VCharacteristics of catechin- and theaflavin-mediated cardioprotectionExp Biol Med (Maywood).(2008 Apr)
59.^Li D, Yang C, Chen Y, Tian J, Liu L, Dai Q, Wan X, Xie ZIdentification of a PKCepsilon-dependent regulation of myocardial contraction by epicatechin-3-gallateAm J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol.(2008 Jan)
63.^Maron DJ, Lu GP, Cai NS, Wu ZG, Li YH, Chen H, Zhu JQ, Jin XJ, Wouters BC, Zhao JCholesterol-lowering effect of a theaflavin-enriched green tea extract: a randomized controlled trialArch Intern Med.(2003 Jun 23)
65.^Kuo KL, Weng MS, Chiang CT, Tsai YJ, Lin-Shiau SY, Lin JKComparative studies on the hypolipidemic and growth suppressive effects of oolong, black, pu-erh, and green tea leaves in ratsJ Agric Food Chem.(2005 Jan 26)
66.^Wang W, Sun Y, Liu J, Wang J, Li Y, Li H, Zhang WProtective effect of theaflavins on homocysteine-induced injury in HUVEC cells in vitroJ Cardiovasc Pharmacol.(2012 May)
67.^Łuczaj W, Zapora E, Szczepański M, Wnuczko K, Skrzydlewska EPolyphenols action against oxidative stress formation in endothelial cellsActa Pol Pharm.(2009 Nov-Dec)
68.^Lorenz M, Urban J, Engelhardt U, Baumann G, Stangl K, Stangl VGreen and black tea are equally potent stimuli of NO production and vasodilation: new insights into tea ingredients involvedBasic Res Cardiol.(2009 Jan)
69.^Jochmann N, Lorenz M, Krosigk Av, Martus P, Böhm V, Baumann G, Stangl K, Stangl VThe efficacy of black tea in ameliorating endothelial function is equivalent to that of green teaBr J Nutr.(2008 Apr)
70.^Jankun J, Skotnicka M, Łysiak-Szydłowska W, Al-Senaidy A, Skrzypczak-Jankun EDiverse inhibition of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 by theaflavins of black teaInt J Mol Med.(2011 Apr)
73.^Matsui T, Tanaka T, Tamura S, Toshima A, Tamaya K, Miyata Y, Tanaka K, Matsumoto Kalpha-Glucosidase inhibitory profile of catechins and theaflavinsJ Agric Food Chem.(2007 Jan 10)
75.^Kashket S, Paolino VJInhibition of salivary amylase by water-soluble extracts of teaArch Oral Biol.(1988)
77.^Koh LW, Wong LL, Loo YY, Kasapis S, Huang DEvaluation of different teas against starch digestibility by mammalian glycosidasesJ Agric Food Chem.(2010 Jan 13)
78.^Basu S, Chaudhuri T, Chauhan SP, Das Gupta AK, Chaudhury L, Vedasiromoni JRThe theaflavin fraction is responsible for the facilitatory effect of black tea at the skeletal myoneural junctionLife Sci.(2005 May 13)
82.^Oka Y, Iwai S, Amano H, Irie Y, Yatomi K, Ryu K, Yamada S, Inagaki K, Oguchi KTea polyphenols inhibit rat osteoclast formation and differentiationJ Pharmacol Sci.(2012)
83.^Luo XY, Takahara T, Hou J, Kawai K, Sugiyama T, Tsukada K, Takemoto M, Takeuchi M, Zhong L, Li XKTheaflavin attenuates ischemia-reperfusion injury in a mouse fatty liver modelBiochem Biophys Res Commun.(2012 Jan 6)
86.^Saito T, Hirai R, Loo YM, Owen D, Johnson CL, Sinha SC, Akira S, Fujita T, Gale M JrRegulation of innate antiviral defenses through a shared repressor domain in RIG-I and LGP2Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.(2007 Jan 9)
87.^Ranjith-Kumar CT, Lai Y, Sarisky RT, Cheng Kao CGreen tea catechin, epigallocatechin gallate, suppresses signaling by the dsRNA innate immune receptor RIG-IPLoS One.(2010 Sep 22)
88.^Kanneganti TD, Lamkanfi M, Núñez GIntracellular NOD-like receptors in host defense and diseaseImmunity.(2007 Oct)
90.^Chemnitz JM, Driesen J, Classen S, Riley JL, Debey S, Beyer M, Popov A, Zander T, Schultze JLProstaglandin E2 impairs CD4+ T cell activation by inhibition of lck: implications in Hodgkin's lymphomaCancer Res.(2006 Jan 15)
92.^Mastino A, Piacentini M, Grelli S, Favalli C, Autuori F, Tentori L, Oliverio S, Garaci EInduction of apoptosis in thymocytes by prostaglandin E2 in vivoDev Immunol.(1992)
93.^Yang L, Yamagata N, Yadav R, Brandon S, Courtney RL, Morrow JD, Shyr Y, Boothby M, Joyce S, Carbone DP, Breyer RMCancer-associated immunodeficiency and dendritic cell abnormalities mediated by the prostaglandin EP2 receptorJ Clin Invest.(2003 Mar)
94.^Passwell J, Levanon M, Davidsohn J, Ramot BMonocyte PGE2 secretion in Hodgkin's disease and its relation to decreased cellular immunityClin Exp Immunol.(1983 Jan)
96.^Toes RE, Ossendorp F, Offringa R, Melief CJCD4 T cells and their role in antitumor immune responsesJ Exp Med.(1999 Mar 1)
97.^Pardoll DM, Topalian SLThe role of CD4+ T cell responses in antitumor immunityCurr Opin Immunol.(1998 Oct)
98.^Hilkens CM, Vermeulen H, van Neerven RJ, Snijdewint FG, Wierenga EA, Kapsenberg MLDifferential modulation of T helper type 1 (Th1) and T helper type 2 (Th2) cytokine secretion by prostaglandin E2 critically depends on interleukin-2Eur J Immunol.(1995 Jan)
99.^Chattopadhyay S, Bhattacharyya S, Saha B, Chakraborty J, Mohanty S, Sakib Hossain DM, Banerjee S, Das K, Sa G, Das TTumor-shed PGE(2) impairs IL2Rgammac-signaling to inhibit CD4 T cell survival: regulation by theaflavinsPLoS One.(2009 Oct 8)
100.^Yoshino K, Yamazaki K, Sano MPreventive effects of black tea theaflavins against mouse type IV allergyJ Sci Food Agric.(2010 Sep)
101.^Zu M, Yang F, Zhou W, Liu A, Du G, Zheng LIn vitro anti-influenza virus and anti-inflammatory activities of theaflavin derivativesAntiviral Res.(2012 Jun)
102.^Yang J, Li L, Tan S, Jin H, Qiu J, Mao Q, Li R, Xia C, Jiang ZH, Jiang S, Liu SA natural theaflavins preparation inhibits HIV-1 infection by targeting the entry step: potential applications for preventing HIV-1 infectionFitoterapia.(2012 Mar)
104.^Liu S, Lu H, Zhao Q, He Y, Niu J, Debnath AK, Wu S, Jiang STheaflavin derivatives in black tea and catechin derivatives in green tea inhibit HIV-1 entry by targeting gp41Biochim Biophys Acta.(2005 May 25)
105.^Isaacs CE, Xu W, Merz G, Hillier S, Rohan L, Wen GYDigallate dimers of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate inactivate herpes simplex virusAntimicrob Agents Chemother.(2011 Dec)
106.^Yang J, Li L, Jin H, Tan S, Qiu J, Yang L, Ding Y, Jiang ZH, Jiang S, Liu SVaginal gel formulation based on theaflavin derivatives as a microbicide to prevent HIV sexual transmissionAIDS Res Hum Retroviruses.(2012 Nov)
107.^Ben Khalaf N, De Muylder G, Ratnam J, Kean-Hooi Ang K, Arkin M, McKerrow J, Chenik MA high-throughput turbidometric assay for screening inhibitors of Leishmania major protein disulfide isomeraseJ Biomol Screen.(2011 Jun)
108.^Sitheeque MA, Panagoda GJ, Yau J, Amarakoon AM, Udagama UR, Samaranayake LPAntifungal activity of black tea polyphenols (catechins and theaflavins) against Candida speciesChemotherapy.(2009)
110.^Tan D, Wang Y, Lo CY, Ho CTMethylglyoxal: its presence and potential scavengersAsia Pac J Clin Nutr.(2008)
113.^Decker EAPhenolics: prooxidants or antioxidantsNutr Rev.(1997 Nov)
115.^Babich H, Gottesman RT, Liebling EJ, Schuck AGTheaflavin-3-gallate and theaflavin-3'-gallate, polyphenols in black tea with prooxidant propertiesBasic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol.(2008 Jul)
118.^Sakagami H, Arakawa H, Maeda M, Satoh K, Kadofuku T, Fukuchi K, Gomi KProduction of hydrogen peroxide and methionine sulfoxide by epigallocatechin gallate and antioxidantsAnticancer Res.(2001 Jul-Aug)
119.^Hosokawa Y, Hosokawa I, Ozaki K, Nakanishi T, Nakae H, Matsuo TCatechins inhibit CXCL10 production from oncostatin M-stimulated human gingival fibroblastsJ Nutr Biochem.(2010 Jul)
120.^Stashenko P, Gonçalves RB, Lipkin B, Ficarelli A, Sasaki H, Campos-Neto ATh1 immune response promotes severe bone resorption caused by Porphyromonas gingivalisAm J Pathol.(2007 Jan)
121.^Hosokawa Y, Hosokawa I, Shindo S, Ozaki K, Nakanishi T, Nakae H, Matsuo TBlack tea polyphenol inhibits CXCL10 production in oncostatin M-stimulated human gingival fibroblastsInt Immunopharmacol.(2011 Jun)
122.^Hosokawa Y, Hosokawa I, Ozaki K, Nakanishi T, Nakae H, Matsuo TTea polyphenols inhibit IL-6 production in tumor necrosis factor superfamily 14-stimulated human gingival fibroblastsMol Nutr Food Res.(2010 Jul)
123.^Adhikary B, Yadav SK, Chand S, Bandyopadhyay SK, Chattopadhyay SBlack tea and theaflavins suppress various inflammatory modulators and i-NOS mediated nitric oxide synthesis during gastric ulcer healingFree Radic Res.(2011 Jul)
126.^Wang W, Sun Y, Liu J, Wang J, Li Y, Li H, Zhang W, Liao HProtective effect of theaflavins on cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in male ratsFood Chem Toxicol.(2012 Sep)
127.^Kimura K, Itakura Y, Goto R, Tojima M, Egawa N, Yoshihama MInhibition of 17alpha-hydroxylase/C17,20-lyase (CYP17) from rat testis by green tea catechins and black tea theaflavinsBiosci Biotechnol Biochem.(2007 Sep)
131.^Chen NY, Ma WY, Yang CS, Dong ZInhibition of arsenite-induced apoptosis and AP-1 activity by epigallocatechin-3-gallate and theaflavinsJ Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol.(2000)
132.^Mizuno H, Cho YY, Zhu F, Ma WY, Bode AM, Yang CS, Ho CT, Dong ZTheaflavin-3, 3'-digallate induces epidermal growth factor receptor downregulationMol Carcinog.(2006 Mar)
134.^Liang YC, Chen YC, Lin YL, Lin-Shiau SY, Ho CT, Lin JKSuppression of extracellular signals and cell proliferation by the black tea polyphenol, theaflavin-3,3'-digallateCarcinogenesis.(1999 Apr)
136.^Vuoriluoto K, Haugen H, Kiviluoto S, Mpindi JP, Nevo J, Gjerdrum C, Tiron C, Lorens JB, Ivaska JVimentin regulates EMT induction by Slug and oncogenic H-Ras and migration by governing Axl expression in breast cancerOncogene.(2011 Mar 24)
137.^Pulyaeva H, Bueno J, Polette M, Birembaut P, Sato H, Seiki M, Thompson EWMT1-MMP correlates with MMP-2 activation potential seen after epithelial to mesenchymal transition in human breast carcinoma cellsClin Exp Metastasis.(1997 Mar)
139.^Mujtaba T, Dou QPBlack tea polyphenols inhibit tumor proteasome activityIn Vivo.(2012 Mar-Apr)
140.^Schuck AG, Ausubel MB, Zuckerbraun HL, Babich HTheaflavin-3,3'-digallate, a component of black tea: an inducer of oxidative stress and apoptosisToxicol In Vitro.(2008 Apr)
141.^Kohlmeier L, Weterings KG, Steck S, Kok FJTea and cancer prevention: an evaluation of the epidemiologic literatureNutr Cancer.(1997)
142.^Yang CS, Maliakal P, Meng XInhibition of carcinogenesis by teaAnnu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol.(2002)
143.^Lahiry L, Saha B, Chakraborty J, Adhikary A, Mohanty S, Hossain DM, Banerjee S, Das K, Sa G, Das TTheaflavins target Fas/caspase-8 and Akt/pBad pathways to induce apoptosis in p53-mutated human breast cancer cellsCarcinogenesis.(2010 Feb)
145.^Lahiry L, Saha B, Chakraborty J, Bhattacharyya S, Chattopadhyay S, Banerjee S, Choudhuri T, Mandal D, Bhattacharyya A, Sa G, Das TContribution of p53-mediated Bax transactivation in theaflavin-induced mammary epithelial carcinoma cell apoptosisApoptosis.(2008 Jun)
146.^Adhikary A, Mohanty S, Lahiry L, Hossain DM, Chakraborty S, Das TTheaflavins retard human breast cancer cell migration by inhibiting NF-kappaB via p53-ROS cross-talkFEBS Lett.(2010 Jan 4)
147.^Maroulakou IG, Anver M, Garrett L, Green JEProstate and mammary adenocarcinoma in transgenic mice carrying a rat C3(1) simian virus 40 large tumor antigen fusion geneProc Natl Acad Sci U S A.(1994 Nov 8)
149.^Weisburger JH, Rivenson A, Garr K, Aliaga CTea, or tea and milk, inhibit mammary gland and colon carcinogenesis in ratsCancer Lett.(1997 Mar 19)
152.^Mazumdar M, Adhikary A, Chakraborty S, Mukherjee S, Manna A, Saha S, Mohanty S, Dutta A, Bhattacharjee P, Ray P, Chattopadhyay S, Banerjee S, Chakraborty J, Ray AK, Sa G, Das TTargeting RET to induce medullary thyroid cancer cell apoptosis: an antagonistic interplay between PI3K/Akt and p38MAPK/caspase-8 pathwaysApoptosis.(2013 Jan 18)
157.^Chakrabarty S, Das A, Bhattacharya A, Chakrabarti GTheaflavins depolymerize microtubule network through tubulin binding and cause apoptosis of cervical carcinoma HeLa cellsJ Agric Food Chem.(2011 Mar 9)
158.^Gundersen GG, Cook TAMicrotubules and signal transductionCurr Opin Cell Biol.(1999 Feb)
159.^McIntosh JR, Grishchuk EL, West RRChromosome-microtubule interactions during mitosisAnnu Rev Cell Dev Biol.(2002)
160.^Panda D, Jordan MA, Chu KC, Wilson LDifferential effects of vinblastine on polymerization and dynamics at opposite microtubule endsJ Biol Chem.(1996 Nov 22)
162.^Gosslau A, En Jao DL, Huang MT, Ho CT, Evans D, Rawson NE, Chen KYEffects of the black tea polyphenol theaflavin-2 on apoptotic and inflammatory pathways in vitro and in vivoMol Nutr Food Res.(2011 Feb)
168.^Shirasugi I, Sakakibara Y, Yamasaki M, Nishiyama K, Matsui T, Liu MC, Suiko MNovel screening method for potential skin-whitening compounds by a luciferase reporter assayBiosci Biotechnol Biochem.(2010)
169.^Yamaoka Y, Ohguchi K, Itoh T, Nozawa Y, Akao YEffects of theaflavins on melanin biosynthesis in mouse b16 melanoma cellsBiosci Biotechnol Biochem.(2009 Jun)
172.^Arts MJ, Haenen GR, Wilms LC, Beetstra SA, Heijnen CG, Voss HP, Bast AInteractions between flavonoids and proteins: effect on the total antioxidant capacityJ Agric Food Chem.(2002 Feb 27)
174.^Kyle JA, Morrice PC, McNeill G, Duthie GGEffects of infusion time and addition of milk on content and absorption of polyphenols from black teaJ Agric Food Chem.(2007 Jun 13)
175.^Leenen R, Roodenburg AJ, Tijburg LB, Wiseman SAA single dose of tea with or without milk increases plasma antioxidant activity in humansEur J Clin Nutr.(2000 Jan)
176.^van het Hof KH, Kivits GA, Weststrate JA, Tijburg LBBioavailability of catechins from tea: the effect of milkEur J Clin Nutr.(1998 May)
177.^Serafini M, Ghiselli A, Ferro-Luzzi AIn vivo antioxidant effect of green and black tea in manEur J Clin Nutr.(1996 Jan)