Insulin

Last Updated: March 28, 2022

Insulin is a hormone that rises when blood glucose rises. It lowers blood glucose by telling cells to absorb and use it. If your cells’ insulin sensitivity is low, they won’t absorb enough glucose — you have insulin resistance, which can lead to type 2 diabetes.

Summary

Insulin is a hormone in the body secreted from the Pancreas, and is known as the Master regulator of carbohydrate metabolism. It works in concert with its sister hormone, Glucagon, and a host of other hormones to regulate blood sugar levels in the body and protect from an excess of blood sugar (hyperglycemia) or too low a level of blood sugar (hypoglycemia).

It is mostly an anabolic hormone, meaning it acts to build molecules and tissues. It has some catabolic properties though (catabolic as in acting to destroy molecules and tissues to provide energy).

When active, insulin and the actions of the proteins under its control can be summed up with having two main actions:

  • Causing a flux of nutrients into the liver, fat, and muscle; to get said nutrients out of the blood

  • Causing a metabolic shift towards carbohydrates, favoring them as fuel, and thus minimizing usage of both fats and proteins for energy

It is increased in response to the diet. Most notably carbohydrates and to a lesser extent proteins. In contrast to many hormones, insulin is one that is highly responsive to diet and lifestyle; manipulating insulin levels through one's diet and lifestyle is common in diet strategies.

It is essential to survival, and those who do not produce any or insufficient levels of insulin must inject it otherwise (Type I Diabetics).

Insulin has a phenomena known as 'Insulin Sensitivity' which can be summed up as 'The amount of action a single molecule of insulin can exert inside a cell'. The more insulin sensitivity you have, the less overall insulin you need to exert the same effect. A large scale and prolonged state of insulin _in_sensitivity is what is known as Type II diabetes (among other co-morbidities).

Insulin is neither bad nor good from a health and body composition perspective. It has certain roles in the body and activating it may or may not be beneficial for particular individuals, but may also be wondrous for others. Typically sedentary obese persons would be wise to limit insulin secretion while power athletes or relatively lean athletic individuals would be wise to use carbohydrate timing strategies to maximize the effects of insulin.

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References
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  60. Paleolithic Diet - Barbara Frączek, Aleksandra Pięta, Adrian Burda, Paulina Mazur-Kurach, Florentyna TyrałaPaleolithic Diet-Effect on the Health Status and Performance of Athletes?Nutrients.(2021 Mar 21)
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  64. Vitamin D - Elisabeth Lerchbaum, Christian Trummer, Verena Theiler-Schwetz, Martina Kollmann, Monika Wölfler, Annemieke C Heijboer, Stefan Pilz, Barbara Obermayer-PietschEffects of vitamin D supplementation on androgens in men with low testosterone levels: a randomized controlled trialEur J Nutr.(2019 Dec)
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  69. Paleolithic Diet - Mohammad Hassan Sohouli, Somaye Fatahi, Abolfazl Lari, Mojtaba Lotfi, Maryam Seifishahpar, Mihnea-Alexandru Găman, Seyedeh Tayebeh Rahideh, Saud K AlBatati, Abdullah M AlHossan, Sara A Alkhalifa, Sara A Alomar, Ahmed Abu-ZaidThe effect of paleolithic diet on glucose metabolism and lipid profile among patients with metabolic disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trialsCrit Rev Food Sci Nutr.(2021 Jan 25)
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  78. Ketogenic Diet - Sharman MJ, Gómez AL, Kraemer WJ, Volek JSVery low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets affect fasting lipids and postprandial lipemia differently in overweight menJ Nutr.(2004 Apr)
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  80. Inositol - Minozzi M, D'Andrea G, Unfer VTreatment of hirsutism with myo-inositol: a prospective clinical studyReprod Biomed Online.(2008 Oct)
  81. Coenzyme Q10 - Izadi A, Ebrahimi S, Shirazi S, Taghizadeh S, Parizad M, Farzadi L, Gargari BPHormonal and Metabolic Effects of Coenzyme Q10 and/or Vitamin E in Patients With Polycystic Ovary SyndromeJ Clin Endocrinol Metab.(2019 Feb 1)
  82. Blueberry - Krikorian R, Shidler MD, Nash TA, Kalt W, Vinqvist-Tymchuk MR, Shukitt-Hale B, Joseph JABlueberry supplementation improves memory in older adultsJ Agric Food Chem.(2010 Apr 14)
  83. Ketogenic Diet - Boden G, Sargrad K, Homko C, Mozzoli M, Stein TPEffect of a low-carbohydrate diet on appetite, blood glucose levels, and insulin resistance in obese patients with type 2 diabetesAnn Intern Med.(2005 Mar 15)
  84. Magnesium - Rodríguez-Morán M, Guerrero-Romero FOral magnesium supplementation improves insulin sensitivity and metabolic control in type 2 diabetic subjects: a randomized double-blind controlled trialDiabetes Care.(2003 Apr)
  85. Magnesium - Lee S, Park HK, Son SP, Lee CW, Kim IJ, Kim HJEffects of oral magnesium supplementation on insulin sensitivity and blood pressure in normo-magnesemic nondiabetic overweight Korean adultsNutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis.(2009 Dec)
  86. Chromium - Pei D, Hsieh CH, Hung YJ, Li JC, Lee CH, Kuo SWThe influence of chromium chloride-containing milk to glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialMetabolism.(2006 Jul)
  87. Fish Oil - Woodman RJ, Mori TA, Burke V, Puddey IB, Watts GF, Beilin LJEffects of purified eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids on glycemic control, blood pressure, and serum lipids in type 2 diabetic patients with treated hypertensionAm J Clin Nutr.(2002 Nov)
  88. 16:8 Intermittent Fasting - Tatiana Moro, Grant Tinsley, Antonino Bianco, Giuseppe Marcolin, Quirico Francesco Pacelli, Giuseppe Battaglia, Antonio Palma, Paulo Gentil, Marco Neri, Antonio PaoliEffects of eight weeks of time-restricted feeding (16/8) on basal metabolism, maximal strength, body composition, inflammation, and cardiovascular risk factors in resistance-trained malesJ Transl Med.(2016 Oct 13)
  89. Spirulina - Szulinska M, Gibas-Dorna M, Miller-Kasprzak E, Suliburska J, Miczke A, Walczak-Gałezewska M, Stelmach-Mardas M, Walkowiak J, Bogdanski PSpirulina maxima improves insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, and total antioxidant status in obese patients with well-treated hypertension: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled studyEur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci.(2017 May)
  90. Chromium - Iqbal N, Cardillo S, Volger S, Bloedon LT, Anderson RA, Boston R, Szapary POChromium picolinate does not improve key features of metabolic syndrome in obese nondiabetic adultsMetab Syndr Relat Disord.(2009 Apr)
  91. Ketogenic Diet - Myette-Côté É, Durrer C, Neudorf H, Bammert TD, Botezelli JD, Johnson JD, DeSouza CA, Little JPThe effect of a short-term low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with or without postmeal walks on glycemic control and inflammation in type 2 diabetes: a randomized trialAm J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol.(2018 Dec 1)
  92. Saffron - Fatemeh Ebrahimi, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Naheed Aryaeian, Naseh Pahlavani, Soudabeh Fallah, Nariman Moradi, Davoud Abbasi, Agha Fatemeh HosseiniEffects Of Saffron Supplementation On Inflammation And Metabolic Responses In Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled TrialDiabetes Metab Syndr Obes.(2019 Oct 14)
  93. Citrulline - Sureda A, Córdova A, Ferrer MD, Pérez G, Tur JA, Pons AL-citrulline-malate influence over branched chain amino acid utilization during exerciseEur J Appl Physiol.(2010 Sep)
  94. Grape Juice - Dohadwala MM, Hamburg NM, Holbrook M, Kim BH, Duess MA, Levit A, Titas M, Chung WB, Vincent FB, Caiano TL, Frame AA, Keaney JF Jr, Vita JAEffects of Concord grape juice on ambulatory blood pressure in prehypertension and stage 1 hypertensionAm J Clin Nutr.(2010 Nov)
  95. Curcumin - Wickenberg J, Ingemansson SL, Hlebowicz JEffects of Curcuma longa (turmeric) on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin in healthy subjectsNutr J.(2010 Oct 12)
  96. Glutamine - Rotovnik Kozjek N, Kompan L, Soeters P, Oblak I, Mlakar Mastnak D, Možina B, Zadnik V, Anderluh F, Velenik VOral glutamine supplementation during preoperative radiochemotherapy in patients with rectal cancer: a randomised double blinded, placebo controlled pilot studyClin Nutr.(2011 Oct)
  97. Chromium - Volek JS, Silvestre R, Kirwan JP, Sharman MJ, Judelson DA, Spiering BA, Vingren JL, Maresh CM, Vanheest JL, Kraemer WJEffects of chromium supplementation on glycogen synthesis after high-intensity exerciseMed Sci Sports Exerc.(2006 Dec)
  98. Ketogenic Diet - Keogh JB, Brinkworth GD, Noakes M, Belobrajdic DP, Buckley JD, Clifton PMEffects of weight loss from a very-low-carbohydrate diet on endothelial function and markers of cardiovascular disease risk in subjects with abdominal obesityAm J Clin Nutr.(2008 Mar)
  99. Saffron - Armaghan Moravej Aleali, Reza Amani, Hajieh Shahbazian, Frough Namjooyan, Seyed Mahmoud Latifi, Bahman CheraghianThe effect of hydroalcoholic Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) extract on fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, lipid profile, liver, and renal function tests in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized double-blind clinical trialPhytother Res.(2019 Jun)
  100. L-Carnitine - Giuseppe Derosa, Arrigo F G Cicero, Antonio Gaddi, Amedeo Mugellini, Leonardina Ciccarelli, Roberto FogariThe effect of L-carnitine on plasma lipoprotein(a) levels in hypercholesterolemic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitusClin Ther.(2003 May)
  101. Inositol - Zacchè MM, Caputo L, Filippis S, Zacchè G, Dindelli M, Ferrari AEfficacy of myo-inositol in the treatment of cutaneous disorders in young women with polycystic ovary syndromeGynecol Endocrinol.(2009 Aug)
  102. ECA - Daly PA, Krieger DR, Dulloo AG, Young JB, Landsberg LEphedrine, caffeine and aspirin: safety and efficacy for treatment of human obesityInt J Obes Relat Metab Disord.(1993 Feb)
  103. Citrulline - Hickner RC, Tanner CJ, Evans CA, Clark PD, Haddock A, Fortune C, Geddis H, Waugh W, McCammon ML-citrulline reduces time to exhaustion and insulin response to a graded exercise testMed Sci Sports Exerc.(2006 Apr)
  104. Fish Oil - Skulas-Ray AC, Kris-Etherton PM, Harris WS, Vanden Heuvel JP, Wagner PR, West SGDose-response effects of omega-3 fatty acids on triglycerides, inflammation, and endothelial function in healthy persons with moderate hypertriglyceridemiaAm J Clin Nutr.(2011 Feb)
  105. Arginine - Monti LD, Setola E, Lucotti PC, Marrocco-Trischitta MM, Comola M, Galluccio E, Poggi A, Mammì S, Catapano AL, Comi G, Chiesa R, Bosi E, Piatti PMEffect of a long-term oral l-arginine supplementation on glucose metabolism: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialDiabetes Obes Metab.(2012 Oct)
  106. Sea Buckthorn - H-M Lehtonen, R Järvinen, K Linderborg, M Viitanen, M Venojärvi, H Alanko, H KallioPostprandial hyperglycemia and insulin response are affected by sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. turkestanica) berry and its ethanol-soluble metabolitesEur J Clin Nutr.(2010 Dec)
  107. Ketogenic Diet - Urbain P, Strom L, Morawski L, Wehrle A, Deibert P, Bertz HImpact of a 6-week non-energy-restricted ketogenic diet on physical fitness, body composition and biochemical parameters in healthy adultsNutr Metab (Lond).(2017 Feb 20)
  108. Chromium - Frauchiger MT, Wenk C, Colombani PCEffects of acute chromium supplementation on postprandial metabolism in healthy young menJ Am Coll Nutr.(2004 Aug)
  109. Branched-Chain Amino Acids - Shimomura Y, Inaguma A, Watanabe S, Yamamoto Y, Muramatsu Y, Bajotto G, Sato J, Shimomura N, Kobayashi H, Mawatari KBranched-chain amino acid supplementation before squat exercise and delayed-onset muscle sorenessInt J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab.(2010 Jun)
  110. Fish Oil - G Fontani, F Corradeschi, A Felici, F Alfatti, R Bugarini, A I Fiaschi, D Cerretani, G Montorfano, A M Rizzo, B BerraBlood profiles, body fat and mood state in healthy subjects on different diets supplemented with Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acidsEur J Clin Invest.(2005 Aug)
  111. Curcumin - Cicero AFG, Sahebkar A, Fogacci F, Bove M, Giovannini M, Borghi CEffects of phytosomal curcumin on anthropometric parameters, insulin resistance, cortisolemia and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease indices: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trialEur J Nutr.(2019 Feb 22)
  112. Curcumin - Jazayeri-Tehrani SA, Rezayat SM, Mansouri S, Qorbani M, Alavian SM, Daneshi-Maskooni M, Hosseinzadeh-Attar MJNano-curcumin improves glucose indices, lipids, inflammation, and Nesfatin in overweight and obese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trialNutr Metab (Lond).(2019 Jan 28)
  113. L-Carnitine - Molfino A, Cascino A, Conte C, Ramaccini C, Rossi Fanelli F, Laviano ACaloric restriction and L-carnitine administration improves insulin sensitivity in patients with impaired glucose metabolismJPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr.(2010 May-Jun)
  114. Fish Oil - Luo J, Rizkalla SW, Vidal H, Oppert JM, Colas C, Boussairi A, Guerre-Millo M, Chapuis AS, Chevalier A, Durand G, Slama GModerate intake of n-3 fatty acids for 2 months has no detrimental effect on glucose metabolism and could ameliorate the lipid profile in type 2 diabetic men. Results of a controlled studyDiabetes Care.(1998 May)
  115. Grape Juice - Blair CK, Kelly AS, Steinberger J, Eberly LE, Napurski C, Robien K, Neglia JP, Mulrooney DA, Ross JAFeasibility and preliminary efficacy of the effects of flavanoid-rich purple grape juice on the vascular health of childhood cancer survivors: a randomized, controlled crossover trialPediatr Blood Cancer.(2014 Dec)
  116. Ketogenic Diet - Bisschop PH, Pereira Arias AM, Ackermans MT, Endert E, Pijl H, Kuipers F, Meijer AJ, Sauerwein HP, Romijn JAThe effects of carbohydrate variation in isocaloric diets on glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in healthy menJ Clin Endocrinol Metab.(2000 May)
  117. Ketogenic Diet - Partsalaki I, Karvela A, Spiliotis BEMetabolic impact of a ketogenic diet compared to a hypocaloric diet in obese children and adolescentsJ Pediatr Endocrinol Metab.(2012)
  118. Vitamin D - Sepehrmanesh Z, Kolahdooz F, Abedi F, Mazroii N, Assarian A, Asemi Z, Esmaillzadeh AVitamin D Supplementation Affects the Beck Depression Inventory, Insulin Resistance, and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical TrialJ Nutr.(2016 Feb)
  119. Creatine - van Loon LJ, Murphy R, Oosterlaar AM, Cameron-Smith D, Hargreaves M, Wagenmakers AJ, Snow RCreatine supplementation increases glycogen storage but not GLUT-4 expression in human skeletal muscleClin Sci (Lond).(2004 Jan)
  120. Fenugreek - Brandon Bushey, Lem W. Taylor, Colin W. Wilborn, Chris Poole, Cliffa A. Foster, Bill Campbell, Richard B. Kreider, Darryn S. WilloughbyFenugreek Extract Supplementation Has No effect on the Hormonal Profile of Resitance-Trained MalesInternational Journal of Exercise Science.()
  121. Vitamin D - A M Borissova, T Tankova, G Kirilov, L Dakovska, R KovachevaThe effect of vitamin D3 on insulin secretion and peripheral insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patientsInt J Clin Pract.(2003 May)
  122. Berberine - Dong H, Wang N, Zhao L, Lu FBerberine in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systemic review and meta-analysisEvid Based Complement Alternat Med.(2012)
  123. Fish Oil - Shidfar F, Keshavarz A, Hosseyni S, Ameri A, Yarahmadi SEffects of omega-3 fatty acid supplements on serum lipids, apolipoproteins and malondialdehyde in type 2 diabetes patientsEast Mediterr Health J.(2008 Mar-Apr)
  124. Magnesium - Guerrero-Romero F, Rodríguez-Morán MMagnesium improves the beta-cell function to compensate variation of insulin sensitivity: double-blind, randomized clinical trialEur J Clin Invest.(2011 Apr)
  125. Grape Juice - Albers AR, Varghese S, Vitseva O, Vita JA, Freedman JEThe antiinflammatory effects of purple grape juice consumption in subjects with stable coronary artery diseaseArterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol.(2004 Nov)
  126. Theanine - Chanoch Miodownik, Rachel Maayan, Yael Ratner, Vladimir Lerner, Leonid Pintov, Maria Mar, Abraham Weizman, Michael S RitsnerSerum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cortisol to sulfate of dehydroepiandrosterone molar ratio associated with clinical response to L-theanine as augmentation of antipsychotic therapy in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder patientsClin Neuropharmacol.(Jul-Aug 2011)
  127. Curcumin - Campbell MS, Ouyang A, I M K, Charnigo RJ, Westgate PM, Fleenor BSInfluence of enhanced bioavailable curcumin on obesity-associated cardiovascular disease risk factors and arterial function: A double-blinded, randomized, controlled trialNutrition.(2019 Jun)
  128. Inositol - Alessandro D Genazzani, Alessia Prati, Susanna Santagni, Federica Ricchieri, Elisa Chierchia, Erica Rattighieri, Annalisa Campedelli, Tommaso Simoncini, Paolo G ArtiniDifferential insulin response to myo-inositol administration in obese polycystic ovary syndrome patientsGynecol Endocrinol.(2012 Dec)
  129. 16:8 Intermittent Fasting - Kelsey Gabel, Jarrad Marcell, Kate Cares, Faiza Kalam, Sofia Cienfuegos, Mark Ezpeleta, Krista A VaradyEffect of time restricted feeding on the gut microbiome in adults with obesity: A pilot studyNutr Health.(2020 Jun)
  130. Curcumin - Yang H, Xu W, Zhou Z, Liu J, Li X, Chen L, Weng J, Yu ZCurcumin attenuates urinary excretion of albumin in type II diabetic patients with enhancing nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2) system and repressing inflammatory signaling efficaciesExp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes.(2015 Jun)
  131. L-Carnitine - Aneliya Parvanova, Matias Trillini, Manuel A Podestà, Ilian P Iliev, Carolina Aparicio, Annalisa Perna, Francesco Peraro, Nadia Rubis, Flavio Gaspari, Antonio Cannata, Silvia Ferrari, Antonio C Bossi, Roberto Trevisan, Sreejith Parameswaran, Jonathan S Chávez-Iñiguez, Fahrudin Masnic, Sidy Mohamed Seck, Teerayuth Jiamjariyaporn, Monica Cortinovis, Luca Perico, Kanishka Sharma, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Piero Ruggenenti, David G WarnockBlood Pressure and Metabolic Effects of Acetyl-l-Carnitine in Type 2 Diabetes: DIABASI Randomized Controlled TrialJ Endocr Soc.(2018 Mar 22)
  132. Magnesium - Golf SW, Bender S, Grüttner JOn the significance of magnesium in extreme physical stressCardiovasc Drugs Ther.(1998 Sep)
  133. Vitamin C - Gutierrez AD, Duran-Valdez E, Robinson I, de Serna DG, Schade DSDoes short-term vitamin C reduce cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes?Endocr Pract.(2013 Sep-Oct)
  134. Jiaogulan - Chou SC, Chen KW, Hwang JS, Lu WT, Chu YY, Lin JD, Chang HJ, See LCThe add-on effects of Gynostemma pentaphyllum on nonalcoholic fatty liver diseaseAltern Ther Health Med.(2006 May-Jun)
  135. Conjugated Linoleic Acid - Lambert EV, Goedecke JH, Bluett K, Heggie K, Claassen A, Rae DE, West S, Dugas J, Dugas L, Meltzeri S, Charlton K, Mohede IConjugated linoleic acid versus high-oleic acid sunflower oil: effects on energy metabolism, glucose tolerance, blood lipids, appetite and body composition in regularly exercising individualsBr J Nutr.(2007 May)
  136. Berberine - Zhang Y, Li X, Zou D, Liu W, Yang J, Zhu N, Huo L, Wang M, Hong J, Wu P, Ren G, Ning GTreatment of type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia with the natural plant alkaloid berberineJ Clin Endocrinol Metab.(2008 Jul)
  137. Chromium - Anton SD, Morrison CD, Cefalu WT, Martin CK, Coulon S, Geiselman P, Han H, White CL, Williamson DAEffects of chromium picolinate on food intake and satietyDiabetes Technol Ther.(2008 Oct)
  138. Chromium - Lai MHAntioxidant effects and insulin resistance improvement of chromium combined with vitamin C and e supplementation for type 2 diabetes mellitusJ Clin Biochem Nutr.(2008 Nov)
  139. Whey Protein - Mikael Nilsson, Jens J Holst, Inger Me BjörckMetabolic effects of amino acid mixtures and whey protein in healthy subjects: studies using glucose-equivalent drinksAm J Clin Nutr.(2007 Apr)
  140. OMAD And 20:4 Intermittent Fasting - Sutton EF, Beyl R, Early KS, Cefalu WT, Ravussin E, Peterson CMEarly Time-Restricted Feeding Improves Insulin Sensitivity, Blood Pressure, and Oxidative Stress Even without Weight Loss in Men with PrediabetesCell Metab.(2018 Jun 5)
  141. Olive Leaf Extract - de Bock M, Derraik JG, Brennan CM, Biggs JB, Morgan PE, Hodgkinson SC, Hofman PL, Cutfield WSOlive (Olea europaea L.) Leaf Polyphenols Improve Insulin Sensitivity in Middle-Aged Overweight Men: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover TrialPLoS One.(2013)
  142. Chromium - Vrtovec M, Vrtovec B, Briski A, Kocijancic A, Anderson RA, Radovancevic BChromium supplementation shortens QTc interval duration in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitusAm Heart J.(2005 Apr)
  143. Cocoa Extract - West SG, McIntyre MD, Piotrowski MJ, Poupin N, Miller DL, Preston AG, Wagner P, Groves LF, Skulas-Ray ACEffects of dark chocolate and cocoa consumption on endothelial function and arterial stiffness in overweight adultsBr J Nutr.(2014 Feb)
  144. Vitamin E - Winterbone MS, Sampson MJ, Saha S, Hughes JC, Hughes DAPro-oxidant effect of alpha-tocopherol in patients with type 2 diabetes after an oral glucose tolerance test--a randomised controlled trialCardiovasc Diabetol.(2007 Feb 22)
  145. Chia seeds - Vuksan V, Whitham D, Sievenpiper JL, Jenkins AL, Rogovik AL, Bazinet RP, Vidgen E, Hanna ASupplementation of conventional therapy with the novel grain Salba (Salvia hispanica L.) improves major and emerging cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: results of a randomized controlled trialDiabetes Care.(2007 Nov)
  146. Conjugated Linoleic Acid - Racine NM, Watras AC, Carrel AL, Allen DB, McVean JJ, Clark RR, O'Brien AR, O'Shea M, Scott CE, Schoeller DAEffect of conjugated linoleic acid on body fat accretion in overweight or obese childrenAm J Clin Nutr.(2010 May)
  147. Vitamin D - Mitri J, Dawson-Hughes B, Hu FB, Pittas AGEffects of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on pancreatic β cell function, insulin sensitivity, and glycemia in adults at high risk of diabetes: the Calcium and Vitamin D for Diabetes Mellitus (CaDDM) randomized controlled trialAm J Clin Nutr.(2011 Aug)
  148. Rose Hip - Andersson U, Berger K, Högberg A, Landin-Olsson M, Holm CEffects of rose hip intake on risk markers of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over investigation in obese personsEur J Clin Nutr.(2012 May)
  149. L-Carnitine - Gaetano A, Mingrone G, Castagneto, M, Calvani MCarnitine Increases Glucose Disposal in HumansJ Am Coll Nutr.()
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  151. Cocoa Extract - Esser D, Mars M, Oosterink E, Stalmach A, Müller M, Afman LADark chocolate consumption improves leukocyte adhesion factors and vascular function in overweight menFASEB J.(2014 Mar)
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  153. Ketogenic Diet - Rosenbaum M, Hall KD, Guo J, Ravussin E, Mayer LS, Reitman ML, Smith SR, Walsh BT, Leibel RLGlucose and Lipid Homeostasis and Inflammation in Humans Following an Isocaloric Ketogenic DietObesity (Silver Spring).(2019 Jun)
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  155. Vitamin C - Johnston CS, Yen MFMegadose of vitamin C delays insulin response to a glucose challenge in normoglycemic adultsAm J Clin Nutr.(1994 Nov)
  156. L-Carnitine - Eun Shil Hong, Eun Ky Kim, Seon Mee Kang, Ah Reum Khang, Sung Hee Choi, Kyong Soo Park, Hak Chul Jang, Soo LimEffect of carnitine-orotate complex on glucose metabolism and fatty liver: a double-blind, placebo-controlled studyJ Gastroenterol Hepatol.(2014)
  157. L-Carnitine - Hadier M El-Sheikh, Sahar M El-Haggar, Tamer A ElbedewyComparative study to evaluate the effect of l-carnitine plus glimepiride versus glimepiride alone on insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patientsDiabetes Metab Syndr.(Jan-Feb 2019)
  158. Coenzyme Q10 - Gholami M, Zarei P, Sadeghi Sedeh B, Rafiei F, Khosrowbeygi AEffects of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on serum values of adiponectin, leptin, 8-isoprostane and malondialdehyde in women with type 2 diabetesGynecol Endocrinol.(2018 Dec)
  159. Zinc - Seet RC, Lee CY, Lim EC, Quek AM, Huang H, Huang SH, Looi WF, Long LH, Halliwell BOral zinc supplementation does not improve oxidative stress or vascular function in patients with type 2 diabetes with normal zinc levelsAtherosclerosis.(2011 Nov)
  160. Caffeine - Wedick NM, Brennan AM, Sun Q, Hu FB, Mantzoros CS, van Dam RMEffects of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee on biological risk factors for type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trialNutr J.(2011 Sep 13)
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  162. Licorice - Bell ZW, Canale RE, Bloomer RJA dual investigation of the effect of dietary supplementation with licorice flavonoid oil on anthropometric and biochemical markers of health and adiposityLipids Health Dis.(2011 Feb 10)
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  164. Ginger - Muhammad S Mansour, Yu-Ming Ni, Amy L Roberts, Michael Kelleman, Arindam Roychoudhury, Marie-Pierre St-OngeGinger consumption enhances the thermic effect of food and promotes feelings of satiety without affecting metabolic and hormonal parameters in overweight men: a pilot studyMetabolism.(2012 Oct)
  165. Garlic - Gómez-Arbeláez D, Lahera V, Oubiña P, Valero-Muñoz M, de Las Heras N, Rodríguez Y, García RG, Camacho PA, López-Jaramillo PAged garlic extract improves adiponectin levels in subjects with metabolic syndrome: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover studyMediators Inflamm.(2013)
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  167. Japanese Knotweed - Ghanim H, Sia CL, Abuaysheh S, Korzeniewski K, Patnaik P, Marumganti A, Chaudhuri A, Dandona PAn antiinflammatory and reactive oxygen species suppressive effects of an extract of Polygonum cuspidatum containing resveratrolJ Clin Endocrinol Metab.(2010 Sep)
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  170. Creatine - Rooney KB, Bryson JM, Digney AL, Rae CD, Thompson CHCreatine supplementation affects glucose homeostasis but not insulin secretion in humansAnn Nutr Metab.(2003)
  171. OMAD And 20:4 Intermittent Fasting - B D Horne, J B Muhlestein, D L Lappé, H T May, J F Carlquist, O Galenko, K D Brunisholz, J L AndersonRandomized cross-over trial of short-term water-only fasting: metabolic and cardiovascular consequencesNutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis.(2013 Nov)
  172. Niacinamide (Vitamin B3) - Fraterrigo G, Fabbrini E, Mittendorfer B, O'Rahilly S, Scherer PE, Patterson BW, Klein SRelationship between Changes in Plasma Adiponectin Concentration and Insulin Sensitivity after Niacin TherapyCardiorenal Med.(2012 Aug)
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  174. Gamma Oryzanol - Fry AC, Bonner E, Lewis DL, Johnson RL, Stone MH, Kraemer WJThe effects of gamma-oryzanol supplementation during resistance exercise trainingInt J Sport Nutr.(1997 Dec)
  175. Fenugreek - Mathern JR, Raatz SK, Thomas W, Slavin JLEffect of fenugreek fiber on satiety, blood glucose and insulin response and energy intake in obese subjectsPhytother Res.(2009 Nov)
  176. Red Clover Extract - Howes JB, Tran D, Brillante D, Howes LGEffects of dietary supplementation with isoflavones from red clover on ambulatory blood pressure and endothelial function in postmenopausal type 2 diabetesDiabetes Obes Metab.(2003 Sep)
  177. Saffron - Mostafa Asadollahi, Parisa Nikdokht, Boshra Hatef, Seyed Shahabeddin Sadr, Hedayat Sahraei, Farhad Assarzadegan, Gila Pirzad JahromiProtective properties of the aqueous extract of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in ischemic stroke, randomized clinical trialJ Ethnopharmacol.(2019 Jun 28)
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  179. Apple Cider Vinegar - Johnston CS, Kim CM, Buller AJVinegar improves insulin sensitivity to a high-carbohydrate meal in subjects with insulin resistance or type 2 diabetesDiabetes Care.(2004 Jan)
  180. L-Carnitine - Giuseppe Derosa, Pamela Maffioli, Sibilla A T Salvadeo, Ilaria Ferrari, Alessia Gravina, Roberto Mereu, Angela D'Angelo, Ilaria Palumbo, Sabrina Randazzo, Arrigo F G CiceroEffects of combination of sibutramine and L-carnitine compared with sibutramine monotherapy on inflammatory parameters in diabetic patientsMetabolism.(2011 Mar)
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  182. Moringa - Felicia William, S. Lakshminarayanan, Hariprasad CheguEffect of some Indian vegetables on the glucose and insulin response in diabetic subjectsInternational Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition.()
  183. 16:8 Intermittent Fasting - Kelsey Gabel, Kristin K Hoddy, Nicole Haggerty, Jeehee Song, Cynthia M Kroeger, John F Trepanowski, Satchidananda Panda, Krista A VaradyEffects of 8-hour time restricted feeding on body weight and metabolic disease risk factors in obese adults: A pilot studyNutr Healthy Aging.(2018 Jun 15)
  184. Chromium - Joseph LJ, Farrell PA, Davey SL, Evans WJ, Campbell WWEffect of resistance training with or without chromium picolinate supplementation on glucose metabolism in older men and womenMetabolism.(1999 May)
  185. Citrulline - C Moinard, I Nicolis, N Neveux, S Darquy, S Bénazeth, L CynoberDose-ranging effects of citrulline administration on plasma amino acids and hormonal patterns in healthy subjects: the Citrudose pharmacokinetic studyBr J Nutr.(2008 Apr)
  186. Paleolithic Diet - C Mellberg, S Sandberg, M Ryberg, M Eriksson, S Brage, C Larsson, T Olsson, B LindahlLong-term effects of a Palaeolithic-type diet in obese postmenopausal women: a 2-year randomized trialEur J Clin Nutr.(2014 Mar)
  187. Curcumin - Chuengsamarn S, Rattanamongkolgul S, Luechapudiporn R, Phisalaphong C, Jirawatnotai SCurcumin extract for prevention of type 2 diabetesDiabetes Care.(2012 Nov)
  188. Vitamin C - Nieman DC, Henson DA, McAnulty SR, McAnulty L, Swick NS, Utter AC, Vinci DM, Opiela SJ, Morrow JDInfluence of vitamin C supplementation on oxidative and immune changes after an ultramarathonJ Appl Physiol (1985).(2002 May)
  189. Coenzyme Q10 - Fallah M, Askari G, Soleimani A, Feizi A, Asemi ZClinical trial of the effects of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on glycemic control and markers of lipid profiles in diabetic hemodialysis patientsInt Urol Nephrol.(2018 Nov)
  190. Olive Leaf Extract - Wainstein J, Ganz T, Boaz M, Bar Dayan Y, Dolev E, Kerem Z, Madar ZOlive leaf extract as a hypoglycemic agent in both human diabetic subjects and in ratsJ Med Food.(2012 Jul)
  191. Cannabis - Riggs PK, Vaida F, Rossi SS, Sorkin LS, Gouaux B, Grant I, Ellis RJA pilot study of the effects of cannabis on appetite hormones in HIV-infected adult menBrain Res.(2012 Jan 11)
  192. Cocoa Extract - Allgrove J, Farrell E, Gleeson M, Williamson G, Cooper KRegular dark chocolate consumption's reduction of oxidative stress and increase of free-fatty-acid mobilization in response to prolonged cyclingInt J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab.(2011 Apr)
  193. Mango - Shirley F Evans, Maureen Meister, Maryam Mahmood, Heba Eldoumi, Sandra Peterson, Penelope Perkins-Veazie, Stephen L Clarke, Mark Payton, Brenda J Smith, Edralin A LucasMango supplementation improves blood glucose in obese individualsNutr Metab Insights.(2014 Aug 28)
  194. Kefir - Alireza Ostadrahimi, Akbar Taghizadeh, Majid Mobasseri, Nazila Farrin, Laleh Payahoo, Zahra Beyramalipoor Gheshlaghi, Morteza VahedjabbariEffect of probiotic fermented milk (kefir) on glycemic control and lipid profile in type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trialIran J Public Health.(2015 Feb)
  195. TUDCA - Kars M, Yang L, Gregor MF, Mohammed BS, Pietka TA, Finck BN, Patterson BW, Horton JD, Mittendorfer B, Hotamisligil GS, Klein STauroursodeoxycholic Acid may improve liver and muscle but not adipose tissue insulin sensitivity in obese men and womenDiabetes.(2010 Aug)
  196. Sodium Bicarbonate - Smellie WS, O'Donnell J, Davidson H, Couper J, Logue FCEffects of changes in acid base and calcium concentration on fasting serum insulin, proinsulin, and glucose concentrationsJ Clin Pathol.(1994 Nov)
  197. Berberine - Yan HM, Xia MF, Wang Y, Chang XX, Yao XZ, Rao SX, Zeng MS, Tu YF, Feng R, Jia WP, Liu J, Deng W, Jiang JD, Gao XEfficacy of Berberine in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver DiseasePLoS One.(2015 Aug 7)
  198. Potatoes - Daniel L Smith, Rebecca L Hanson, Stephanie L Dickinson, Xiwei Chen, Amy M Goss, John B Cleek, W Timothy Garvey, David B AllisonFrench-fried potatoes consumption and energy balance: a randomized controlled trialAm J Clin Nutr.(2022 Feb 18)
  199. Fish Oil - Krebs JD, Browning LM, McLean NK, Rothwell JL, Mishra GD, Moore CS, Jebb SAAdditive benefits of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and weight-loss in the management of cardiovascular disease risk in overweight hyperinsulinaemic womenInt J Obes (Lond).(2006 Oct)
  200. Vitamin D - Carrillo AE, Flynn MG, Pinkston C, Markofski MM, Jiang Y, Donkin SS, Teegarden DImpact of vitamin D supplementation during a resistance training intervention on body composition, muscle function, and glucose tolerance in overweight and obese adultsClin Nutr.(2012 Aug 31)
  201. Chromium - Król E, Krejpcio Z, Byks H, Bogdański P, Pupek-Musialik DEffects of chromium brewer's yeast supplementation on body mass, blood carbohydrates, and lipids and minerals in type 2 diabetic patientsBiol Trace Elem Res.(2011 Nov)
  202. Ketogenic Diet - Cohen CW, Fontaine KR, Arend RC, Alvarez RD, Leath CA III, Huh WK, Bevis KS, Kim KH, Straughn JM Jr, Gower BAA Ketogenic Diet Reduces Central Obesity and Serum Insulin in Women with Ovarian or Endometrial CancerJ Nutr.(2018 Aug 1)
  203. Inositol - M Nordio, E ProiettiThe combined therapy with myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol reduces the risk of metabolic disease in PCOS overweight patients compared to myo-inositol supplementation aloneEur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci.(2012 May)
  204. Apple Cider Vinegar - Kondo T, Kishi M, Fushimi T, Ugajin S, Kaga TVinegar intake reduces body weight, body fat mass, and serum triglyceride levels in obese Japanese subjectsBiosci Biotechnol Biochem.(2009 Aug)
  205. Safflower Oil - Michelle L Asp, Angela L Collene, Leigh E Norris, Rachel M Cole, Michael B Stout, Szu-Yu Tang, Jason C Hsu, Martha A BeluryTime-dependent effects of safflower oil to improve glycemia, inflammation and blood lipids in obese, post-menopausal women with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-masked, crossover studyClin Nutr.(2011 Aug)
  206. Conjugated Linoleic Acid - Tricon S, Burdge GC, Jones EL, Russell JJ, El-Khazen S, Moretti E, Hall WL, Gerry AB, Leake DS, Grimble RF, Williams CM, Calder PC, Yaqoob PEffects of dairy products naturally enriched with cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid on the blood lipid profile in healthy middle-aged menAm J Clin Nutr.(2006 Apr)
  207. Inositol - Santamaria A, Giordano D, Corrado F, Pintaudi B, Interdonato ML, Vieste GD, Benedetto AD, D'Anna ROne-year effects of myo-inositol supplementation in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndromeClimacteric.(2012 Oct)
  208. Psyllium - Sierra M, García JJ, Fernández N, Diez MJ, Calle APTherapeutic effects of psyllium in type 2 diabetic patientsEur J Clin Nutr.(2002 Sep)
  209. Hesperidin - Morand C, Dubray C, Milenkovic D, Lioger D, Martin JF, Scalbert A, Mazur AHesperidin contributes to the vascular protective effects of orange juice: a randomized crossover study in healthy volunteersAm J Clin Nutr.(2011 Jan)
  210. Berberine - Pérez-Rubio KG, González-Ortiz M, Martínez-Abundis E, Robles-Cervantes JA, Espinel-Bermúdez MCEffect of berberine administration on metabolic syndrome, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretionMetab Syndr Relat Disord.(2013 Oct)
  211. Vitamin C - Pirbudak L, Balat O, Cekmen M, Ugur MG, Aygün S, Oner UEffect of ascorbic acid on surgical stress response in gynecologic surgeryInt J Clin Pract.(2004 Oct)
  212. Vitamin K - Sakamoto N, Nishiike T, Iguchi H, Sakamoto KPossible effects of one week vitamin K (menaquinone-4) tablets intake on glucose tolerance in healthy young male volunteers with different descarboxy prothrombin levelsClin Nutr.(2000 Aug)
  213. DHEA - Martina V, Benso A, Gigliardi VR, Masha A, Origlia C, Granata R, Ghigo EShort-term dehydroepiandrosterone treatment increases platelet cGMP production in elderly male subjectsClin Endocrinol (Oxf).(2006 Mar)
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  215. Apple Cider Vinegar - Gheflati A, Bashiri R, Ghadiri-Anari A, Reza JZ, Kord MT, Nadjarzadeh AThe effect of apple vinegar consumption on glycemic indices, blood pressure, oxidative stress, and homocysteine in patients with type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia: A randomized controlled clinical trialClin Nutr ESPEN.(2019 Oct)
  216. Chromium - Lydic ML, McNurlan M, Bembo S, Mitchell L, Komaroff E, Gelato MChromium picolinate improves insulin sensitivity in obese subjects with polycystic ovary syndromeFertil Steril.(2006 Jul)
  217. Psyllium - de Bock M, Derraik JG, Brennan CM, Biggs JB, Smith GC, Cameron-Smith D, Wall CR, Cutfield WSPsyllium supplementation in adolescents improves fat distribution & lipid profile: a randomized, participant-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trialPLoS One.(2012)
  218. Cocoa Extract - Monahan KD, Feehan RP, Kunselman AR, Preston AG, Miller DL, Lott MEDose-dependent increases in flow-mediated dilation following acute cocoa ingestion in healthy older adultsJ Appl Physiol.(2011 Dec)
  219. Biotin (Vitamin B7) - Revilla-Monsalve C, Zendejas-Ruiz I, Islas-Andrade S, Báez-Saldaña A, Palomino-Garibay MA, Hernández-Quiróz PM, Fernandez-Mejia CBiotin supplementation reduces plasma triacylglycerol and VLDL in type 2 diabetic patients and in nondiabetic subjects with hypertriglyceridemiaBiomed Pharmacother.(2006 May)
  220. Green Tea Extract - Wu AH, Spicer D, Stanczyk FZ, Tseng CC, Yang CS, Pike MCEffect of 2-month controlled green tea intervention on lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and hormone levels in healthy postmenopausal womenCancer Prev Res (Phila).(2012 Mar)
  221. Melatonin - Gonciarz M, Bielański W, Partyka R, Brzozowski T, Konturek PC, Eszyk J, Celiński K, Reiter RJ, Konturek SJPlasma insulin, leptin, adiponectin, resistin, ghrelin, and melatonin in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis patients treated with melatoninJ Pineal Res.(2012 Jun 13)
  222. Vegan Diet - Hana Kahleova, James McCann, Jihad Alwarith, Emilie Rembert, Andrea Tura, Richard Holubkov, Neal D BarnardA plant-based diet in overweight adults in a 16-week randomized clinical trial: The role of dietary acid loadClin Nutr ESPEN.(2021 Aug)
  223. Niacinamide (Vitamin B3) - Westphal S, Borucki K, Taneva E, Makarova R, Luley CExtended-release niacin raises adiponectin and leptinAtherosclerosis.(2007 Aug)
  224. Inositol - Donà G, Sabbadin C, Fiore C, Bragadin M, Giorgino FL, Ragazzi E, Clari G, Bordin L, Armanini DInositol administration reduces oxidative stress in erythrocytes of patients with polycystic ovary syndromeEur J Endocrinol.(2012 Apr)
  225. Vitamin C - Mason SA, Rasmussen B, van Loon LJC, Salmon J, Wadley GDAscorbic acid supplementation improves postprandial glycaemic control and blood pressure in individuals with type 2 diabetes: Findings of a randomized cross-over trialDiabetes Obes Metab.(2019 Mar)
  226. Ketogenic Diet - Noakes M, Foster PR, Keogh JB, James AP, Mamo JC, Clifton PMComparison of isocaloric very low carbohydrate/high saturated fat and high carbohydrate/low saturated fat diets on body composition and cardiovascular riskNutr Metab (Lond).(2006 Jan 11)
  227. Salacia Reticulata - Heacock PM, Hertzler SR, Williams JA, Wolf BWEffects of a medical food containing an herbal alpha-glucosidase inhibitor on postprandial glycemia and insulinemia in healthy adultsJ Am Diet Assoc.(2005 Jan)
  228. Inositol - Gerli S, Mignosa M, Di Renzo GCEffects of inositol on ovarian function and metabolic factors in women with PCOS: a randomized double blind placebo-controlled trialEur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci.(2003 Nov-Dec)
  229. Ketogenic Diet - Vazquez JA, Kazi ULipolysis and gluconeogenesis from glycerol during weight reduction with very-low-calorie dietsMetabolism.(1994 Oct)
  230. Astaxanthin - Res PT, Cermak NM, Stinkens R, Tollakson TJ, Haenen GR, Bast A, Van Loon LJAstaxanthin supplementation does not augment fat use or improve endurance performanceMed Sci Sports Exerc.(2013 Jun)
  231. Medium-chain Triglycerides - Han JR, Deng B, Sun J, Chen CG, Corkey BE, Kirkland JL, Ma J, Guo WEffects of dietary medium-chain triglyceride on weight loss and insulin sensitivity in a group of moderately overweight free-living type 2 diabetic Chinese subjectsMetabolism.(2007 Jul)
  232. Black Cohosh - Spangler L, Newton KM, Grothaus LC, Reed SD, Ehrlich K, LaCroix AZThe effects of black cohosh therapies on lipids, fibrinogen, glucose and insulinMaturitas.(2007 Jun 20)
  233. Ketogenic Diet - Phillips SA, Jurva JW, Syed AQ, Syed AQ, Kulinski JP, Pleuss J, Hoffmann RG, Gutterman DDBenefit of low-fat over low-carbohydrate diet on endothelial health in obesityHypertension.(2008 Feb)
  234. Vegan Diet - Hana Kahleova, Andrea Tura, Martin Hill, Richard Holubkov, Neal D BarnardA Plant-Based Dietary Intervention Improves Beta-Cell Function and Insulin Resistance in Overweight Adults: A 16-Week Randomized Clinical TrialNutrients.(2018 Feb 9)
  235. Paleolithic Diet - Małgorzata Jamka, Bartosz Kulczyński, Agata Juruć, Anna Gramza-Michałowska, Caroline S Stokes, Jarosław WalkowiakThe Effect of the Paleolithic Diet vs. Healthy Diets on Glucose and Insulin Homeostasis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled TrialsJ Clin Med.(2020 Jan 21)
  236. L-Carnitine - Giuseppe Derosa, Pamela Maffioli, Ilaria Ferrari, Angela D'Angelo, Elena Fogari, Ilaria Palumbo, Sabrina Randazzo, Arrigo F G CiceroComparison between orlistat plus l-carnitine and orlistat alone on inflammation parameters in obese diabetic patientsFundam Clin Pharmacol.(2011 Oct)
  237. Coenzyme Q10 - Hodgson JM, Watts GF, Playford DA, Burke V, Croft KDCoenzyme Q10 improves blood pressure and glycaemic control: a controlled trial in subjects with type 2 diabetesEur J Clin Nutr.(2002 Nov)
  238. Vitamin C - Bo S, Ciccone G, Durazzo M, Gambino R, Massarenti P, Baldi I, Lezo A, Tiozzo E, Pauletto D, Cassader M, Pagano GEfficacy of antioxidant treatment in reducing resistin serum levels: a randomized studyPLoS Clin Trials.(2007 May 4)
  239. Chromium - Offenbacher EG, Rinko CJ, Pi-Sunyer FXThe effects of inorganic chromium and brewer's yeast on glucose tolerance, plasma lipids, and plasma chromium in elderly subjectsAm J Clin Nutr.(1985 Sep)
  240. L-Carnitine - Jun-jie Zhang, Zhi-bing Wu, You-jin Cai, Bin Ke, Ying-juan Huang, Chao-ping Qiu, Yu-bing Yang, Lan-ying Shi, Jian QinL-carnitine ameliorated fasting-induced fatigue, hunger, and metabolic abnormalities in patients with metabolic syndrome: a randomized controlled studyNutr J.(2014 Nov 26)
  241. Betaine - Apicella JM, Lee EC, Bailey BL, Saenz C, Anderson JM, Craig SA, Kraemer WJ, Volek JS, Maresh CMBetaine supplementation enhances anabolic endocrine and Akt signaling in response to acute bouts of exerciseEur J Appl Physiol.(2013 Mar)
  242. Cocoa Extract - Grassi D, Desideri G, Necozione S, Lippi C, Casale R, Properzi G, Blumberg JB, Ferri CBlood pressure is reduced and insulin sensitivity increased in glucose-intolerant, hypertensive subjects after 15 days of consuming high-polyphenol dark chocolateJ Nutr.(2008 Sep)
  243. Curcumin - Maithili Karpaga Selvi N, Sridhar MG, Swaminathan RP, Sripradha REfficacy of Turmeric as Adjuvant Therapy in Type 2 Diabetic PatientsIndian J Clin Biochem.(2015 Apr)
  244. Cocoa Extract - Glen Davison, Robin Callister, Gary Williamson, Karen A Cooper, Michael GleesonThe effect of acute pre-exercise dark chocolate consumption on plasma antioxidant status, oxidative stress and immunoendocrine responses to prolonged exerciseEur J Nutr.(2012 Feb)
  245. Chromium - Anderson RA, Cheng N, Bryden NA, Polansky MM, Cheng N, Chi J, Feng JElevated intakes of supplemental chromium improve glucose and insulin variables in individuals with type 2 diabetesDiabetes.(1997 Nov)
  246. Red Clover Extract - Blakesmith SJ, Lyons-Wall PM, George C, Joannou GE, Petocz P, Samman SEffects of supplementation with purified red clover (Trifolium pratense) isoflavones on plasma lipids and insulin resistance in healthy premenopausal womenBr J Nutr.(2003 Apr)
  247. Cocoa Extract - Grassi D, Necozione S, Lippi C, Croce G, Valeri L, Pasqualetti P, Desideri G, Blumberg JB, Ferri CCocoa reduces blood pressure and insulin resistance and improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in hypertensivesHypertension.(2005 Aug)
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  249. Yacon - Genta S, Cabrera W, Habib N, Pons J, Carillo IM, Grau A, Sánchez SYacon syrup: beneficial effects on obesity and insulin resistance in humansClin Nutr.(2009 Apr)
  250. Resveratrol - Timmers S, Konings E, Bilet L, Houtkooper RH, van de Weijer T, Goossens GH, Hoeks J, van der Krieken S, Ryu D, Kersten S, Moonen-Kornips E, Hesselink MK, Kunz I, Schrauwen-Hinderling VB, Blaak EE, Auwerx J, Schrauwen PCalorie restriction-like effects of 30 days of resveratrol supplementation on energy metabolism and metabolic profile in obese humansCell Metab.(2011 Nov 2)
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  252. Bladderwrack - Paradis ME, Couture P, Lamarche BA randomised crossover placebo-controlled trial investigating the effect of brown seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus) on postchallenge plasma glucose and insulin levels in men and womenAppl Physiol Nutr Metab.(2011 Dec)
  253. Vitamin C - Mason SA, Della Gatta PA, Snow RJ, Russell AP, Wadley GDAscorbic acid supplementation improves skeletal muscle oxidative stress and insulin sensitivity in people with type 2 diabetes: Findings of a randomized controlled studyFree Radic Biol Med.(2016 Apr)
  254. Vitamin D - Abolfazl Mehdizadehkashi, Samaneh Rokhgireh, Kobra Tahermanesh, Neda Eslahi, Sara Minaeian, Mansooreh SamimiThe effect of vitamin D supplementation on clinical symptoms and metabolic profiles in patients with endometriosisGynecol Endocrinol.(2021 Jan 29)
  255. Krill Oil - Banni S, Carta G, Murru E, Cordeddu L, Giordano E, Sirigu AR, Berge K, Vik H, Maki KC, Di Marzo V, Griinari MKrill oil significantly decreases 2-arachidonoylglycerol plasma levels in obese subjectsNutr Metab (Lond).(2011 Jan 30)
  256. Citrulline - Thibault R, Flet L, Vavasseur F, Lemerle M, Ferchaud-Roucher V, Picot D, Darmaun DOral citrulline does not affect whole body protein metabolism in healthy human volunteers: results of a prospective, randomized, double-blind, cross-over studyClin Nutr.(2011 Dec)
  257. Vitamin D - Harris SS, Pittas AG, Palermo NJA randomized, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation to improve glycaemia in overweight and obese African AmericansDiabetes Obes Metab.(2012 Sep)
  258. Tart Cherry Juice - Desai T, Roberts M, Bottoms LEffects of short-term continuous Montmorency tart cherry juice supplementation in participants with metabolic syndrome.Eur J Nutr.(2021-Apr)
  259. Tart Cherry Juice - Rachel Kimble, Karen M Keane, John K Lodge, Glyn HowatsonThe Influence of Tart Cherry ( Prunus cerasus, cv Montmorency) Concentrate Supplementation for 3 Months on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Middle-Aged Adults: A Randomised, Placebo-Controlled TrialNutrients.(2021 Apr 23)
  260. Tart Cherry Juice - Angela R Hillman, Bryna C R ChrismasThirty Days of Montmorency Tart Cherry Supplementation Has No Effect on Gut Microbiome Composition, Inflammation, or Glycemic Control in Healthy AdultsFront Nutr.(2021 Sep 16)
  261. Tart Cherry Juice - Johnson SA, Navaei N, Pourafshar S, Jaime SJ, Akhavan NS, Alvarez-Alvarado S, Proaño GV, Litwin NS, Clark EA, Foley EM, George KS, Elam ML, Payton ME, Arjmandi BH, Figueroa AEffects of Montmorency Tart Cherry Juice Consumption on Cardiometabolic Biomarkers in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial.J Med Food.(2020-Dec)
  262. Tart Cherry Juice - Keith R Martin, Katie M ColesConsumption of 100% Tart Cherry Juice Reduces Serum Urate in Overweight and Obese AdultsCurr Dev Nutr.(2019 Feb 25)
  263. Tart Cherry Juice - Chai SC, Davis K, Wright RS, Kuczmarski MF, Zhang ZImpact of tart cherry juice on systolic blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in older adults: a randomized controlled trial.Food Funct.(2018-Jun-20)
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  265. Magnesium - Verma H, Garg REffect of magnesium supplementation on type 2 diabetes associated cardiovascular risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysisJ Hum Nutr Diet.(2017 Oct)
  266. Magnesium - Farsinejad-Marj M, Azadbakht L, Mardanian F, Saneei P, Esmaillzadeh AClinical and Metabolic Responses to Magnesium Supplementation in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.Biol Trace Elem Res.(2020-Aug)
  267. Magnesium - Mohammad Alizadeh, Majid Karandish, Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi, Lida Heidari, Roshan Nikbakht, Hossein Babaahmadi Rezaei, Reihaneh MousaviMetabolic and hormonal effects of melatonin and/or magnesium supplementation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialNutr Metab (Lond).(2021 Jun 6)
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  269. Magnesium - Norouzi M, Rezvankhah B, Haeri MR, Heydari H, Tafaroji J, Shafigh N, Avval JO, Dahmardeh AR, Masoumzadeh N, Gharehbeglou MMagnesium supplementation and insulin resistance in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.Eur J Transl Myol.(2022-Jul-05)
  270. Magnesium - Qu Q, Rong R, Yu JEffect of magnesium supplementation on pregnancy outcome in gestational diabetes mellitus patients: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.Food Sci Nutr.(2022-Oct)
  271. Magnesium - Xiaoqing Tan, Yi HuangMagnesium supplementation for glycemic status in women with gestational diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysisGynecol Endocrinol.(2021 Dec 15)
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  276. Chromium - Tang XL, Sun Z, Gong LChromium supplementation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: Systematic review and meta-analysisJ Obstet Gynaecol Res.(2018 Jan)
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  286. Resistant Starch - Xiong K, Wang J, Kang T, Xu F, Ma AEffects of resistant starch on glycaemic control: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Br J Nutr.(2021-Jun-14)
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