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Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a proinflammatory cytokine that is used as a marker of inflammation. Its reduction is thought to reflect a lesser state of inflammation in the body.

Research analysis lead by Kamal Patel
All content reviewed by Examine.com Team. Published:
Last Updated:

Things To Know & Note

Also Known As

TNF-α, TNF, Tumor necrosis factor alpha

Human Effect Matrix

The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (it excludes animal and in vitro studies) to tell you what supplements affect tnf-alpha
Grade Level of Evidence
Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials
Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies
Uncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
? The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results.
Outcome Magnitude of effect
? The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Consistency of research results
? Scientific research does not always agree. HIGH or VERY HIGH means that most of the scientific research agrees.
grade-b Fish Oil Minor High See all 6 studies
May decrease TNF-a
grade-b Conjugated Linoleic Acid - High See all 4 studies
Insufficient evidence to support changes in TNFa, a biomarker of inflammmation.
grade-c Ganoderma lucidum Minor Very High See 2 studies
A reduction in TNF-alpha levels have been noted in persons with elevated baseline TNF-alpha levels
grade-c Garlic  
grade-c Japanese Knotweed  
grade-c Resveratrol  
grade-c Tetradecyl Thioacetic Acid  
grade-c Vitamin D  
grade-c Zinc  
grade-c Blueberry  
grade-c Cocoa Extract  
grade-c Colostrum  
grade-c Creatine  
grade-c L-Carnitine  
grade-c Lactobacillus reuteri  
grade-c Punicic Acid  
grade-c Rose Hip  
grade-c Stinging Nettle  
grade-c Trimethylglycine  
grade-c Vitamin B3 (Niacin)  
grade-c Vitamin E  
grade-d Perilla Oil  
grade-d Vitamin C  

All comparative evidence is now gathered in our ​A-to-Z Supplement Reference.

The evidence for each separate supplement is still freely available ​here.