Last Updated: June 2, 2022

Known as the female hormone, 'Estrogen' is a group of compounds that tends to work in opposition to androgens (like testosterone) and mediate fat metabolism, cognition, blood flow, and female reproduction. Men sometimes wish to lower estrogen via aromatase inhibition.

Examine Database: Estrogen
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  1. ^Milanesi L, Russo de Boland A, Boland RExpression and localization of estrogen receptor alpha in the C2C12 murine skeletal muscle cell lineJ Cell Biochem.(2008 Jul 1)
  2. ^Milanesi L, Vasconsuelo A, de Boland AR, Boland RExpression and subcellular distribution of native estrogen receptor beta in murine C2C12 cells and skeletal muscle tissueSteroids.(2009 Jun)
  3. ^Wiik A, Glenmark B, Ekman M, Esbjörnsson-Liljedahl M, Johansson O, Bodin K, Enmark E, Jansson EOestrogen receptor beta is expressed in adult human skeletal muscle both at the mRNA and protein levelActa Physiol Scand.(2003 Dec)
  4. ^Wiik A, Ekman M, Johansson O, Jansson E, Esbjörnsson MExpression of both oestrogen receptor alpha and beta in human skeletal muscle tissueHistochem Cell Biol.(2009 Feb)
  5. ^Wiik A, Ekman M, Morgan G, Johansson O, Jansson E, Esbjörnsson MOestrogen receptor beta is present in both muscle fibres and endothelial cells within human skeletal muscle tissueHistochem Cell Biol.(2005 Aug)
  6. ^Tiidus PM, Holden D, Bombardier E, Zajchowski S, Enns D, Belcastro AEstrogen effect on post-exercise skeletal muscle neutrophil infiltration and calpain activityCan J Physiol Pharmacol.(2001 May)
  7. ^Stupka N, Tiidus PMEffects of ovariectomy and estrogen on ischemia-reperfusion injury in hindlimbs of female ratsJ Appl Physiol.(2001 Oct)
  8. ^Sitnick M, Foley AM, Brown M, Spangenburg EEOvariectomy prevents the recovery of atrophied gastrocnemius skeletal muscle massJ Appl Physiol.(2006 Jan)
  9. ^McClung JM, Davis JM, Wilson MA, Goldsmith EC, Carson JAEstrogen status and skeletal muscle recovery from disuse atrophyJ Appl Physiol.(2006 Jun)
  10. ^Sugiura T, Ito N, Goto K, Naito H, Yoshioka T, Powers SKEstrogen administration attenuates immobilization-induced skeletal muscle atrophy in male ratsJ Physiol Sci.(2006 Dec)
  11. ^Walsh MC, Hunter GR, Livingstone MBSarcopenia in premenopausal and postmenopausal women with osteopenia, osteoporosis and normal bone mineral densityOsteoporos Int.(2006 Jan)
  12. ^Sørensen MB, Rosenfalck AM, Højgaard L, Ottesen BObesity and sarcopenia after menopause are reversed by sex hormone replacement therapyObes Res.(2001 Oct)
  13. ^Enns DL, Iqbal S, Tiidus PMOestrogen receptors mediate oestrogen-induced increases in post-exercise rat skeletal muscle satellite cellsActa Physiol (Oxf).(2008 Sep)
  14. ^Tiidus PM, Deller M, Liu XLOestrogen influence on myogenic satellite cells following downhill running in male rats: a preliminary studyActa Physiol Scand.(2005 May)
  15. ^Enns DL, Tiidus PMEstrogen influences satellite cell activation and proliferation following downhill running in ratsJ Appl Physiol.(2008 Feb)
  16. ^Thomas A, Bunyan K, Tiidus PMOestrogen receptor-alpha activation augments post-exercise myoblast proliferationActa Physiol (Oxf).(2010 Jan)
  17. ^Velders M, Schleipen B, Fritzemeier KH, Zierau O, Diel PSelective estrogen receptor-β activation stimulates skeletal muscle growth and regenerationFASEB J.(2012 May)
Examine Database References
  1. DHEA - Jedrzejuk D, Medras M, Milewicz A, Demissie MDehydroepiandrosterone replacement in healthy men with age-related decline of DHEA-S: effects on fat distribution, insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolismAging Male.(2003 Sep)
  2. Fenugreek - Wilborn C, Taylor L, Poole C, Foster C, Willoughby D, Kreider REffects of a purported aromatase and 5α-reductase inhibitor on hormone profiles in college-age menInt J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab.(2010 Dec)
  3. DHEA - Kahn AJ, Halloran B, Wolkowitz O, Brizendine LDehydroepiandrosterone supplementation and bone turnover in middle-aged to elderly menJ Clin Endocrinol Metab.(2002 Apr)
  4. DHEA - Muller M, van den Beld AW, van der Schouw YT, Grobbee DE, Lamberts SWEffects of dehydroepiandrosterone and atamestane supplementation on frailty in elderly menJ Clin Endocrinol Metab.(2006 Oct)
  5. Licorice - Helga Agusta Sigurjonsdottir, Magnus Axelson, Gudmundur Johannsson, Karin Manhem, Ernst Nystrom, Sven WallerstedtLiquorice in moderate doses does not affect sex steroid hormones of biological importance although the effect differs between the gendersHorm Res.(2006)
  6. Fenugreek - Brandon Bushey, Lem W. Taylor, Colin W. Wilborn, Chris Poole, Cliffa A. Foster, Bill Campbell, Richard B. Kreider, Darryn S. WilloughbyFenugreek Extract Supplementation Has No effect on the Hormonal Profile of Resitance-Trained MalesInternational Journal of Exercise Science.()
  7. Maca - Brooks NA, Wilcox G, Walker KZ, Ashton JF, Cox MB, Stojanovska LBeneficial effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on psychological symptoms and measures of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women are not related to estrogen or androgen contentMenopause.(2008 Nov-Dec)
  8. Vitamin K - Ozuru R, Sugimoto T, Yamaguchi T, Chihara KTime-dependent effects of vitamin K2 (menatetrenone) on bone metabolism in postmenopausal womenEndocr J.(2002 Jun)
  9. DHEA - Brown GA, Vukovich MD, Sharp RL, Reifenrath TA, Parsons KA, King DSEffect of oral DHEA on serum testosterone and adaptations to resistance training in young menJ Appl Physiol.(1999 Dec)
  10. Red Clover Extract - Atkinson C, Warren RM, Sala E, Dowsett M, Dunning AM, Healey CS, Runswick S, Day NE, Bingham SARed-clover-derived isoflavones and mammographic breast density: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial ISRCTN42940165Breast Cancer Res.(2004)
  11. Kudzu - Woo J, Lau E, Ho SC, Cheng F, Chan C, Chan AS, Haines CJ, Chan TY, Li M, Sham AComparison of Pueraria lobata with hormone replacement therapy in treating the adverse health consequences of menopauseMenopause.(2003 Jul-Aug)
  12. Red Clover Extract - Baber RJ, Templeman C, Morton T, Kelly GE, West LRandomized placebo-controlled trial of an isoflavone supplement and menopausal symptoms in womenClimacteric.(1999 Jun)
  13. Alcohol - Välimäki MJ, Härkönen M, Eriksson CJ, Ylikahri RHSex hormones and adrenocortical steroids in men acutely intoxicated with ethanolAlcohol.(1984 Jan-Feb)
  14. Red Clover Extract - Hidalgo LA, Chedraui PA, Morocho N, Ross S, San Miguel GThe effect of red clover isoflavones on menopausal symptoms, lipids and vaginal cytology in menopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studyGynecol Endocrinol.(2005 Nov)
  15. DHEA - Alessandro D Genazzani, Massimo Stomati, Francesca Bernardi, Matteo Pieri, Lucio Rovati, Andrea R GenazzaniLong-term low-dose dehydroepiandrosterone oral supplementation in early and late postmenopausal women modulates endocrine parameters and synthesis of neuroactive steroidsFertil Steril.(2003 Dec)
  16. Licorice - Mee Jung Mattarello, Stefano Benedini, Cristina Fiore, Valentina Camozzi, Paola Sartorato, Giovanni Luisetto, Decio ArmaniniEffect of licorice on PTH levels in healthy womenSteroids.(2006 May)
  17. Saffron - Fukui H, Toyoshima K, Komaki RPsychological and neuroendocrinological effects of odor of saffron (Crocus sativus)Phytomedicine.(2011 Jun 15)
  18. DHEA - Igwebuike A, Irving BA, Bigelow ML, Short KR, McConnell JP, Nair KSLack of dehydroepiandrosterone effect on a combined endurance and resistance exercise program in postmenopausal womenJ Clin Endocrinol Metab.(2008 Feb)
  19. Grape Seed Extract - Ikuko Kijima, Sheryl Phung, Gene Hur, Sum-Ling Kwok, Shiuan ChenGrape seed extract is an aromatase inhibitor and a suppressor of aromatase expressionCancer Res.(2006 Jun 1)
  20. DHEA - Ostojic SM, Calleja J, Jourkesh MEffects of short-term dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation on body composition in young athletesChin J Physiol.(2010 Feb 28)
  21. Coenzyme Q10 - Izadi A, Ebrahimi S, Shirazi S, Taghizadeh S, Parizad M, Farzadi L, Gargari BPHormonal and Metabolic Effects of Coenzyme Q10 and/or Vitamin E in Patients With Polycystic Ovary SyndromeJ Clin Endocrinol Metab.(2019 Feb 1)
  22. Red Clover Extract - Lee CC, Bloem CJ, Kasa-Vubu JZ, Liang LJEffect of oral phytoestrogen on androgenicity and insulin sensitivity in postmenopausal womenDiabetes Obes Metab.(2012 Apr)
  23. Maca - Meissner HO, Mscisz A, Reich-Bilinska H, Mrozikiewicz P, Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska T, Kedzia B, Lowicka A, Barchia IHormone-Balancing Effect of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon): (III) Clinical responses of early-postmenopausal women to Maca in double blind, randomized, Placebo-controlled, crossover configuration, outpatient studyInt J Biomed Sci.(2006 Dec)
  24. DHEA - Martina V, Benso A, Gigliardi VR, Masha A, Origlia C, Granata R, Ghigo EShort-term dehydroepiandrosterone treatment increases platelet cGMP production in elderly male subjectsClin Endocrinol (Oxf).(2006 Mar)
  25. Boron - Nielsen FH, Hunt CD, Mullen LM, Hunt JREffect of dietary boron on mineral, estrogen, and testosterone metabolism in postmenopausal womenFASEB J.(1987 Nov)
  26. Maca - Gonzales GF, Córdova A, Vega K, Chung A, Villena A, Góñez CEffect of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), a root with aphrodisiac and fertility-enhancing properties, on serum reproductive hormone levels in adult healthy menJ Endocrinol.(2003 Jan)
  27. Maca - Tsuyoshi Takewaka, Kiyoshi HaraClinical Effect of Oral Administration of Maca (Lepidium meyenii) Extract on Japanese Peri-Menopausal Women Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled StudyInt J Biomed Sci.()
  28. Horny Goat Weed - J Li, L Lee, Y Gong, P Shen, S P Wong, Stephen D Wise, E L YongBioassays for estrogenic activity: development and validation of estrogen receptor (ERalpha/ERbeta) and breast cancer proliferation bioassays to measure serum estrogenic activity in clinical studiesAssay Drug Dev Technol.(2009 Feb)
  29. Maca - Meissner HO, Mscisz A, Reich-Bilinska H, Kapczynski W, Mrozikiewicz P, Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska T, Kedzia B, Lowicka A, Barchia IHormone-Balancing Effect of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon): (II) Physiological and Symptomatic Responses of Early-Postmenopausal Women to Standardized doses of Maca in Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Multi-Centre Clinical StudyInt J Biomed Sci.(2006 Dec)
  30. 7-Keto DHEA - Douglas S. Kaiman, Carlon M. Colker, Melissa A. Swain, Georgeann C. Torina, Qiuhu ShiA randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 3-acetyl-7-oxo-dehydroepiandrosterone in healthy overweight adultsCurrent Therapeutic Research.()
  31. Ashwagandha - Adrian L Lopresti, Peter D Drummond, Stephen J SmithA Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study Examining the Hormonal and Vitality Effects of Ashwagandha ( Withania somnifera) in Aging, Overweight MalesAm J Mens Health.(Mar-Apr 2019)
  32. DHEA - Yamada S, Akishita M, Fukai S, Ogawa S, Yamaguchi K, Matsuyama J, Kozaki K, Toba K, Ouchi YEffects of dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation on cognitive function and activities of daily living in older women with mild to moderate cognitive impairmentGeriatr Gerontol Int.(2010 Oct)
  33. Garcinia - Hayamizu K, Tomi H, Kaneko I, Shen M, Soni MG, Yoshino GEffects of Garcinia cambogia extract on serum sex hormones in overweight subjectsFitoterapia.(2008 Jun)
  34. Vitamin D - Elisabeth Lerchbaum, Christian Trummer, Verena Theiler-Schwetz, Martina Kollmann, Monika Wölfler, Annemieke C Heijboer, Stefan Pilz, Barbara Obermayer-PietschEffects of vitamin D supplementation on androgens in men with low testosterone levels: a randomized controlled trialEur J Nutr.(2019 Dec)
  35. Black Cohosh - Liske E, Hänggi W, Henneicke-von Zepelin HH, Boblitz N, Wüstenberg P, Rahlfs VWPhysiological investigation of a unique extract of black cohosh (Cimicifugae racemosae rhizoma): a 6-month clinical study demonstrates no systemic estrogenic effectJ Womens Health Gend Based Med.(2002 Mar)
  36. Boron - Nielsen F, Penland JBoron supplementation of peri‐menopausal women affects boron metabolism and indices associated with macromineral metabolism, hormonal status and immune functionJ Trace Elem Med Biol.()
  37. Green Tea Extract - Wu AH, Spicer D, Stanczyk FZ, Tseng CC, Yang CS, Pike MCEffect of 2-month controlled green tea intervention on lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and hormone levels in healthy postmenopausal womenCancer Prev Res (Phila).(2012 Mar)
  38. Horny Goat Weed - Zhang G, Qin L, Shi YEpimedium-derived phytoestrogen flavonoids exert beneficial effect on preventing bone loss in late postmenopausal women: a 24-month randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled trialJ Bone Miner Res.(2007 Jul)
  39. Punicalagins - Pantuck AJ, Leppert JT, Zomorodian N, Aronson W, Hong J, Barnard RJ, Seeram N, Liker H, Wang H, Elashoff R, Heber D, Aviram M, Ignarro L, Belldegrun APhase II study of pomegranate juice for men with rising prostate-specific antigen following surgery or radiation for prostate cancerClin Cancer Res.(2006 Jul 1)
  40. Panax Ginseng (Korean Ginseng) - Kim SY, Seo SK, Choi YM, Jeon YE, Lim KJ, Cho S, Choi YS, Lee BSEffects of red ginseng supplementation on menopausal symptoms and cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women: a double-blind randomized controlled trialMenopause.(2012 Apr)
  41. Alcohol - Low plasma testosterone values in men during hangoverJournal of Steroid Biochemistry.()
  42. DHEA - Stomati M, Monteleone P, Casarosa E, Quirici B, Puccetti S, Bernardi F, Genazzani AD, Rovati L, Luisi M, Genazzani ARSix-month oral dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation in early and late postmenopauseGynecol Endocrinol.(2000 Oct)
  43. Alcohol - Sierksma A, Sarkola T, Eriksson CJ, van der Gaag MS, Grobbee DE, Hendriks HFEffect of moderate alcohol consumption on plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, testosterone, and estradiol levels in middle-aged men and postmenopausal women: a diet-controlled intervention studyAlcohol Clin Exp Res.(2004 May)
  44. Red Clover Extract - Imhof M, Gocan A, Reithmayr F, Lipovac M, Schimitzek C, Chedraui P, Huber JEffects of a red clover extract (MF11RCE) on endometrium and sex hormones in postmenopausal womenMaturitas.(2006 Aug 20)
  45. DHEA - Kenny AM, Boxer RS, Kleppinger A, Brindisi J, Feinn R, Burleson JADehydroepiandrosterone combined with exercise improves muscle strength and physical function in frail older womenJ Am Geriatr Soc.(2010 Sep)
  46. Royal Jelly - Morita H, Ikeda T, Kajita K, Fujioka K, Mori I, Okada H, Uno Y, Ishizuka TEffect of royal jelly ingestion for six months on healthy volunteersNutr J.(2012 Sep 21)
  47. D-Aspartic Acid - Darryn S. Willoughby, Brian Leutholtzd-Aspartic acid supplementation combined with 28 days of heavy resistance training has no effect on body composition, muscle strength, and serum hormones associated with the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis in resistance-trained menNutrition Research.()
  48. Maca - Meissner HO, Kapczynski W, Mscisz A, Lutomski JUse of gelatinized maca (lepidium peruvianum) in early postmenopausal womenInt J Biomed Sci.(2005 Jun)
  49. Maca - Melnikovova I, Fait T, Kolarova M, Fernandez EC, Milella LEffect of Lepidium meyenii Walp. on Semen Parameters and Serum Hormone Levels in Healthy Adult Men: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Pilot StudyEvid Based Complement Alternat Med.(2015)
  50. Red Clover Extract - Vrieling A, Rookus MA, Kampman E, Bonfrer JM, Bosma A, Cats A, van Doorn J, Korse CM, Witteman BJ, van Leeuwen FE, van't Veer LJ, Voskuil DWNo effect of red clover-derived isoflavone intervention on the insulin-like growth factor system in women at increased risk of colorectal cancerCancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev.(2008 Oct)
  51. Gamma Oryzanol - Fry AC, Bonner E, Lewis DL, Johnson RL, Stone MH, Kraemer WJThe effects of gamma-oryzanol supplementation during resistance exercise trainingInt J Sport Nutr.(1997 Dec)
  52. DHEA - Weiss EP, Shah K, Fontana L, Lambert CP, Holloszy JO, Villareal DTDehydroepiandrosterone replacement therapy in older adults: 1- and 2-y effects on boneAm J Clin Nutr.(2009 May)
  53. DHEA - Dayal M, Sammel MD, Zhao J, Hummel AC, Vandenbourne K, Barnhart KTSupplementation with DHEA: effect on muscle size, strength, quality of life, and lipidsJ Womens Health (Larchmt).(2005 Jun)
  54. Melatonin - Schernhammer ES, Giobbie-Hurder A, Gantman K, Savoie J, Scheib R, Parker LM, Chen WYA randomized controlled trial of oral melatonin supplementation and breast cancer biomarkersCancer Causes Control.(2012 Apr)
  55. Boron - Naghii MR, Mofid M, Asgari AR, Hedayati M, Daneshpour MSComparative effects of daily and weekly boron supplementation on plasma steroid hormones and proinflammatory cytokinesJ Trace Elem Med Biol.(2011 Jan)
  56. Astaxanthin - Chen JT, Kotani KEffects of Astaxanthin on Liver and Leukocyte Parameters in Healthy Climacteric Women: Preliminary DataJ Med Food.(2017 Jul)
  57. DHEA - Genazzani AR, Pluchino N, Begliuomini S, Stomati M, Bernardi F, Pieri M, Casarosa E, Palumbo M, Genazzani AD, Luisi MLong-term low-dose oral administration of dehydroepiandrosterone modulates adrenal response to adrenocorticotropic hormone in early and late postmenopausal womenGynecol Endocrinol.(2006 Nov)
  58. Maca - Gonzales GF, Córdova A, Vega K, Chung A, Villena A, Góñez C, Castillo SEffect of Lepidium meyenii (MACA) on sexual desire and its absent relationship with serum testosterone levels in adult healthy menAndrologia.(2002 Dec)
  59. Tongkat Ali - Chan KQ, Stewart C, Chester N, Hamzah SH, Yusof AThe effect of Eurycoma Longifolia on the regulation of reproductive hormones in young males.Andrologia.(2021-May)
  60. Horny Goat Weed - Shi S, Wang F, Huang Y, Chen B, Pei C, Huang D, Wang X, Wang Y, Kou S, Li W, Ma T, Wu Y, Wang ZEpimedium for Osteoporosis Based on Western and Eastern Medicine: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.Front Pharmacol.(2022)
  61. N-Acetylcysteine - Zahra Shahveghar Asl, Karim Parastouei, Eslam EskandariThe effects of N-acetylcysteine on ovulation and sex hormones profile in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysisBr J Nutr.(2023 Jan 4)
  62. Red Clover Extract - Katharine E Reed, Juliana Camargo, Jill Hamilton-Reeves, Mindy Kurzer, Mark MessinaNeither soy nor isoflavone intake affects male reproductive hormones: An expanded and updated meta-analysis of clinical studiesReprod Toxicol.(2021 Mar)
  63. DHEA - Marina L, Sojat AS, Maseroli E, Spaggiari G, Pandurevic S, Santi DHormonal profile of menopausal women receiving androgen replacement therapy: a meta-analysis.J Endocrinol Invest.(2020-Jun)
  64. DHEA - Giovanni Corona, Giulia Rastrelli, Vito A Giagulli, Annamaria Sila, Alessandra Sforza, Gianni Forti, Edoardo Mannucci, Mario MaggiDehydroepiandrosterone supplementation in elderly men: a meta-analysis study of placebo-controlled trialsJ Clin Endocrinol Metab.(2013 Sep)