Table of Contents:
You’d think that, with all the information at our fingertips today, nutrition myths would have become less pervasive than in our grandparents’ time.
Unfortunately, the internet is rife with misinformation, and it can be really difficult to tell what’s evidence-based without reading the original research yourself. Myths that were previously passed through word-of-mouth now spread like wildfire through social media, blogs, and even established media. Between a 24-hour news cycle, studies that are both long and difficult to read, and journalists scrambling for the latest viral hit, information often gets published without being verified. And once we’ve assimilated a piece of information, we seldom think to challenge it — we treat it as fact.
As an educational organization that looks only at the evidence, we’ve taken the time to identify 20 nutrition myths that just won’t die. At the end of each section, you’ll find a link to pages that further explore the section’s topic with extensive references.
Carbs and fats often take the blame for various health issues, but the third macronutrient isn’t always spared by the media. Protein has often been accused of harming bones and kidneys.
Let’s tackle those two claims one at a time.
More protein in the diet has been linked to more calcium in the urine. Two reasons have been suggested to explain this phenomenon:
Your body draws from its calcium stores (in bones) to buffer the acid load caused by dietary protein. This has led researchers to suggest that higher protein intake could cause greater bone loss.
Most studies that looked at protein intake and calcium excretion list dairy products as a protein source, so higher urinary calcium could simply be the result of higher calcium intake (i.e., more calcium in, more calcium out).
Therefore, looking only at calcium excretion wasn’t enough. Subsequent studies showed that dietary protein promotes dietary-calcium absorption and that high protein intake “promotes bone growth and retards bone loss (whereas) low-protein diet is associated with higher risk of hip fractures.”
What happens is that when you ingest more protein, you absorb more of the calcium in your food, so less calcium ends up in your feces. Later, your body gets rid of the calcium it doesn’t need, so more calcium ends up in your urine, but not as much as would have otherwise ended in your feces. Therefore, an increase in protein intake leads to an overall decrease in calcium excretion, which points to an increase in calcium retention.
Other studies determined that high protein diets increased glomerular filtration rate (GFR), a marker for waste filtration in the kidneys. It was argued that increased GFR was a sign that undue stress was put on the kidneys, but later research has shown that kidney damage does not occur as a result of diets high in protein.
The Truth: Protein, even in large amounts, isn’t harmful to your bones or kidneys (unless you suffer from a pre-existing condition).
For decades, fat was the enemy; today, there’s a new scapegoat: carbs. Vilifying carbs and insulin seems to get more popular by the year.
Many people believe that the popular glycemic index and the lesser-known insulin index rank foods by their “unhealthiness”. Yet the available research shows that low-glycemic diets, when compared to higher-glycemic diets, have either no effect or only modest beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome factors, even in diabetics. Furthermore, a low-glycemic diet doesn’t always lead to better glycemic control than do other diet patterns.
In 2017, a meta-analysis of 32 controlled feeding studies was published. Some of those studies were metabolic ward studies and some were free-living studies, but in each case, meals were provided by the researchers, who wished to ensure that each diet would provide specific amounts of calories and nutrients (within each study, the diets were equal in calories and protein but not in fat and carbs).
So what were the results? Low-fat diets resulted in greater fat loss (by an average of 16 grams per day) and greater energy expenditure (by an average of 26 Calories per day). This would give low-fat diets a fat-loss advantage, though one “so small as to be physiologically meaningless”.
These results are consistent with those of long-term, free-living, randomized controlled trials designed to test a diet’s real-world effectiveness (meaning that the participants were given instructions but left to prepare their own meals). Meta-analyses show that keto, low-carb, and higher-carb diets lead to similar weight loss.
Eating less carbohydrate (especially processed carbs) can be helpful if it helps you eat healthier. But if cutting carbs makes you eat worse or feel worse, or if you can’t stick with the diet, you should consider other options. If you wish to lose weight, what matters is not to replace fat by carbs or carbs by fat, but to end most days on a caloric deficit.
The Truth: As long as you do not overindulge, there is nothing inherently harmful about carbohydrates.
Eat fat, gain fat, right? For many decades, the traditional way to lose weight has been to subject oneself to a low-fat diet, yet current evidence suggests that, given the same caloric deficit and protein intake, low-fat and low-carb diets produce similar weight losses.
Moreover, while low-fat diets are not inherently unhealthy, shunning all fat from your diet can be dangerous, since your body needs to consume at least some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. As for saturated fat being the main driver of cardiovascular disease: yes, just another myth.
At the end of the day, trans fat is the only kind of fat that has been shown to be categorically detrimental to health. Naturally occurring trans fat and industrially produced trans fat seem to have a similar effect on blood lipids, but you don’t need to worry about the minute amounts of trans fat naturally occurring in whole foods (notably dairy products). The trans fat you need to shun is a byproduct of partially hydrogenated oils: this type of trans fat was once a common ingredient of processed foods — so common that trans fat consumption was linked to more than half a million coronary heart disease (CHD) deaths worldwide … just in 2010.
Industrially produced trans fat was banned in the US in 2015, and all products were supposed to be phased out by June 2018, but manufacturers received an extension until July 2019. That means that a lot of products with this type of trans fat are still on the shelves today.
And you might not even know it by looking at food labels, because the FDA used to allow for a product to be labeled as having 0 grams of trans fat as long as a serving of the product had less than 0.5 grams. However, even today, the manufacturer usually gets to decide what a “serving” is, which means that, while a 5-gram serving (maybe a small treat the size of your thumbnail) may have officially 0 grams of trans fat, 100 grams of the product may have 8 grams (if 5 grams of the product contains in fact 0.4 grams of trans fat).
The Truth: If you stay in a caloric surplus, a low-fat diet won’t make you lose weight. You need some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, and saturated fat won’t necessarily give you a heart attack (but too much trans fat may).
Nutrition misinformation is everywhere. We fight it.
Enter your email address to receive a free mini-course on supplements.
Like this article, our mini-course is unbiased and 100% backed by science: you’ll learn what really works — and what’s a waste of time and money. Our course will help you deal with the misinformation out there, thus giving you a better chance to achieve your health goals!
The Truth: Eggs are a great source of protein, fats, and other nutrients. Their association with high cholesterol and cardiovascular disease has been severely overblown.Related article: - Are eggs healthy? - Will eating eggs increase my cholesterol?
The Truth: Fears about red meat causing cancer are vastly exaggerated. Making healthy lifestyle choices (such as eating a balanced diet rich in whole foods, staying at a healthy weight, exercising, and not smoking) is overall more important than micromanaging your intake of red meat. Still, if you plan to eat less red meat, start with the kind that has been cured, smoked, or highly processed.Related articles: - Scientists found that red meat causes cancer ... or did they? - Does red meat cause cancer? - Headline Whiplash: Red meat is good for you now? - How can I make red meat healthier? - Is saturated fat bad for your health?
The Truth: Salt reduction is important for people with salt-sensitive hypertension, and excessive salt intake is associated with harm. But a drastic decrease in salt intake has not shown uniform benefit in clinical trials. Most people will benefit more from a diet of mostly unprocessed foods than from micromanaging their salt intake.
The Truth: While some people are sensitive to wheat, the gluten content isn’t necessarily to blame, and other foods may also be implicated. Bread, nor any other food, will inherently cause weight gain unless its consumption puts you in a caloric surplus. Though whole-wheat bread is claimed to be far healthier than white bread, they aren’t that different, and neither contains high levels of fiber or micronutrients.Related articles: - Gluten-intolerant? There’s a pill for that - Does gluten make you fat? - Can autism be helped by gluten-free, casein-free diets? - Can cutting out FODMAPs cut out IBS symptoms?
The Truth: HFCS and table sugar are very similar from a health perspective. Though HFCS may sometimes contain more fructose, the difference is negligible.Related article: - What is the difference between high fructose corn syrup and sugar? - Is high fructose corn syrup worse than sugar?
The Truth: Supplements have their use. Some people may benefit from supplementing specific vitamins or minerals. But supplements should complete a healthy diet — not replace it.Related articles: - Do I need a multivitamin? - Not-so-safe supplements
Get unbiased supplement and nutrition information — based on scientific research
Get the latest evidence on nutrition and supplementation.
Look up what works across 600+ health topics.
Find new ways to improve your health.I want to improve my health
100% independent — trusted by over 50,000 customers.
The Truth: With regard notably to vitamins, foods are not always superior to supplements.
The Truth: There’s little difference between fresh and frozen produce, nutrient-wise. Canned produce tends to undergo a lot more processing, but remember that cooking is a form of processing too. Overall, fresh and frozen produce might be more nutritious than canned produce, but eating enough whole-food fruits and vegetables is more important than how they were processed.Related article: - Is there a difference between fresh, frozen, and canned vegetables?
The Truth: Overall, the “natural” label isn’t tightly regulated. Importantly, neither the USDA nor the FDA defines “natural” in relation to the healthfulness of the food. In other words, a “natural” label doesn’t guarantee the product is healthful (though it might be).
The Truth: “Clean eating” is tough to define, as gurus don’t even agree on which foods are clean and which are not. Stick to the basics. Favor whole foods (but don’t feel like any small amount of processed foods will kill you), eat organic if you wish to and can afford it, and peel or wash all your vegetables and fruits.Related article: - Don’t fall into the “is this food healthy or unhealthy?” trap
The Truth: Focus on sustainable health habits, such as eating nutritious foods. Ample protein, leafy greens, and foods chock-full of vitamins and minerals are not just tastier than anything a “detox diet” has to offer, they’re also way better for you (and your liver detoxification pathways, ironically). A detox diet might make you feel better, but that’s usually because of the increased whole-food intake, not because any form of detoxification is taking place.Related articles: - Do you need to detox? - Lemon water: is it good for you?
The Truth: Digestion does slightly increase your metabolic rate, but your meals’ frequency will have less effect on your weight than their total caloric content at the end of the day.Related article: - Do you need to eat six times a day to keep your metabolism high?
The Truth: You don’t need to eat breakfast to be healthy or lose weight. You should base your breakfast consumption on your preferences and personal goals. Feel free to experiment to see if you want to make skipping breakfast a habit.Related article: - Is it really that bad to skip breakfast?
Are you tired of all the misinformation when it comes to nutrition?
Enter your email address to receive a free mini-course on supplements.
100% backed by science, we take an independent and unbiased approach to figure out what works (and what's a waste of time and money). Our course will help you deal with the misinformation out there and only take quality supplements that will help you achieve your health goals!
The Truth: Eating late won’t make you gain weight, unless it drives you to eat more. Resisting tasty, high-calorie snacks can also be harder after a long day.Related article: - Does eating at night make it more likely to gain weight?
The Truth: There’s very little difference between cardio in the fed or fasted state with regard to fat loss, muscle preservation, daily caloric intake, or metabolic rate. What really matters, then, is you. Some people feel lighter and energized when they do cardio on an empty stomach, while others feel light-headed and sluggish. Fed or fasted state: pick whichever makes you feel better.Related article: - Is it better to do aerobic exercise fasted?
The Truth: Unless you’ve been exercising on an empty stomach, you don’t need protein immediately after your workout, but you might benefit from 0.24–0.60 grams per kilogram of body weight (0.11–0.27 g/lb) within the next couple of hours. What matters most, however, is how much protein you get over the course of the day.Related articles: - A second look at protein quantity after exercise - How much protein do you need per day? - Protein Intake Calculator
The Truth: Out of all the supplements out there, creatine is one of the most extensively researched. The vast majority of the evidence indicates that this supplement is safe for long-term use and is unlikely to harm your kidneys, cause hair loss, or increase your testosterone.Related articles: - Can creatine increase your testosterone levels? - Does creatine cause hair loss? - Is creatine safe for your kidneys? spreads much faster than facts. And really, this is just the tip of the iceberg. You’ll often see sensationalist headlines based on a study with unsurprising results. In mid-2017, for instance, the media went into a frenzy of similar headlines claiming that a review paper showed that coconut oil was “bad” for you; of course, when we analyzed the studies, we found that coconut oil, like most other natural foods, has both benefits and downsides. Even the major, eight-million dollar study led by Christopher Gardner of Stanford University, which compared the weight-loss effects of low-fat and low-carb diets, was misrepresented all over the media. (According to Dr. Gardner, Examine.com did the very best job in covering the study.) That’s why we have an entire team poring over the research. And not just one or two studies, either — but the entire body of evidence. Examine Plus — the easiest way for you to stay up to date on the latest nutrition and supplement information, to save time and money and improve your health.
- Excess dietary protein can adversely affect bone. J Nutr. (1998) Barzel US, Massey LK.
- Comparison of high vs. normal/low protein diets on renal function in subjects without chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. (2014) Schwingshackl L, Hoffmann G.
- Dietary protein and calcium interact to influence calcium retention: a controlled feeding study. Am J Clin Nutr. (2009) Hunt JR, Johnson LK, Fariba Roughead ZK.
- Dietary protein and bone health: a systematic review and meta-analysis from the National Osteoporosis Foundation. Am J Clin Nutr. (2017) Shams-White MM, et al.
- Protein intake, calcium balance and health consequences. Eur J Clin Nutr. (2012) Calvez J, et al.
- Meta-analysis of the effect of the acid-ash hypothesis of osteoporosis on calcium balance. J Bone Miner Res. (2009) Fenton TR, et al.
- Glomerular filtration rate in response to an acute protein load. Blood Purif. (1988) von Herrath D, et al.
- Dietary protein intake and the progressive nature of kidney disease: the role of hemodynamically mediated glomerular injury in the pathogenesis of progressive glomerular sclerosis in aging, renal ablation, and intrinsic renal disease. N Engl J Med. (1982) Brenner BM, Meyer TW, Hostetter TH.
- Changes in Kidney Function Do Not Differ between Healthy Adults Consuming Higher- Compared with Lower- or Normal-Protein Diets: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Nutr. (2018) Devries MC, et al.
- Do regular high protein diets have potential health risks on kidney function in athletes?. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2000) Poortmans JR, Dellalieux O.
- An insulin index of foods: the insulin demand generated by 1000-kJ portions of common foods. Am J Clin Nutr. (1997) Holt SH, Miller JC, Petocz P.
- Low-glycaemic index diets in the management of blood lipids: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Fam Pract. (2013) Fleming P, Godwin M.
- Effects of low glycaemic index/low glycaemic load vs. high glycaemic index/ high glycaemic load diets on overweight/obesity and associated risk factors in children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutr J. (2015) Schwingshackl L, Hobl LP, Hoffmann G.
- Effects of low-glycemic-index diets in pregnancy on maternal and newborn outcomes in pregnant women: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Eur J Nutr. (2018) Zhang R, et al.
- Glycemic index, glycemic load, and blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. (2017) Evans CE, et al.
- Low glycaemic index diets for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. (2017) Clar C, et al.
- Effect of Low-Fat vs Low-Carbohydrate Diet on 12-Month Weight Loss in Overweight Adults and the Association With Genotype Pattern or Insulin Secretion: The DIETFITS Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. (2018) Gardner CD, et al.
- The effect of dietary glycemic index and glycemic load on inflammatory biomarkers: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Am J Clin Nutr. (2018) Milajerdi A, et al.
- Effects comparison between low glycemic index diets and high glycemic index diets on HbA1c and fructosamine for patients with diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Prim Care Diabetes. (2015) Wang Q, et al.
- Different types of dietary advice for women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. (2017) Han S, et al.
- The Effect of Dietary Glycaemic Index on Glycaemia in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Nutrients. (2018) Ojo O, et al.
- A network meta-analysis on the comparative efficacy of different dietary approaches on glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Eur J Epidemiol. (2018) Schwingshackl L, et al.
- The Carbohydrate-Insulin Model of Obesity: Beyond "Calories In, Calories Out". JAMA Intern Med. (2018) Ludwig DS, Ebbeling CB.
- The Carbohydrate-Insulin Model of Obesity Is Difficult to Reconcile With Current Evidence. JAMA Intern Med. (2018) Hall KD, Guyenet SJ, Leibel RL.
- A review of the carbohydrate-insulin model of obesity. Eur J Clin Nutr. (2017) Hall KD.
- Obesity Energetics: Body Weight Regulation and the Effects of Diet Composition. Gastroenterology. (2017) Hall KD, Guo J.
- Comparison of weight loss among named diet programs in overweight and obese adults: a meta-analysis. JAMA. (2014) Johnston BC, et al.
- Very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet v. low-fat diet for long-term weight loss: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Br J Nutr. (2013) Bueno NB, et al.
- Dietary Intervention for Overweight and Obese Adults: Comparison of Low-Carbohydrate and Low-Fat Diets. A Meta-Analysis. PLoS One. (2015) Sackner-Bernstein J, Kanter D, Kaul S.
- Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids.. The National Academies Press.. (2005) Institute of Medicine.
- Effect of Trans-Fatty Acid Intake on Blood Lipids and Lipoproteins: A Systematic Review and Meta-Regression Analysis.. World Health Organization & Brouwer..
- Is there a linear relationship between the dose of ruminant trans-fatty acids and cardiovascular risk markers in healthy subjects: results from a systematic review and meta-regression of randomised clinical trials. Br J Nutr. (2014) Gayet-Boyer C, et al.
- Impact of Nonoptimal Intakes of Saturated, Polyunsaturated, and Trans Fat on Global Burdens of Coronary Heart Disease. J Am Heart Assoc. (2016) Wang Q, et al.
- Meta-regression analysis of the effect of trans fatty acids on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Food Chem Toxicol. (2016) Allen BC, et al.
- Final Determination Regarding Partially Hydrogenated Oils.. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety & Nutrition.. (2016) Institute of Medicine.
- Meta-regression analysis of the effects of dietary cholesterol intake on LDL and HDL cholesterol. Am J Clin Nutr. (2019) Vincent MJ, et al.
- Dietary Cholesterol Contained in Whole Eggs Is Not Well Absorbed and Does Not Acutely Affect Plasma Total Cholesterol Concentration in Men and Women: Results from 2 Randomized Controlled Crossover Studies. Nutrients. (2018) Kim JE, Campbell WW.
- Egg intake does not change plasma lipoprotein and coagulation profiles. Am J Clin Nutr. (1992) Vorster HH, et al.
- Influence of dietary cholesterol and fat on serum lipids in men. J Nutr. (1981) Chenoweth W, et al.
- Associations of Dietary Cholesterol or Egg Consumption With Incident Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality. JAMA. (2019) Zhong VW, et al.
- Egg consumption in relation to risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. (2013) Shin JY, et al.
- One Egg per Day Improves Inflammation when Compared to an Oatmeal-Based Breakfast without Increasing Other Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Diabetic Patients. Nutrients. (2015) Ballesteros MN, et al.
- The effect of a high-egg diet on cardiovascular risk factors in people with type 2 diabetes: the Diabetes and Egg (DIABEGG) study-a 3-mo randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. (2015) Fuller NR, et al.
- Impact of breakfasts (with or without eggs) on body weight regulation and blood lipids in university students over a 14-week semester. Nutrients. (2013) Rueda JM, Khosla P.
- Effects of carbohydrate restriction and dietary cholesterol provided by eggs on clinical risk factors in metabolic syndrome. J Clin Lipidol. (2013) Blesso CN, et al.
- Whole egg consumption improves lipoprotein profiles and insulin sensitivity to a greater extent than yolk-free egg substitute in individuals with metabolic syndrome. Metabolism. (2013) Blesso CN, et al.
- Daily egg consumption in hyperlipidemic adults--effects on endothelial function and cardiovascular risk. Nutr J. (2010) Njike V, et al.
- Dietary Cholesterol, Serum Lipids, and Heart Disease: Are Eggs Working for or Against You?. Nutrients. (2018) Blesso CN, Fernandez ML.
- Men classified as hypo- or hyperresponders to dietary cholesterol feeding exhibit differences in lipoprotein metabolism. J Nutr. (2003) Herron KL, et al.
- Is everything we eat associated with cancer? A systematic cookbook review. Am J Clin Nutr. (2013) Schoenfeld JD, Ioannidis JP.
- Meat consumption and colorectal cancer risk: an evaluation based on a systematic review of epidemiologic evidence among the Japanese population. Jpn J Clin Oncol. (2014) Pham NM, et al.
- Lifestyle Modifications and Colorectal Cancer. Curr Colorectal Cancer Rep. (2014) Durko L, Malecka-Panas E.
- Relation of Dietary Sodium (Salt) to Blood Pressure and Its Possible Modulation by Other Dietary Factors: The INTERMAP Study. Hypertension. (2018) Stamler J, et al.
- Sodium Homeostasis in Chronic Kidney Disease. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. (2017) Soi V, Yee J.
- Sodium intake and physical activity impact cognitive maintenance in older adults: the NuAge Study. Neurobiol Aging. (2012) Fiocco AJ, et al.
- High salt induced hypertension leads to cognitive defect. Oncotarget. (2017) Guo CP, et al.
- A systematic survey of the sodium contents of processed foods. Am J Clin Nutr. (2010) Webster JL, Dunford EK, Neal BC.
- Salt-sensitive hypertension: mechanisms and effects of dietary and other lifestyle factors. Nutr Rev. (2016) Pilic L, Pedlar CR, Mavrommatis Y.
- Reduced Salt Intake for Heart Failure: A Systematic Review. JAMA Intern Med. (2018) Mahtani KR, et al.
- Reduced dietary salt for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. (2014) Adler AJ, et al.
- Urinary sodium and potassium excretion and risk of cardiovascular events. JAMA. (2011) O'Donnell MJ, et al.
- Evidence for the Presence of Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity in Patients with Functional Gastrointestinal Symptoms: Results from a Multicenter Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Gluten Challenge. Nutrients. (2016) Elli L, et al.
- Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity Has Narrowed the Spectrum of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial. Nutrients. (2015) Shahbazkhani B, et al.
- Non-celiac wheat sensitivity diagnosed by double-blind placebo-controlled challenge: exploring a new clinical entity. Am J Gastroenterol. (2012) Carroccio A, et al.
- No effects of gluten in patients with self-reported non-celiac gluten sensitivity after dietary reduction of fermentable, poorly absorbed, short-chain carbohydrates. Gastroenterology. (2013) Biesiekierski JR, et al.
- Food choice as a key management strategy for functional gastrointestinal symptoms. Am J Gastroenterol. (2012) Gibson PR, Shepherd SJ.
- Changes in USDA food composition data for 43 garden crops, 1950 to 1999. J Am Coll Nutr. (2004) Davis DR, Epp MD, Riordan HD.
- Hidden shift of the ionome of plants exposed to elevated CO₂depletes minerals at the base of human nutrition. Elife. (2014) Loladze I.
- Safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of liposomal curcumin in healthy humans. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. (2015) Storka A, et al.
- Effect of food composition on vitamin K absorption in human volunteers. Br J Nutr. (1996) Gijsbers BL, Jie KS, Vermeer C.
- Chapter 1. Introduction to freezing. Freezing of fruits and Vegetables: An Agri-Business Alternative for Rural and Semi-Rural Areas. (2005) Barbosa-Cánovas G, Altunakar B, Mejía-Lorio D.
- Selected nutrient analyses of fresh, fresh-stored, and frozen fruits and vegetables. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. (2017) Li L, et al.
- Nitrate and nitrite nitrogen in fresh, stored and processed table beets and spinach from different levels of field nitrogen fertilisation. J Sci Food Agric. (1971) Lee CY, et al.
- Effects of different cooking methods on health-promoting compounds of broccoli. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. (2009) Yuan GF, et al.
- Vegetarian, vegan diets and multiple health outcomes: A systematic review with meta-analysis of observational studies. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. (2017) Dinu M, et al.
- Vegetarian diet and all-cause mortality: Evidence from a large population-based Australian cohort - the 45 and Up Study. Prev Med. (2017) Mihrshahi S, et al.
- Diets and selected lifestyle practices of self-defined adult vegetarians from a population-based sample suggest they are more 'health conscious'. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. (2005) Bedford JL, Barr SI.
- Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B 6, Folate, Vitamin B 12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Institute of Medicine (US) Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes and its Panel on Folate, Other B Vitamins, and Choline.
- Biotin. _Present Knowledge in Nutrition_, 10th ed., Erdman JW, Macdonald IA, Zeisel SH, editors, pp. 359–374. (2012) Zempleni J, Wijeratne S, Kuroishi T.
- Amount and fate of egg protein escaping assimilation in the small intestine of humans. Am J Physiol. (1999) Evenepoel P, et al.
- Digestibility of cooked and raw egg protein in humans as assessed by stable isotope techniques. J Nutr. (1998) Evenepoel P, et al.
- Are organic foods safer or healthier than conventional alternatives?: a systematic review. Ann Intern Med. (2012) Smith-Spangler C, et al.
- Organic food consumption and the incidence of cancer in a large prospective study of women in the United Kingdom. Br J Cancer. (2014) Bradbury KE, et al.
- Higher antioxidant and lower cadmium concentrations and lower incidence of pesticide residues in organically grown crops: a systematic literature review and meta-analyses. Br J Nutr. (2014) Barański M, et al.
- Choosing organic pesticides over synthetic pesticides may not effectively mitigate environmental risk in soybeans. PLoS One. (2010) Bahlai CA, et al.
- Hormones and endocrine-disrupting chemicals: low-dose effects and nonmonotonic dose responses. Endocr Rev. (2012) Vandenberg LN, et al.
- Effects of food processing on pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables: a meta-analysis approach. Food Chem Toxicol. (2010) Keikotlhaile BM, Spanoghe P, Steurbaut W.
- Meta-analysis of food processing on pesticide residues in fruits. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. (2014) Liang Y, et al.
- Modulation of Metabolic Detoxification Pathways Using Foods and Food-Derived Components: A Scientific Review with Clinical Application. J Nutr Metab. (2015) Hodges RE, Minich DM.
- Impact of Dietary Fibers on Nutrient Management and Detoxification Organs: Gut, Liver, and Kidneys. Adv Nutr. (2016) Kieffer DA, Martin RJ, Adams SH.
- "Green Smoothie Cleanse" Causing Acute Oxalate Nephropathy. Am J Kidney Dis. (2017) Makkapati S, D'Agati VD, Balsam L.
- Yogi Detox Tea: A Potential Cause of Acute Liver Failure. Case Rep Gastrointest Med. (2017) Kesavarapu K, et al.
- Glycogen storage: illusions of easy weight loss, excessive weight regain, and distortions in estimates of body composition. Am J Clin Nutr. (1992) Kreitzman SN, Coxon AY, Szaz KF.
- Effects of increased meal frequency on fat oxidation and perceived hunger. Obesity (Silver Spring). (2013) Ohkawara K, et al.
- A controlled trial of reduced meal frequency without caloric restriction in healthy, normal-weight, middle-aged adults. Am J Clin Nutr. (2007) Stote KS, et al.
- Systematic review demonstrating that breakfast consumption influences body weight outcomes in children and adolescents in Europe. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. (2010) Szajewska H, Ruszczynski M.
- A randomized controlled trial to study the effects of breakfast on energy intake, physical activity, and body fat in women who are nonhabitual breakfast eaters. Appetite. (2017) LeCheminant GM, et al.
- The causal role of breakfast in energy balance and health: a randomized controlled trial in lean adults. Am J Clin Nutr. (2014) Betts JA, et al.
- Fasting until noon triggers increased postprandial hyperglycemia and impaired insulin response after lunch and dinner in individuals with type 2 diabetes: a randomized clinical trial. Diabetes Care. (2015) Jakubowicz D, et al.
- The Effects of Breakfast Consumption and Composition on Metabolic Wellness with a Focus on Carbohydrate Metabolism. Adv Nutr. (2016) Maki KC, Phillips-Eakley AK, Smith KN.
- High caloric intake at breakfast vs. dinner differentially influences weight loss of overweight and obese women. Obesity (Silver Spring). (2013) Jakubowicz D, et al.
- Restricting night-time eating reduces daily energy intake in healthy young men: a short-term cross-over study. Br J Nutr. (2013) LeCheminant JD, et al.
- The effect of protein timing on muscle strength and hypertrophy: a meta-analysis. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2013) Schoenfeld BJ, Aragon AA, Krieger JW.
- Nutrient timing revisited: is there a post-exercise anabolic window?. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2013) Aragon AA, Schoenfeld BJ.
- Three weeks of creatine monohydrate supplementation affects dihydrotestosterone to testosterone ratio in college-aged rugby players. Clin J Sport Med. (2009) van der Merwe J, Brooks NE, Myburgh KH.
- The Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Performance and Hormonal Response in Amateur Swimmers. Science and Sports. (2011) Vatani DS, et al.
- Effects of short term creatine supplementation and resistance exercises on resting hormonal and cardiovascular responses. Science and Sports. (2015) Arazi H, et al.
- Creatine supplementation post-exercise does not enhance training-induced adaptations in middle to older aged males. Eur J Appl Physiol. (2014) Cooke MB, et al.
- Skill execution and sleep deprivation: effects of acute caffeine or creatine supplementation - a randomized placebo-controlled trial. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2011) Cook CJ, et al.
- The effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) and HMB/creatine supplementation on indices of health in highly trained athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2003) Crowe MJ, O'Connor DM, Lukins JE.
- Effect of creatine and beta-alanine supplementation on performance and endocrine responses in strength/power athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2006) Hoffman J, et al.
- Short-term creatine supplementation does not alter the hormonal response to resistance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. (2001) Eijnde BO, Hespel P.
- The effects of creatine supplementation on muscular performance and body composition responses to short-term resistance training overreaching. Eur J Appl Physiol. (2004) Volek JS, et al.
- The effects of creatine supplementation on sprint running performance and selected hormonal responses. SAJRSPER. (2010) Faraji H, et al.
- Creatine supplementation alters the hormonal response to resistance exercise. Kinesiology. (2010) Rahimi R, et al.
- Response of Testosterone and Cortisol Concentrations to High-Intensity Resistance Exercise Following Creatine Supplementation. JSCR. (1997) Volek JS, et al.
- Effect of creatine malate supplementation on physical performance, body composition and selected hormone levels in spinters and long-distance runners. Acta Physiol Hung. (2015) Tyka AK, et al.
- Inhibitory autocrine factors produced by the mesenchyme-derived hair follicle dermal papilla may be a key to male pattern baldness. Br J Dermatol. (2006) Hamada K, Randall VA.
- Molecular mechanisms of androgenetic alopecia. Exp Gerontol. (2002) Trüeb RM.
- How the use of creatine supplements can elevate serum creatinine in the absence of underlying kidney pathology. BMJ Case Rep. (2014) Williamson L, New D.
- Pharmacokinetics of creatine. Subcell Biochem. (2007) McCall W, Persky AM.
- Adverse effects of creatine supplementation: fact or fiction?. Sports Med. (2000) Poortmans JR, Francaux M.
- Effects of creatine use on the athlete's kidney. Curr Sports Med Rep. (2002) Farquhar WB, Zambraski EJ.
- The effect of creatine intake on renal function. Ann Pharmacother. (2005) Pline KA, Smith CL.
- Side effects of creatine supplementation in athletes. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. (2006) Francaux M, Poortmans JR.
- Safety of creatine supplementation. Subcell Biochem. (2007) Persky AM, Rawson ES.
- Studies on the safety of creatine supplementation. Amino Acids. (2011) Kim HJ, et al.
- In sickness and in health: the widespread application of creatine supplementation. Amino Acids. (2012) Gualano B, et al.
- International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: safety and efficacy of creatine supplementation in exercise, sport, and medicine. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2017) Kreider RB, et al.
- Effect of short-term high-dose creatine supplementation on measured GFR in a young man with a single kidney. Am J Kidney Dis. (2010) Gualano B, et al.
- Creatine supplementation does not impair kidney function in type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Eur J Appl Physiol. (2011) Gualano B, et al.
- Creatine supplementation does not decrease total plasma homocysteine in chronic hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int. (2004) Taes YE, et al.
- The effects of supplementation of creatine on total homocysteine. J Ren Nurs.. (2012) Shelmadine BD, Hudson GM, Buford TW et al..
- Dietary Fats and Cardiovascular Disease: A Presidential Advisory From the American Heart Association. Circulation. (2017) Sacks FM, et al.