Summary of Iodine
Primary Information, Benefits, Effects, and Important Facts
Iodine is an essential mineral in the diet due to its importance towards cognition and fetal development secondary to being required for thyroid hormones; iodine is central to the active thyroid hormones T3 and T4, and a true iodine deficiency results in less of these hormones and may result in reduced cognition (if a subclinical deficiency) or cretinism (severe deficiency in utero).
Despite the importance of iodine, it is not a common dietary supplement. This is due to table salt being iodized (added iodine) and even relative deficiencies being quite rare in first world countries (it is a common issue in developing countries due to iodine only naturally occurring from fish and seaweed which may not be consumed); actually benefitting from supplementation of iodine requires a 'perfect storm' of situations to occur which are outlined in the dosing section but not many people will meet these requirements.
Supplementation of high doses of iodine in otherwise healthy people does not appear to result in much, since it is readily excreted and normalized. There may be a very small and (clinically) irrelevant antiinflammatory effect and a small reduction in thyroid hormones (rather than an increase), but that seems to be it. Obscenely high doses for a prolonged period of time, which occurs with consumption of unprocessed seaweed (mostly kombu) will result in benign goiter in all persons and thyrotoxicity in some persons with underlying thyroid issues.
How to Take Iodine
Recommended dosage, active amounts, other details
Supplementation of iodine is designed to circumvent a deficiency, and deficiencies of iodine are quite rare in first world countries. For those in a first world country, iodine should only be considered if you meet all of the following requirements:
You are a vegetarian or vegan who actively avoids processed foods, or a meat eater who never eats fish and avoids processed foods
You avoid adding additional salt to your diet
You avoid consumption of seaweed or seaweed based products (such as sushi, which are wrapped with Nori)
Assuming all the criteria are met, recommendations for iodine intake tend to be in the range of 75-150 μg (micrograms) or 0.075-0.15 mg daily while higher doses are not inherently dangerous although there may be a slight suppression of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) at 500 μg or above.
Frequently Asked Questions about Iodine
Human Effect Matrix
The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (it excludes animal and in vitro studies) to tell you what effects iodine has on your body, and how strong these effects are.
|Grade||Level of Evidence [show legend]|
|Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials|
|Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled|
|Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies|
|Uncontrolled or observational studies only|
Level of Evidence
? The amount of high quality evidence. The mo re evidence, the more we can trust the results.
Magnitude of effect
? The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Consistency of research results
? Scientific research does not always agree. HIGH or VERY HIGH means that most of the scientific research agrees.
|Serum T3||Minor||High See all 3 studies|
|Serum T4||Minor||Moderate See all 5 studies|
|Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone||Minor||High See all 3 studies|
|Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone||Minor||- See study|
|C-Reactive Protein||Minor||- See study|
|Interleukin 6||Minor||- See study|
Scientific Research on Iodine
Click on any below to expand the corresponding section. Click on to collapse it.
Iodine (I) is an essential mineral whose name is derived from the greek term for violet or purple, in reference to the color of the gas it forms in its natural state. Dietary iodine is exclusively found either in the form of iodide (a water soluble anion with the formula of I-), inorganic iodine (I2), iodide (the cation), or as a salt such as potassium iodide or sodium iodide. It is the heaviest nutritional element with an atomic weight of 126.90447g per mole.
Iodine is an essential mineral commonly associated with the thyroid; it has a role in cognitive development
Iodine is commonly found (naturally) in seaweed due to an ability of seaweed to bioaccumulate and concentrate iodine from the seawater, with some species being known to concentrate iodine up to 30,000-fold higher than that found in the water.
Palmaria palmata (Dulse; seaweed) at 44.1µg/g when dried
Eisenia bicycli (Arame; seaweed) at 706-721µg/g when dried
Alaria esculenta (seaweed) at 100µg/g
Dried Hijiki (sea grass) at 391µg/g
Cod (fresh and raw) at 1,050µg/kg
Haddock (fresh and raw) at 2,500µg/kg
Herring (raw) at 290µg/kg
Kippers (raw) at 550µg/kg
Mackeral (raw) at 1,380µg/kg
Mussels (fresh and boiled) at 1,160µg/kg
Plaice (fresh and raw) at 280µg/kg
Prawns (frozen) at 210µg/kg
Red snapper (fresh) at 650µg/kg
Salmon at 590µg/kg
Sardines (fresh and raw) at 290µg/kg
Rainbow Trout (fresh) at 130µg/kg
Tuna (canned) at 140µg/kg
Distinctions between wet and dry weight for seaweed is crucial since some species of seaweed may swell up to 10 times their weight when fully hydrated, and moisture content is around 70% when hydrated yet only 7-20% when dried.
Sea products (seaweed and fish) are the highest naturally occurring sources of iodine with seaweed a significantly better source than fish, insofar that the smallest possible difference (Nori versus Haddock) is about 5-fold greater in seaweed and the largest possible difference (Kombu versus Tuna) is 19,000-fold greater in seaweed. Some seaweed products appear to be high enough that they are considered excessive sources that may put one above the tolerable upper limit (TUL) of iodine
Iodine from seaweed is relatively well absorbed, ranging from around 60% to complete absorption. That being said, iodine can be significantly reduced from kombu via heat treatment (boiling for 15 minutes eliminates up to 99% of iodine) whereas other genera may have lower losses, such as 40% in sargassum, and this processing of kelp is sometimes associated with application of a dye to result in the products "ao-kombu" or "kizami-kombu" (boiling for 30 minutes in dye and then hang drying). Due to this processing, some sources have noted variability in Kombu products (in this source, soup) between 660µg/L and 31,000µg/L (or 165-7,750µg per 250mL serving).
Furthermore, many traditional dishes utilizing seaweed in the Japanese diet tend to also include vegetables with a known goitrogen content (broccoli, cabbage, bok choi and soy) which are known to compete with iodine for uptake into the thyroid or in the case of soy isoflavones reduce the incorporation of iodine into active thyroid hormones; this attenuates possible thyrotoxicosis from high iodine intake. Furthermore, some species of seaweeds may contain high levels of the nondietary mineral bromide (as bromine) which also possesses anti-thyroid properties which may reduce the risk of thyrotoxicosis.
Despite the aforementioned, there are still many cases of iodine induced goitre and thyrotoxicosis associated with high seaweed consumption (mostly Kombu) that is successfully treated with seaweed and iodine restriction.
Despite the very high iodine content in seaweed, there are many reasons to explain why dietary inclusion is not completely toxic. These include iodine losses with heat treatment, a trend to consume Nori and Wakame over Kombu, and coingestion of seaweed with goitrogen containing foods; there are still some cases of iodine toxicity, but these are thought to be due to poor processing and even then excessive dietary intake
For other food products, iodine concentrations are around:
Milk (fortified to an average of 150µg/kg with a range of 40-320µg/kg in Britain)
Brazil nuts (210µg/kg), cashews (110µg/kg), hazelnuts (170µg/kg), and walnuts (90µg/kg)
Pork (70µg/kg) and Beef (60µg/kg) sausage
Other potential dietary and nondietary sources of iodine that add to the iodine content of the body include the red food coloring erythrosine (E127, C.J. 45430, which is 57.7% iodine by weight) and some medications such as Povidone-iodine.
Salt is known to contain iodine due to Universal Salt Iodization, where iodine is added to salt either in the form of potassium iodate (KIO3) or potassium iodide (KI). The exact content of iodine in salt varies depending on country, but it has been reported to be in the range of 15-25μg/g (15-25ppm) with less than 10μg/g is seen as inadequate and higher doses up to 40μg/g used selectively in regions where there is less iodine in the diet and iodine deficiency is more prevalent. In some areas of the world, iodized poppy seed oil (Lipiodol) is used as an iodine supplement.
In regards to other food products, the iodine concentration appears to be low enough that overshooting the tolerable upper limit (lowest estimate being 1,000µg/kg) is unlikely to occur and sufficient enough that consumption of a varied diet is enough to assure sufficiency
Requirements can be explained as how much of a nutrient is either needed outright or recommended, whereas Status refers to how much of a nutrient a population is consuming relative to the requirements. Whereas 100μg may be a requirement, Deficient relative to that requirement is a status
For lactating women, a dietary intake of 290μg is recommended.
Due to the importance of iodine in proper cognitive function of children, the American Thyroid Association has recommended supplementation of 150μg for lactating women in first world nations (Canada and the US) which is on the lower range of supplemental intake since most women are sufficient (and the iodine is preventing a worst case scenario of sudden dietary restriction).
The adequate intake of iodine (AI) tends to be in the low 100s to high 200s when measured in micrograms when looking at all age groups.
Iodine deficiency can be detected via urinary iodine concentrations, as up to 97% of dietary iodine is excreted in the urine. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a concentration in the range of 150-249μg/L with less than 100μg/L is seen as deficient and the upper limit being 300μg/L. Urinary iodine is a relatively rapid biomarker, as it can increase from 100μg/L to 30,000μg/L within a single day and return to 100μg/L within a few days and thus is more reflective of daily habits than it is of bodily iodine storages.
Iodine status of the body can be detected via urinary measurements, although these urinary concentrations change quite rapidly and are more reflective of daily iodine intake and dietary routines than it is of bodily iodine stores
Japanese diets are thought to have a daily iodine intake of 1,000-3,000µg with some estimates at the lower range. This is based off of a relatively consistent intake of seaweed (4.3-5.3g daily) frequently (up to 21% of meals and 20-38% of the adult population consuming more than five servings a week and only 1-2% 'rarely' consuming seaweed) which recently has been favoring Wakame and Nori over Kelp (assessed via trends in survey research).
British diets appear to have an estimated 166-177µg daily (1985 and 1991 numbers).
Americans have been noted to have urinary iodine concentrations of 168μg/L (and pregnant women at 173μg/L) in 2001-2002 data, within the recommended range by the WHO.
First world nations (Japan, Britain, USA) all seem to be, on average, in the sufficient range for dietary iodine intake although the Japanese diet is above the TUL as it is set in other nations (at 1,000µg). This seems to be fine statistically speaking, since the Japanese themselves have a higher TUL of 3,000µg which the national average does not exceed
When looking at third world nations and a global scale, it is thought that up to two billion persons worldwide are at risk for developing iodine deficiency and the world bank suspects that this iodine deficiency precedes a reduciton of up to 10-15 IQ points seen in children born in iodine deficient areas and may contribute to a 5% reduced global market capacity attributed to micronutrient deficiencies.
The Japanese diet appears to have the highest dietary iodine intake, although most other first world nations have diets that are sufficient in dietary iodine. Third world nations are known to be plagued by iodine deficiency, however
Mild iodine deficiency in children is known to contribute to growth retardation, impaired hearing capacity and reduced cognitive function while severe iodine deficiency results in cretinism which can be fully prevented with sufficient maternal iodine prior to conception and rates of cretinism have seemingly been abolished with the introduction of an iodinized food supply (via table salt).
Severe iodine deficiency in a mother prior to conception results in cretinism of the child (severe and irreversible mental retardation) but cretinism has since been pretty much abolished in first world nations since table salt was iodinized (added iodine) resulting in more exposure to iodine in the food supply
It is still possible that a relative iodine deficiency (not severe enough to result in irreversible cretinism) may result in impaired cognition, and a meta-analysis of trials investigating the IQ of children have noted that areas with higher iodine intakes (relative to iodine deficiency areas) have a pooled higher IQ of 13.5 points.
A relative deficiency of iodine is known to occur to a relatively higher degree in pregnant women, lactating women, and infants due to high requirements for iodine. Populations with a low iodine intake relative to a higher thiocyanate intake are at increased risk (due to competitive inhibition of iodine uptake into the thyroid) as are vegans (who do not consume seaweed) and lactovegetarians who do not consume seaweed. Rates of deficiencies (assessed by urinary iodine below 100μg/L) in vegetarians and vegans have been reported to be as high as 25% and 80%, respectively.
Intestinal malabsorption states are not associated with a reduced iodine status.
A relative deficiency (lower than ideal intake but enough to prevent cretinism) appears to be associated with less cognitive potential, and populations at risk for mild iodine deficiency include pregnant and lactating women as well as their infants
For adults, the tolerable upper limit for iodine intake has been recommended to be 1,100μg (Institute of Medicine; IOM) whereas the world health organization (WHO) has a lower TUL of 500μg, although has recommended an upper intake level of 3,000μg.
In 4-8 year olds, the TUL has been set at 300μg and 9-13 year old children have a TUL of 600μg.
The recommended upper intake is in the range of 500-1,100μg when looking at international bodies, while the highest recommended upper limit is 3mg; consumption of seaweed routinely is thought to put people near the highest upper intake level
High iodine intake is suspected in some regions of the world, including China due to high iodine concentrations in the water and in Iceland from animals that are fed fish (and thus retain some of the iodine content). Countries with confirmed higher than acceptable averages include Brazil, Algeria, Côte d'Ivoire, Zimbabwe, Uganda, and the USA (all above 300μg/L) and both Chile and Congo (above 500μg/L). Intake is also thought to be excessive in Japan, where consumption of seaweed has been noted to cause increases in urinary iodine up to 1,000μg/L.
Supplementation of 100-300μg iodine in a population of otherwise healthy persons without iodine deficiency for six months is able to cause minor antiinflammatory effects as assesed by a reduction in serum IL-6 and C-reactive protein.
The changes in cytokines indicate an antiinflammatory effect, but the mechanisms underlying this are not known as the change appears to be very small
Dosages of 250-500μg iodine in otherwise normal men and women has failed to alter serum T3 or T4 concentrations and failures to increase circulating thyroid hormones have been seen with 5g of Alaria esculenta (a seaweed conferring 500μg iodine), 75-150μg in pregnant women (24 weeks), 100-300μg, and 500μg. At least one study in persons with subclinical Hashimoto's disease has noted that 500μg was low enough to cause a slightly suppression of T4, suggesting that those with underlying thyroid diseases are slightly more sensitive.
Higher doses of iodine have a transient suppressive effect on circulating T3 and T4 concentrations, which has been seen with 1,500μg in women, 50-250mg, saturating doses of potassium iodide,
1,500μg in women has caused a slight increase in serum TSH which is also seen in men given 1,500-4,500; slightly lower doses of iodine (500μg via Alaria esculenta) have been known to cause transient increases in TSH (29.5%) and this has been noted with 500μg iodine itself albeit in persons with subclinical Hashimoto's disease.
Higher sensitivity of TSH-release from TRH (thyrotropin releasing hormone) has been noted with 1,500μg iodine in women and with saturating doses of potassium iodide; this is thought to be related to the decrease in serum thyroid hormones that occurs with high doses of iodine.
In euthyroidic persons (those with normal thyroid function), normal doses of iodine do not have any significant effect whereas higher pharmacological doses appear to have a transient suppressive effect
Mild iodine deficiencies have been noted to be associated with an elevated hearing threshold in children.
Iodine deficiency in the mother, transferred to the fetus, is known to induce an irreversible state of mental retardation known as cretinism. This is mostly prevented with sufficient iodinazation of the food supply although some instances of iodine deficiency have been reported in the first world.
True iodine deficiencies, as rare as they may be in the first world countries, causes irreversible neurological damage to the fetus resulting in cretinism
In New Zealand women after birth, urinary iodine concentrations have been noted to be in the deficiency range in both the mothers (20-41μg/L) and infants (34-49μg/L) and both 75μg and 150μg are equally effective in increasing urinary iodine to a sufficient range.
In mothers who receive 75-150μg iodine daily for 24 weeks after childbirth, breast milk concentrations of iodine is dose dependently increased by 30% and 70% relative to unsupplemented control.
Thiocyanate (a component of many vegetables including broccoli, although third world nations mainly intake cassava as a source of thiocyanates) is a known goitrogen and a competitive inhibitor of the sodium/iodide symporter NIC, which mediates iodine uptake from the blood into the thyroid for subsequent production of thyroid hormones.
Some populations with a relatively low iodine intake are at greater risk for iodine deficiency when there is also a high dietary intake of thiocyanates,
Goitre is an enlargening of the thyroid glands from numerous causes. Diffuse goitre (also known as simple or colloid goitre) is an enlargening of the glands without the presence of nodules nor hyperthyroidism, this is the type of goitre most commonly seen with iodine deficiency and it can be treated with supplemental iodine although it takes a few years to do have some effect and up to a decade to eradicate it.
Iodine excess can cause goitre, as has been seen in an 'Endemic coast goitre' in Japan along the coast where excessive daily seaweed consumption (reaching up to 10,000µg daily) has resulted in goitre.
The term endemic goitre is sometimes used when describing population areas, when over 5% of the population in a certain region has goitre from any cause.
Both iodine deficiency as well as iodine excess may cause goitre
High acute doses of iodine can acutely suppress hormone synthesis in the thyroid for up to 48 hours (afterwhich the body adapts and normal hormone secretion occurs), a phenomena known as the acute Wolff–Chaikoff effect which is thought to be due to a downregulation of iodine transportation into the thyroid from plasma (which prevents continued suppression of hormone synthesis and thyrotoxic effects).
That being said, thyrotoxicosis has been noted in response to excessive iodine intakes. This is thought to be due to underlying thyroid disorders (hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism) having altered iodine transportation into the thyroid. In essence, persons in which the Wolff-Chaikoff effect does not occur may experience thyrotoxicosis from high supplementation or food levels which has been noted in a few case studies involving kelp tea (dosage of iodine not known) and soup as well as topical iodine application (via povidone-iodine).
High iodine intakes may be able to cause thyrotoxicosis in a select few individuals who may be susceptable to this conditions, due to a protective adaptation (Wolff-Chaikoff effect) not occurring in them
In children with an elevated iodine status (urinary iodine of 300-1,000μg/L) it was noted that urinary concentrations exceeding 500μg/L were associated with an increase in thyroid size, as assessed by ultrasound.
An elevated thyroid size may persist with high iodine intake independent of thyrotoxicosis
- Dietary supplement fact sheet: Iodine.
- Teas J, et al. Could dietary seaweed reverse the metabolic syndrome. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. (2009)
- Iodine uptake in Laminariales involves extracellular, haloperoxidase-mediated oxidation of iodide.
- Lee SM, et al. Iodine in British foods and diets. Br J Nutr. (1994)
- Nagataki S. The average of dietary iodine intake due to the ingestion of seaweeds is 1.2 mg/day in Japan. Thyroid. (2008)
- Teas J, et al. Variability of iodine content in common commercially available edible seaweeds. Thyroid. (2004)
- Assessment of Japanese iodine intake based on seaweed consumption in Japan: A literature-based analysis.
- Teas J, et al. Seaweed and soy: companion foods in Asian cuisine and their effects on thyroid function in American women. J Med Food. (2007)
- Production and use of marine algae in Japan.
- Aquaron R, et al. Bioavailability of seaweed iodine in human beings. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). (2002)
- Nishiyama S, et al. Transient hypothyroidism or persistent hyperthyrotropinemia in neonates born to mothers with excessive iodine intake. Thyroid. (2004)
- GREER MA, ASTWOOD EB. The antithyroid effect of certain foods in man as determined with radioactive iodine. Endocrinology. (1948)
- Zimmermann MB. Iodine deficiency. Endocr Rev. (2009)
- Doerge DR, Chang HC. Inactivation of thyroid peroxidase by soy isoflavones, in vitro and in vivo. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. (2002)
- Rose M, et al. Bromine and iodine in 1997 UK total diet study samples. J Environ Monit. (2001)
- Halogen speciation in the rat thyroid: Simultaneous determination of bromine and iodine by short-term INAA.
- Ishizuki Y, Yamauchi K, Miura Y. Transient thyrotoxicosis induced by Japanese kombu. Nihon Naibunpi Gakkai Zasshi. (1989)
- Konno N, et al. Association between dietary iodine intake and prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in the coastal regions of Japan. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (1994)
- Suzuki H, et al. "Endemic coast goitre" in Hokkaido, Japan. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). (1965)
- Tajiri J, et al. Studies of hypothyroidism in patients with high iodine intake. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (1986)
- Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of Erythrosine (E 127) as a food additive.
- Patil VP, Kulkarni AP, Jacques T. Iodine induced thyrotoxicosis following povidine-iodine dressings: a case report. Crit Care Resusc. (2003)
- Assessment of iodine deficiency disorders and monitoring their elimination.
- Malasanos T, et al. Iodine deficiency, iodine content of salt and knowledge of iodine supplementation in the Dominican Republic. J Trop Pediatr. (2007)
- Nepal AK, et al. Household salt iodine content estimation with the use of rapid test kits and iodometric titration methods. J Clin Diagn Res. (2013)
- The effects of oral iodized oil on intelligence, thyroid status, and somatic growth in school-age children from an area of endemic goiter.
- Huda SN, Grantham-McGregor SM, Tomkins A. Cognitive and motor functions of iodine-deficient but euthyroid children in Bangladesh do not benefit from iodized poppy seed oil (Lipiodol). J Nutr. (2001)
- Trumbo P, et al. Dietary reference intakes: vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. J Am Diet Assoc. (2001)
- Semba RD, Delange F. Iodine in human milk: perspectives for infant health. Nutr Rev. (2001)
- Public Health Committee of the American Thyroid Association, et al. Iodine supplementation for pregnancy and lactation-United States and Canada: recommendations of the American Thyroid Association. Thyroid. (2006)
- Recommended iodine levels in salt and guidelines for monitoring their adequacy and effectiveness.
- Mulrine HM, et al. Breast-milk iodine concentration declines over the first 6 mo postpartum in iodine-deficient women. Am J Clin Nutr. (2010)
- Nagataki S, Shizume K, Nakao K. Thyroid function in chronic excess iodide ingestion: comparison of thyroidal absolute iodine uptake and degradation of thyroxine in euthyroid Japanese subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (1967)
- Matsumura Y. Nutrition trends in Japan. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. (2001)
- Joshinaga J, et al. Certified reference material for analytical quality assurance of minor and trace elements in food and related matrixes based on a typical Japanese diet: interlaboratory study. J AOAC Int. (2001)
- Iso H, et al. Frequency of food intake and estimated nutrient intake among men and women: the JACC Study. J Epidemiol. (2005)
- PRODUCTION, TRADE AND UTILIZATION OF SEAWEEDS AND SEAWEED PRODUCTS.
- Hetzel BS. Eliminating iodine deficiency disorders--the role of the International Council in the global partnership. Bull World Health Organ. (2002)
- Plantin-Carrenard E, Beaudeux J, Foglietti M. Physiopathology of iodine: current interest of its measurement in biological fluids. Ann Biol Clin (Paris). (2000)
- Delange F. Iodine deficiency as a cause of brain damage. Postgrad Med J. (2001)
- Santiago-Fernandez P, et al. Intelligence quotient and iodine intake: a cross-sectional study in children. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2004)
- Hetzel BS, Potter BJ, Dulberg EM. The iodine deficiency disorders: nature, pathogenesis and epidemiology. World Rev Nutr Diet. (1990)
- Assessment of iodine deficiency disorders and monitoring their elimination.
- Pharoah PO, Buttfield IH, Hetzel BS. Neurological damage to the fetus resulting from severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy. Lancet. (1971)
- Bürgi H, Supersaxo Z, Selz B. Iodine deficiency diseases in Switzerland one hundred years after Theodor Kocher's survey: a historical review with some new goitre prevalence data. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). (1990)
- Iodine and Neuropsychological Development.
- A meta-analysis of research on iodine and its relationship to cognitive development.
- Taga I, et al. Youth of West Cameroon are at high risk of developing IDD due to low dietary iodine and high dietary thiocyanate. Afr Health Sci. (2008)
- Draper A, et al. The energy and nutrient intakes of different types of vegetarian: a case for supplements. Br J Nutr. (1993)
- Iodine status in vegans consuming a living food diet.
- Assessment of iodine intake in vegans: weighed dietary record vs duplicate portion technique.
- Remer T, Neubert A, Manz F. Increased risk of iodine deficiency with vegetarian nutrition. Br J Nutr. (1999)
- Krajcovicová-Kudlácková M, et al. Iodine deficiency in vegetarians and vegans. Ann Nutr Metab. (2003)
- Navarro AM, et al. Patients with severe bowel malabsorption do not have changes in iodine status. Nutrition. (2005)
- DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR JAPANESE (2005).
- Zhao J, Chen Z, Maberly G. Iodine-rich drinking water of natural origin in China. Lancet. (1998)
- Li M, et al. Endemic goitre in central China caused by excessive iodine intake. Lancet. (1987)
- Iodine intake and status in Iceland through a period of 60 years.
- Zimmermann MB, et al. High thyroid volume in children with excess dietary iodine intakes. Am J Clin Nutr. (2005)
- Hollowell JG, et al. Iodine nutrition in the United States. Trends and public health implications: iodine excretion data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys I and III (1971-1974 and 1988-1994. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (1998)
- Soriguer F, et al. Iodine intakes of 100-300 μg/d do not modify thyroid function and have modest anti-inflammatory effects. Br J Nutr. (2011)
- Paul T, et al. The effect of small increases in dietary iodine on thyroid function in euthyroid subjects. Metabolism. (1988)
- Gardner DF, Centor RM, Utiger RD. Effects of low dose oral iodide supplementation on thyroid function in normal men. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). (1988)
- Chow CC, et al. Effect of low dose iodide supplementation on thyroid function in potentially susceptible subjects: are dietary iodide levels in Britain acceptable. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). (1991)
- Saberi M, Utiger RD. Augmentation of thyrotropin responses to thyrotropin-releasing hormone following small decreases in serum thyroid hormone concentrations. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (1975)
- Jubiz W, Carlile S, Lagerquist LD. Serum thyrotropin and thyroid hormone levels in humans receiving chronic potassium iodide. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (1977)
- Control of Thyroid Hormone Secretion in Normal Subjects Receiving Iodides.
- Alikaşifoğlu A, Ozön A, Yordam N. Serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-3 levels in severe iodine deficiency. Turk J Pediatr. (2002)
- Wan Nazaimoon WM, et al. Effects of iodine deficiency on insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 levels and height attainment in malnourished children. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). (1996)
- van den Briel T, et al. Mild iodine deficiency is associated with elevated hearing thresholds in children in Benin. Eur J Clin Nutr. (2001)
- Pharoah P, Buttfield IH, Hetzel BS. Neurological damage to the fetus resulting from severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy. Int J Epidemiol. (2012)
- Pharoah PO, Connolly KJ. A controlled trial of iodinated oil for the prevention of endemic cretinism: a long-term follow-up. Int J Epidemiol. (1987)
- Delange F. Administration of iodized oil during pregnancy: a summary of the published evidence. Bull World Health Organ. (1996)
- Luton D, et al. Iodine deficiency in northern Paris area: impact on fetal thyroid mensuration. PLoS One. (2011)
- Dorea JG. Iodine nutrition and breast feeding. J Trace Elem Med Biol. (2002)
- Tonacchera M, et al. Relative potencies and additivity of perchlorate, thiocyanate, nitrate, and iodide on the inhibition of radioactive iodide uptake by the human sodium iodide symporter. Thyroid. (2004)
- Spitzweg C, Heufelder AE, Morris JC. Thyroid iodine transport. Thyroid. (2000)
- Dohán O, et al. The sodium/iodide Symporter (NIS): characterization, regulation, and medical significance. Endocr Rev. (2003)
- Hughes K, Eastman C. Goitre - causes, investigation and management. Aust Fam Physician. (2012)
- Demirel F, et al. Effect of iodine supplementation on goiter prevalence among the pediatric population in a severely iodine deficient area. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. (2004)
- Erdoğan MF, et al. More than a decade of iodine prophylaxis is needed to eradicate goiter among school age children in a moderately iodine-deficient region. Thyroid. (2009)
- WOLFF J, CHAIKOFF IL. Plasma inorganic iodide as a homeostatic regulator of thyroid function. J Biol Chem. (1948)
- WOLFF J, CHAIKOFF IL, et al. The temporary nature of the inhibitory action of excess iodine on organic iodine synthesis in the normal thyroid. Endocrinology. (1949)
- BRAVERMAN LE, INGBAR SH. CHANGES IN THYROIDAL FUNCTION DURING ADAPTATION TO LARGE DOSES OF IODIDE. J Clin Invest. (1963)
- GALTON VA, PITT-RIVERS R. The effect of excessive iodine on the thyroid of the rat. Endocrinology. (1959)
- Fradkin JE, Wolff J. Iodide-induced thyrotoxicosis. Medicine (Baltimore). (1983)
- Müssig K, et al. Iodine-induced thyrotoxicosis after ingestion of kelp-containing tea. J Gen Intern Med. (2006)
- Markou K, et al. Iodine-Induced hypothyroidism. Thyroid. (2001)
- Rhee SS, et al. High iodine content of Korean seaweed soup: a health risk for lactating women and their infants. Thyroid. (2011)
- Shetty KR, Duthie EH Jr. Thyrotoxicosis induced by topical iodine application. Arch Intern Med. (1990)