Quickly and easy calculate your optimal daily intake with our protein intake calculator.
Table of Contents:
As with most things in nutrition, there’s no simple answer. Your individual needs depend on your health, body composition, main goal, and level of physical activity (type, intensity, and duration). And even taking all this into account, you’ll end up with a starting number, which you’ll need to adjust through self-experimentation.
Daily requirements are expressed in grams of protein, either per kilogram of body weight (g/kg) or per pound of body weight (g/lb). Ranges in the table below reflect known individual variances.
If you’re sedentary, aim for at least 1.2 g/kg (0.54 g/lb). Keep in mind that your body composition will improve more if you add consistent activity, especially resistance training, than if you merely hit a protein target.
If you’re of healthy weight, active, and wish to keep your weight, aim for 1.4–1.6 g/kg (0.64–0.73 g/lb). People who are trying to keep the same weight but improve their body composition (more muscle, less fat) may benefit from the higher end of the range.
If you’re of healthy weight, active, and wish to build muscle, aim for 1.4–2.4 g/kg (0.64–1.09 g/lb). If you’re an experienced lifter and bulking, intakes of up to 3.3 g/kg (1.50 g/lb) may help you minimize fat gain.
If you’re of healthy weight, active, and wish to lose fat, aim for 1.8–2.7 g/kg (0.82–1.23 g/lb), skewing toward the higher end of this range as you become leaner or if you increase your caloric deficit (by eating less or exercising more).
If you’re overweight or obese, aim for 1.2–1.5 g/kg (0.54–0.68 g/lb). This range, like all the others in this list, is based on your total body weight (most studies on people who are overweight or obese report their findings based on total body weight, but you’ll find some calculators that determine your optimal protein intake based on your lean mass or your ideal body weight).
If you’re pregnant, aim for 1.66–1.77 g/kg (0.75–0.80 g/lb).
If you’re lactating, aim for at least 1.5 g/kg (0.68 g/lb).
If you’re vegan or obtain most of your protein from plants, then your protein requirements may be higher because plant-based proteins are usually inferior to animal-based proteins with regard to both bioavailability and amino acid profile.
Also, note that …
Protein intake should be based on body weight, not on caloric intake. (But caloric intake should be based on body weight, too, so the two intakes are linked.)
Most studies have looked at dosages up to 1.5 g/kg; only a few have looked at dosages as high as 2.2–3.3 g/kg. However, in healthy people, even those higher dosages don’t seem to have negative effects on liver, kidneys, or bones.
How much protein you need depends on several factors, such as your weight, your goal (weight maintenance, muscle gain, or fat loss), your being physically active or not, and whether you’re pregnant or not.
For adults, the US Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for protein is 0.8 g/kg. However, a more appropriate statistical analysis of the data used to establish the RDA suggests this number should be higher: 1.0 g/kg.
Note that, contrary to popular belief, the RDA doesn’t represent an ideal intake. Instead, it represents the minimum intake needed to prevent malnutrition. Unfortunately, the RDA for protein was determined from nitrogen balance studies, which require that people eat experimental diets for weeks before measurements are taken. This provides ample time for the body to adapt to low protein intakes by down-regulating processes that are not necessary for survival but are necessary for optimal health, such as protein turnover and immune function.
An alternative method for determining protein requirements, called the Indicator Amino Acid Oxidation (IAAO) technique, overcomes many of the shortcomings of nitrogen balance studies. For example, it allows for the assessment of protein requirements within 24 hours, thereby not leaving the body enough time to adapt. Studies using the IAAO method have suggested that about 1.2 g/kg is a more appropriate RDA for healthy young men, older men, and older women.
Further evidence that the current RDA for protein is not sufficient comes from a randomized controlled trial that confined healthy, sedentary adults to a metabolic ward for eight weeks. The participants were randomized into three groups:
Each diet was equally hypercaloric: each participant consumed 40% more calories than they needed to maintain their weight. Yet, as shown in the figure below, eating near the RDA for protein resulted in loss of lean mass, and while this loss is so small as to be nonsignificant, the higher protein intakes were associated with increases in lean mass.
Another takeaway from this study is that eating more than 1.8 g/kg doesn’t seem to meaningfully benefit body composition, which makes it a good higher end for your daily protein intake, provided that you aren’t physically active or trying to lose weight.
The RDA for protein (0.8 g/kg) underestimates the needs of healthy, sedentary adults, who should rather aim for at least 1.2 g/kg (0.54 g/lb).
If you’re physically active regularly, you need more protein daily than if you were sedentary. The American College of Sports Medicine, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, and the Dietitians of Canada recommend 1.2–2.0 g/kg to optimize recovery from training and to promote the growth and maintenance of lean mass when caloric intake is sufficient. This recommendation is similar to that of the International Society of Sports Nutrition (1.4–2.0 g/kg).
Importantly, it may be better to aim for the higher end of the above ranges. According to the most comprehensive meta-analysis to date on the effects of protein supplementation on muscle mass and strength, the average amount of protein required to maximize lean mass is about 1.6 g/kg, and some people need upwards of 2.2 g/kg. For those interested in a comprehensive breakdown of this study, please refer to our Nutrition Examination Research Digest, Issue 34, Volume 1.
However, only 4 of the 49 included studies were conducted in people with resistance training experience (the other 45 were in newbies). IAAO studies in athletes found different numbers: on training days, female athletes required 1.4–1.7 g/kg; the day following a regular training session, male endurance athletes required 2.1–2.7 g/kg; two days after their last resistance-training session, amateur male bodybuilders required 1.7–2.2 g/kg.
Since higher protein intakes seem to have no negative effects in healthy people, one may want to err toward the higher amounts.
Regularly active adults and athletes can optimize body composition, performance, and recovery by consuming 1.4–2.2 g/kg (0.64–1.00 g/lb) of protein — preferably aiming toward the upper end of this range.
Resistance training, such as lifting weights, is of course required for muscle gain: you can’t just feed your muscles what they need to grow; you also need to give them a reason to grow.
Assuming progressive resistance overload and a mild hypercaloric diet (370–800 kcal above maintenance), a few studies suggest you’ll gain less fat if you eat more protein (3.3 g/kg rather than 1.8–2.6 g/kg), although one did not.
What’s important to understand is that a daily protein intake of 3.3 g/kg isn’t likely to help you build more muscle than a daily protein intake of 1.8–2.6 g/kg. What the higher number can do is help you minimize the fat gains you’ll most likely experience if you eat above maintenance in order to gain (muscle) weight.
Athletes and active adults can minimize fat gain when overfeeding by increasing protein intake to upward of 3.3 g/kg (1.5 g/lb).
High protein intakes help preserve lean mass in dieters, especially lean dieters. An early review concluded that, to optimize body composition, dieting athletes should consume 1.8–2.7 g/kg. Later studies have argued that, to minimize lean-mass loss, dieting athletes should consume 2.3–3.1 g/kg (closer to the higher end of the range as leanness and caloric deficit increase). This latter recommendation has been upheld by the International Society of Sports Nutrition and by a review article on bodybuilding contest preparation.
Note that those recommendations are for people who are relatively lean already. Several meta-analyses involving people with overweightness or obesity suggest that 1.2–1.5 g/kg is an appropriate daily protein intake range to maximize fat loss. This range is supported by the European Association for the Study of Obesity, which recommends up to 1.5 g/kg for elderly adults with obesity. It is important to realize that this range is based on actual body weight, not on lean mass or ideal body weight.
Considering the health risks associated with overweightness and obesity, it is also noteworthy that eating a diet higher in protein (27% vs. 18% of calories) significantly reduces several cardiometabolic risk factors, including waist circumference, blood pressure, and triglycerides, while also increasing satiety. These effects are small, however, and likely dependent on the amount of body fat one loses.
When dieting for fat loss, athletes and other active adults who are already lean may maximize fat loss and muscle retention by increasing protein intake to 2.3–3.1 g/kg (1.00–1.41 g/lb). People who are overweight or obese are best served by consuming 1.2–1.5 g/kg (0.54–0.68 g/lb).
Quickly and easy calculate your optimal daily intake with our protein intake calculator.
Sarcopenia is defined as an impairment of physical function (walking speed or grip strength) combined with a loss of muscle mass. It is the primary age-related cause of frailty. Frailty is associated with a higher risk of having disabilities that affect your ability to perform daily activities, having to go to a nursing home, and experiencing fractures, falls, and hospitalizations.
The link between sarcopenia, frailty, and associated morbidities may explain why sarcopenia is associated with a greater risk of premature death and reduced quality of life. This isn’t a minor issue, either: in the US, more than 40% of men and 55% of women over the age of 50 have sarcopenia.
A low protein intake is associated with frailty and worse physical function than a higher protein intake. Aging results in anabolic resistance, a term used to describe how muscle tissue becomes less responsive to the growth-promoting effects of eating protein. Accordingly, older adults need to consume higher doses of protein in each meal to achieve maximal stimulation of muscle protein synthesis.
Although per-meal requirements for protein are higher in older adults, total daily protein requirements are similar to that of young adults. The RDA for protein for adults aged 50+ years is the same as that for younger adults, 0.8 g/kg. Like with younger adults, however, studies using the IAAO method have suggested that a more appropriate RDA is 1.2 g/kg. Several authorities now recommend older adults to consume 1.2–1.5 g/kg.
Notably, doubling protein intake from 0.8 to 1.6 g/kg has been shown to significantly increase lean body mass in elderly men. Similar observations have been made in elderly women who increase their protein intake from 0.9 to 1.4 g/kg. Even a small increase in protein intake from 1.0 to 1.3 g/kg has minor benefits towards lean mass and overall body composition.
Older adults (50+ years) should aim to consume at least 1.2 g/kg (0.54 g/lb) of protein daily. Up to 1.5 g/kg (0.68 g/lb) may provide additional benefit, based on limited evidence.
The protein RDA for pregnant women is 1.1 g/kg. This value was estimated by adding three values:
The RDA for a healthy adult (0.8 g/kg)
The amount of additional body protein a pregnant woman accumulates
The amount of protein used by the developing fetus
However, as we saw previously with non-pregnant healthy adults, the RDA may not be sufficient, let alone optimal. There’s some evidence with the IAAO method that the RDA for pregnant women should be about 1.66 g/kg during early gestation (weeks 11–20) and 1.77 g/kg during late gestation (weeks 32–38). Moreover, a meta-analysis of 16 intervention studies reported that protein supplementation during pregnancy led to reduced risks for the baby:
34% lower risk of low gestational weight
32% lower risk of low birth weight
38% lower risk of stillbirth
This effect was more pronounced in undernourished women than in adequately nourished women. Importantly, these values were determined from sedentary women carrying one child, meaning that pregnant women who engage in regular physical activity and/or are supporting the growth of twins may need even higher amounts.
Also, keep in mind that we can only tell you what the studies reported; we can’t possibly know about your health and your pregnancy specifically. Please be sure to consult with your OB-GYN before making any changes.
Pregnant women may require a daily protein intake of 1.7 g/kg (0.77 g/lb) to support both the fetus and themselves. Protein supplementation during pregnancy appears to lower some risks for the baby — including the risk of stillbirth — especially in undernourished women.
As with pregnancy, there is little research investigating how lactation and breastfeeding affect protein requirements. Women produce a wide range of breast milk volumes, regardless of their energy status (i.e., milk production is maintained even among women with a BMI under 18.5). The infant’s demands appear to be the primary regulator of milk production.
Based simply on adult protein requirements plus the protein output in breast milk, the RDA for lactating women was set at 1.3 g/kg. However, one study reported that half of the lactating women consuming 1.5 g/kg/day were in negative nitrogen balance, while another study suggested that 1.0–1.5 g/kg/day leads to a rapid downregulation of protein turnover suggestive of an adaptive response to insufficient intakes.
Considering that there is no data investigating the effects of a protein intake greater than 1.5 g/kg in lactating women, and that consuming 1.5 g/kg or less of protein per day leads to adaptations suggestive of insufficient intake, lactating women should aim to consume at least 1.5 g/kg of protein daily.
Lactating women should aim to consume at least 1.5 g/kg of protein daily.
Breast milk is considered the optimal source of nutrition for infants (0–12 months old) and is recommended as the exclusive source of nutrition for infants aged 0–6 months. Based on the average weight and milk intake of healthy infants aged 0–6 months, their adequate protein intake is 1.5 g/kg.
The average protein intake for healthy infants aged 7–12 months is estimated at 1.6 g/kg, assuming that half their protein comes from breast milk and half from complementary foods. Yet the RDA is set at 1.2 g/kg for this age group based entirely on studies conducted in toddlers and children.
Although breast milk is considered the ideal food for infants, not all infants can breastfeed. Infant formulas provide an alternative, but there are considerable differences in composition from breast milk. One such difference is the protein content, which tends to be higher in formula.
Compared to exclusive breastfeeding, formula feeding is associated with greater increases in fat-free mass throughout the first year of life. Fat mass and body fat percentage tend to be lower during the first six months, but play catch-up afterward and ultimately end up higher with formula feeding than with breastfeeding.
An association was found between formula feeding, faster growth during infancy, and obesity in childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood. Some researchers suggested that the higher protein content of infant formulas was responsible, but others have argued that there are too many contributing factors (e.g., breastfeeding helps infants learn to better regulate their energy intake) to single one out.
Moreover, if the higher protein content of formulas were responsible for the infants’ accelerated growth, then how would we explain the similarities in growth between formulas containing 1.2 or 1.7 grams of protein per 100 milliliters, or between formulas containing 1.0, 1.3, or 1.5 grams of protein per 100 milliliters? (For reference, breast milk contains about 1 gram of protein per 100 milliliters.)
Still, even if consuming more protein from formulas than would be obtained from breast milk is not necessarily detrimental, it doesn’t appear to confer a benefit. There is no good reason to stray from the nutrient composition of mother’s milk during infancy, unless dealing with a preterm infant.
Preterm infants need to be fed enough protein to promote growth rates similar to those observed in healthy fetuses growing in utero. The following daily intakes have been recommended based on gestational age:
3.5–4.0 g/kg (less than 30 weeks)
2.5–3.5 g/kg (30–36 weeks)
2.5 g/kg (more than 36 weeks)
A systematic review by the Cochrane Collaboration reported greater weight gain and higher nitrogen accretion in preterm infants receiving 3.0–4.0 g/kg of protein, compared to lower daily intakes. These findings were echoed by another systematic review of 24 clinical trials.
When complementary foods are introduced to infants during the latter half of infancy, there may be a benefit to consuming more protein from meat. Compared to feeding cereal grains alongside breast milk (total protein: 1.4 g/kg/day), feeding pureed meats alongside breast milk (total protein: 2.9 g/kg/day) was shown to lead to better growth without excess fat gain.
Another study demonstrated that, as a complementary food, meat led to more favorable growth patterns than dairy (higher length-for-age and lower weight-for-length) by 12 months of age — differences that persisted at the age of 2 years. Both the meat group and the dairy group consumed the same total protein (3.0–4.0 g/kg).
During their first six months, healthy infants should consume about 1.5 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight per day (1.5 g/kg/day). This intake can be achieved exclusively through breastfeeding. From age 6 to 12 months, they should consume around 3.0 g/kg/day by using meat as complementary food. Preterm infants require 3.0–4.0 g/kg/day to facilitate catch-up growth.
The same data used to establish the RDA for infants aged 7–12 months (1.2 g/kg) was used to determine the RDA for toddlers aged 1–3 years (1.05 g/kg). The average daily protein intake of US toddlers is 4.0 g/kg, with 90% of US toddlers consuming over 3.0 g/kg.
There is a dearth of data for this age group. However, in toddlers aged 2 years with a total daily protein intake of 4.0 g/kg, complementary protein from meat led to better growth (higher length-for-age) than the same amount of complementary protein from dairy.
There is little research on what is optimal, but the average daily protein intake of US toddlers is 4 g/kg — nearly four times the RDA. Meat appears to be a better complementary food than milk.
The protein RDA is slightly higher for children (4–13 years) than for adults: 0.95 versus 0.8 g/kg. This difference makes sense considering that children are still growing and need more protein to facilitate the process. As with adults, however, the RDA may underestimate true requirements.
Use of the IAAO technique in children aged 6–11 years has suggested that around 1.5 g/kg would make for a more appropriate RDA. Protein requirements are likely higher in children involved in sports and other athletic activities.
There are no long-term studies on optimal protein intake since it would be unethical to deprive children of the protein they need for their development and various physiologic and metabolic functions.
Children require at least 1.5 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight per day (1.5 g/kg/day). An unknown amount of additional protein is likely required by children who are involved in sports or otherwise regularly active.
The protein requirements discussed so far were based on studies that used animal-based protein supplements, such as whey and eggs, and/or were conducted mostly in omnivores. There is no reason to believe, however, that people who get their protein mostly or entirely from plants have inherently different protein requirements.
However, because plant-based proteins tend to be lower in quality than animal-based proteins, if you obtain most of your protein from plants you will need to pay attention not just to the amount of protein you eat but also to the quality of that protein.
A protein’s quality is determined by its digestibility and amino acid profile.
Digestibility matters because if you don’t digest and absorb some of the protein you eat, then it may as well not have been eaten. Animal-based proteins consistently demonstrate a digestibility rate higher than 90%, whereas proteins from the best plant-based sources (legumes and grains) show a digestibility rate of 60–80%.
Plants contain anti-nutrients that inhibit protein digestion and absorption, such as trypsin inhibitors, phytates, and tannins. While cooking does reduce anti-nutrient concentrations, it doesn’t eliminate them entirely. Plant-based protein powders, however, are mostly free of antinutrients and so have digestibility rates similar to those of animal-based proteins.
The amino acid profile of a protein matters because all proteins, including the protein you eat and the protein in your body, are made from some combination of 20 amino acids (AAs). Your body can produce 11 of these AAs, making them nonessential amino acids (NEAAs). Your body cannot produce the other 9, which are therefore essential amino acids (EAAs) you must get through food.
Building muscle requires that, cumulatively, muscle protein synthesis (MPS) exceeds muscle protein breakdown (MPB), resulting in a net accumulation of muscle protein. All 20 AAs are required to build muscle tissue, but MPS is stimulated primarily by the EAAs in the food you ingest.
Plant-based proteins, whether from whole foods or protein powders, contain less EAAs than animal-based proteins.
In particular, plant-based proteins are lower in the EAA leucine, which is believed to act as a signal to “turn on” anabolic signaling pathways and MPS, although all EAAs are required for the effect to persist.
The lower leucine and EAA content of plant-based proteins helps explain why several studies have reported lower rates of MPS from soy protein powders and beverages than from whey protein, skim milk, whole milk with cheese, and lean beef.
Differences in MPS appear to translate to differences in lean mass as well, at least when modest supplemental protein doses are used (about 20 g/day). However, in higher doses (33–50 g/day), animal-based and plant-based supplemental proteins appear to affect lean mass similarly. In short, consuming more protein overall appears to offset the lower quality of the plant-based proteins.
Plant-based proteins also contain limiting amino acids, which are EAAs present in such small amounts that they bottleneck protein synthesis. Lysine is the most common limiting amino acid, especially in cereal grains, such as wheat and rice. Nuts and seeds also tend to have lysine as a limiting amino acid. Beans and legumes, on the other hand, contain sufficient lysine but lack sulfurous amino acids, such as methionine and cysteine. Combining different plant-based proteins can help make up for their respective deficits.
Plant-based proteins are of lower quality (they are less bioavailable and contain less EAAs). If you get most of your protein from plants, you will need to consume more protein to achieve the same muscle growth as someone with a more omnivorous diet.
The simplest method to overcome the EAA deficits of a plant protein is to eat more of it. As aforementioned, a handful of studies have shown that large doses (33–50 g/day) of animal-based (whey) and plant-based (soy, rice) supplemental proteins appear to increase lean mass similarly.
Another way to overcome the EAA deficits of plant proteins is to combine complementary EAA profiles. Historic examples of such combinations include beans with corn in the Americas, and rice with soybean in Asia. These grain-legume combos work because legumes supply the lysine missing in grains, and grains supply the methionine and cysteine missing in legumes.
Unfortunately, most plant proteins are low in leucine, meaning that combining different plant proteins will not have a large benefit unless one of those proteins is corn protein (whose leucine content rivals that of whey protein).
If your protein has less leucine, you need to eat more of it to maximize MPS — or you can supplement with leucine. MPS was increased similarly by 25 grams of whey protein (providing 3 grams of leucine) and by a combination of 6.25 grams of whey protein and 4.25 grams of supplemental leucine (5 grams of leucine in total). A rodent study using plant proteins reported similar results.
The EAA deficits of plant-based proteins can be overcome by eating more, combining complementary proteins, and supplementing with leucine.
Muscle protein synthesis (MPS) is the process of building new skeletal muscle tissue. When MPS chronically exceeds muscle protein breakdown (MPB), resulting in a positive net protein balance, we can expect muscle growth over the long term. Every time you eat represents a time to facilitate muscle growth through the stimulation of MPS.
Protein-feeding studies using varying doses of whey protein suggest that 0.24 g/kg/meal will maximize the MPS of the average young adult, whereas 0.40 g/kg/meal will maximize the MPS of most young adults. For older adults, these values are 0.40 and 0.60 g/kg/meal, respectively.
These values are derived from studies using whey protein in isolation. Whey protein is highly bioavailable, rich in essential amino acids (EAAs), and quickly digested. When eating lower-quality or slower-digesting proteins (as would occur when eating a meal), higher protein intakes are probably required.
Additionally, while these values suggest a protein-intake threshold for maximally stimulating MPS, there is no known threshold for whole-body protein balance. For example, a study using meals with lean beef found that 40 and 70 grams of protein (0.5 and 0.8 g/kg) led to similar increases in MPS, but that 70 grams led to greater increases in whole-body protein synthesis and greater decreases in whole-body protein breakdown.
In other words, eating more protein may not necessarily translate to greater muscle-protein turnover and growth, but since muscle tissue accounts for only 25–30% of whole-body protein turnover, the additional protein is not “wasted” (a common myth).
A pragmatic review article suggests that, to maximize their lean mass, active adults should consume 1.6–2.2 g/kg/day spread across four meals (0.40–0.55 g/kg/meal).
For maximal stimulation of muscle protein synthesis, aim for a per-meal dose of quality protein (such as can be found in meat, eggs, and dairy) of 0.4–0.6 g/kg. Higher doses will not be wasted and are probably necessary when eating mixed meals that contain a variety of protein sources.
Quickly and easy calculate your optimal daily intake with our protein intake calculator.
Learn how to select the best whey protein powder for you
If you take whey protein, getting our Defintive Guide to Whey is a no-brainer. Learn how much to take, how often, and when to take. Learn about the differences between different types, what to look out for, the tricks supplement companies use, and more.
For less than the cost of a tub of whey, our guide will help you choose the best product for you.Show me the Defintive Guide to Whey
- Fact check: does glutamine build muscle?
- Throwdown: plant vs. animal protein for type 2 diabetes
- How can you assess protein quality?
- Whey Protein and Efficiency
- How does protein affect weight loss?
- What should you eat for weight loss?
- Is semen high in protein?
- High-Protein Diets Linked to Cancer: Should You Be Concerned?
- Can eating too much protein be bad for you?
- Are there health benefits to a low carb diet?
- 5 little-known facts about protein
- How much protein do you need after exercise?
- Should one gram per pound be the new RDA for bodybuilders?
- Does high-protein intake help when dieting?
- Whey vs soy protein: which is better when losing weight?
- How to minimize fat gain during the holidays
- How much protein can you eat in one sitting?
- Do muscle building supplements cause testicular cancer?
Easily calculate how much protein you need...
Use our protein calculator to figure out your optimal daily intake.
- 10 Protein and Amino Acids. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. (2005) Institute of Medicine.
- Evidence that protein requirements have been significantly underestimated. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. (2010) Elango R, et al.
- Mechanisms and nutritional significance of metabolic responses to altered intakes of protein and amino acids, with reference to nutritional adaptation in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. (1990) Young VR, Marchini JS.
- Indicator amino acid oxidation: concept and application. J Nutr. (2008) Elango R, Ball RO, Pencharz PB.
- Reevaluation of the protein requirement in young men with the indicator amino acid oxidation technique. Am J Clin Nutr. (2007) Humayun MA, et al.
- Dietary Protein Requirement of Men >65 Years Old Determined by the Indicator Amino Acid Oxidation Technique Is Higher than the Current Estimated Average Requirement. J Nutr. (2016) Rafii M, et al.
- Dietary protein requirement of female adults >65 years determined by the indicator amino acid oxidation technique is higher than current recommendations. J Nutr. (2015) Rafii M, et al.
- Assessment of protein requirement in octogenarian women with use of the indicator amino acid oxidation technique. Am J Clin Nutr. (2014) Tang M, et al.
- Effect of dietary protein content on weight gain, energy expenditure, and body composition during overeating: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. (2012) Bray GA, et al.
- American College of Sports Medicine Joint Position Statement. Nutrition and Athletic Performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. (2016) Thomas DT, Erdman KA, Burke LM.
- International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: protein and exercise. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2017) Jäger R, et al.
- A systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression of the effect of protein supplementation on resistance training-induced gains in muscle mass and strength in healthy adults. Br J Sports Med. (2018) Morton RW, et al.
- Increased Protein Requirements in Female Athletes after Variable-Intensity Exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. (2017) Wooding DJ, et al.
- Protein to Maximize Whole-Body Anabolism in Resistance-trained Females after Exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. (2019) Malowany JM, et al.
- Indicator amino acid oxidation protein requirement estimate in endurance-trained men 24 h postexercise exceeds both the EAR and current athlete guidelines. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. (2019) Bandegan A, et al.
- Indicator Amino Acid-Derived Estimate of Dietary Protein Requirement for Male Bodybuilders on a Nontraining Day Is Several-Fold Greater than the Current Recommended Dietary Allowance. J Nutr. (2017) Bandegan A, et al.
- The Effects of Overfeeding on Body Composition: The Role of Macronutrient Composition - A Narrative Review. Int J Exerc Sci. (2017) Leaf A, Antonio J.
- A high protein diet (3.4 g/kg/d) combined with a heavy resistance training program improves body composition in healthy trained men and women--a follow-up investigation. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2015) Antonio J, et al.
- The effects of a high protein diet on indices of health and body composition--a crossover trial in resistance-trained men. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2016) Antonio J, et al.
- Dietary protein for athletes: from requirements to optimum adaptation. J Sports Sci. (2011) Phillips SM, Van Loon LJ.
- A systematic review of dietary protein during caloric restriction in resistance trained lean athletes: a case for higher intakes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2014) Helms ER, et al.
- International society of sports nutrition position stand: diets and body composition. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2017) Aragon AA, et al.
- Evidence-based recommendations for natural bodybuilding contest preparation: nutrition and supplementation. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2014) Helms ER, Aragon AA, Fitschen PJ.
- Effects of variation in protein and carbohydrate intake on body mass and composition during energy restriction: a meta-regression 1. Am J Clin Nutr. (2006) Krieger JW, et al.
- Effects of energy-restricted high-protein, low-fat compared with standard-protein, low-fat diets: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. (2012) Wycherley TP, et al.
- Effects of dietary protein intake on body composition changes after weight loss in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutr Rev. (2016) Kim JE, et al.
- Prevalence, pathophysiology, health consequences and treatment options of obesity in the elderly: a guideline. Obes Facts. (2012) Mathus-Vliegen EM, Obesity Management Task Force of the European Association for the Study of Obesity.
- 2013 AHA/ACC/TOS guideline for the management of overweight and obesity in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and The Obesity Society. J Am Coll Cardiol. (2014) Jensen MD, et al.
- Adipose tissue inflammation: a cause or consequence of obesity-related insulin resistance?. Clin Sci (Lond). (2016) Blüher M.
- Effects of higher- versus lower-protein diets on health outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Clin Nutr. (2012) Santesso N, et al.
- Sarcopenia Is Recognized as an Independent Condition by an International Classification of Disease, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) Code. J Am Med Dir Assoc. (2016) Cao L, Morley JE.
- Sarcopenia as the Biological Substrate of Physical Frailty. Clin Geriatr Med. (2015) Landi F, et al.
- Frailty as a predictor of disabilities among community-dwelling older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Disabil Rehabil. (2017) Kojima G.
- Frailty as a Predictor of Nursing Home Placement Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. J Geriatr Phys Ther. (2018) Kojima G.
- Frailty as a predictor of fractures among community-dwelling older people: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Bone. (2016) Kojima G.
- Frailty as a Risk Factor for Falls Among Community Dwelling People: Evidence From a Meta-Analysis. J Nurs Scholarsh. (2017) Cheng MH, Chang SF.
- Frailty as a predictor of hospitalisation among community-dwelling older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Epidemiol Community Health. (2016) Kojima G.
- Sarcopenia and mortality among a population-based sample of community-dwelling older adults. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. (2016) Brown JC, Harhay MO, Harhay MN.
- Systematic Literature Review on the Relationship Between Biomarkers of Sarcopenia and Quality of Life in Older People. J Frailty Aging. (2016) Woo T, Yu S, Visvanathan R.
- Low relative skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia) in older persons is associated with functional impairment and physical disability. J Am Geriatr Soc. (2002) Janssen I, Heymsfield SB, Ross R.
- Low Protein Intake Is Associated with Frailty in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies. Nutrients. (2018) Coelho-Júnior HJ, et al.
- Relative Protein Intake and Physical Function in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies. Nutrients. (2018) Coelho-Júnior HJ, et al.
- Anabolic resistance of muscle protein synthesis with aging. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. (2013) Burd NA, Gorissen SH, van Loon LJ.
- Protein ingestion to stimulate myofibrillar protein synthesis requires greater relative protein intakes in healthy older versus younger men. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. (2015) Moore DR, et al.
- Perspective: Protein Requirements and Optimal Intakes in Aging: Are We Ready to Recommend More Than the Recommended Daily Allowance?. Adv Nutr. (2018) Traylor DA, Gorissen SHM, Phillips SM.
- Protein intake and exercise for optimal muscle function with aging: recommendations from the ESPEN Expert Group. Clin Nutr. (2014) Deutz NE, et al.
- Evidence-based recommendations for optimal dietary protein intake in older people: a position paper from the PROT-AGE Study Group. J Am Med Dir Assoc. (2013) Bauer J, et al.
- Nutritional recommendations for the management of sarcopenia. J Am Med Dir Assoc. (2010) Morley JE, et al.
- The effects of dietary protein intake on appendicular lean mass and muscle function in elderly men: a 10-wk randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. (2017) Mitchell CJ, et al.
- Effects of Whey Protein Supplementation Pre- or Post-Resistance Training on Muscle Mass, Muscular Strength, and Functional Capacity in Pre-Conditioned Older Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Nutrients. (2018) Nabuco HCG, et al.
- Protein supplementation improves lean body mass in physically active older adults: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. (2019) Ten Haaf DSM, et al.
- Protein requirements of healthy pregnant women during early and late gestation are higher than current recommendations. J Nutr. (2015) Stephens TV, et al.
- Protein and Amino Acid Requirements during Pregnancy. Adv Nutr. (2016) Elango R, Ball RO.
- Maternal nutrition and birth outcomes: effect of balanced protein-energy supplementation. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. (2012) Imdad A, Bhutta ZA.
- Energy and protein requirements during lactation. Annu Rev Nutr. (1997) Dewey KG.
- Body mass index and lactation performance. Eur J Clin Nutr. (1994) Prentice AM, Goldberg GR, Prentice A.
- Infant demand and milk supply. Part 1: Infant demand and milk production in lactating women. J Hum Lact. (1995) Daly SE, Hartmann PE.
- Infant demand and milk supply. Part 2: The short-term control of milk synthesis in lactating women. J Hum Lact. (1995) Daly SE, Hartmann PE.
- Dietary protein and nitrogen balance in lactating and nonlactating women. Am J Clin Nutr. (1990) Motil KJ, et al.
- Whole-body protein turnover in the fed state is reduced in response to dietary protein restriction in lactating women. Am J Clin Nutr. (1996) Motil KJ, et al.
- Review of Infant Feeding: Key Features of Breast Milk and Infant Formula. Nutrients. (2016) Martin CR, Ling PR, Blackburn GL.
- Effect of breastfeeding compared with formula feeding on infant body composition: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. (2012) Gale C, et al.
- Early infant feeding and adiposity risk: from infancy to adulthood. Ann Nutr Metab. (2014) Oddy WH, et al.
- Infant feeding and obesity risk in the child. Breastfeed Rev. (2012) Oddy WH.
- Mechanisms underlying the association between breastfeeding and obesity. Int J Pediatr Obes. (2009) Bartok CJ, Ventura AK.
- Clinical evaluation of two different protein content formulas fed to full-term healthy infants: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Pediatr. (2018) Liotto N, et al.
- Lower Protein Intake Supports Normal Growth of Full-Term Infants Fed Formula: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutrients. (2018) Oropeza-Ceja LG, et al.
- Protein for preterm infants: how much is needed? How much is enough? How much is too much?. Pediatr Neonatol. (2010) Hay WW, Thureen P.
- Enteral nutrient supply for preterm infants: commentary from the European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Committee on Nutrition. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. (2010) Agostoni C, et al.
- Fortification of Human Milk for Preterm Infants: Update and Recommendations of the European Milk Bank Association (EMBA) Working Group on Human Milk Fortification. Front Pediatr. (2019) Arslanoglu S, et al.
- Higher versus lower protein intake in formula-fed low birth weight infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. (2014) Fenton TR, et al.
- Protein Intake and Growth in Preterm Infants: A Systematic Review. Glob Pediatr Health. (2014) Tonkin EL, Collins CT, Miller J.
- Protein Intake during the First Two Years of Life and Its Association with Growth and Risk of Overweight. Int J Environ Res Public Health. (2018) Tang M.
- High protein intake from meat as complementary food increases growth but not adiposity in breastfed infants: a randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr. (2014) Tang M, Krebs NF.
- A meat- or dairy-based complementary diet leads to distinct growth patterns in formula-fed infants: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. (2018) Tang M, Hendricks AE, Krebs NF.
- Different Growth Patterns Persist at 24 Months of Age in Formula-Fed Infants Randomized to Consume a Meat- or Dairy-Based Complementary Diet from 5 to 12 Months of Age. J Pediatr. (2019) Tang M, et al.
- Usual nutrient intakes of US infants and toddlers generally meet or exceed Dietary Reference Intakes: findings from NHANES 2009-2012. Am J Clin Nutr. (2016) Ahluwalia N, et al.
- Protein requirement of healthy school-age children determined by the indicator amino acid oxidation method. Am J Clin Nutr. (2011) Elango R, et al.
- Optimal quantity and composition of protein for growing children. J Am Coll Nutr. (2005) Rodriguez NR.
- Vegan diets: practical advice for athletes and exercisers. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2017) Rogerson D.
- The assessment of amino acid digestibility in foods for humans and including a collation of published ileal amino acid digestibility data for human foods. FAO. (2011) Moughan P, et al.
- Impact of antinutritional factors in food proteins on the digestibility of protein and the bioavailability of amino acids and on protein quality. Br J Nutr. (2012) Sarwar Gilani G, Wu Xiao C, Cockell KA.
- Dietary essentiality of "nutritionally non-essential amino acids" for animals and humans. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). (2015) Hou Y, Yin Y, Wu G.
- Essential amino acids are primarily responsible for the amino acid stimulation of muscle protein anabolism in healthy elderly adults. Am J Clin Nutr. (2003) Volpi E, et al.
- Effects of leucine and its metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate on human skeletal muscle protein metabolism. J Physiol. (2013) Wilkinson DJ, et al.
- Leucine, Not Total Protein, Content of a Supplement Is the Primary Determinant of Muscle Protein Anabolic Responses in Healthy Older Women. J Nutr. (2018) Devries MC, et al.
- Branched-chain amino acids and muscle protein synthesis in humans: myth or reality?. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2017) Wolfe RR.
- Myofibrillar protein synthesis following ingestion of soy protein isolate at rest and after resistance exercise in elderly men. Nutr Metab (Lond). (2012) Yang Y, et al.
- Soy protein ingestion results in less prolonged p70S6 kinase phosphorylation compared to whey protein after resistance exercise in older men. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2015) Mitchell CJ, et al.
- Consumption of fluid skim milk promotes greater muscle protein accretion after resistance exercise than does consumption of an isonitrogenous and isoenergetic soy-protein beverage. Am J Clin Nutr. (2007) Wilkinson SB, et al.
- Muscle p70S6K phosphorylation in response to soy and dairy rich meals in middle aged men with metabolic syndrome: a randomised crossover trial. Nutr Metab (Lond). (2014) Gran P, et al.
- Nutrient-rich meat proteins in offsetting age-related muscle loss. Meat Sci. (2012) Phillips SM.
- Whey protein supplementation during resistance training augments lean body mass. J Am Coll Nutr. (2013) Volek JS, et al.
- Consumption of fat-free fluid milk after resistance exercise promotes greater lean mass accretion than does consumption of soy or carbohydrate in young, novice, male weightlifters. Am J Clin Nutr. (2007) Hartman JW, et al.
- The effects of 8 weeks of whey or rice protein supplementation on body composition and exercise performance. Nutr J. (2013) Joy JM, et al.
- Effect of protein source and resistance training on body composition and sex hormones. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2007) Kalman D, et al.
- Soy versus whey protein bars: effects on exercise training impact on lean body mass and antioxidant status. Nutr J. (2004) Brown EC, et al.
- Effects of Whey, Soy or Leucine Supplementation with 12 Weeks of Resistance Training on Strength, Body Composition, and Skeletal Muscle and Adipose Tissue Histological Attributes in College-Aged Males. Nutrients. (2017) Mobley CB, et al.
- Plant proteins in relation to human protein and amino acid nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr. (1994) Young VR, Pellett PL.
- vProtein: identifying optimal amino acid complements from plant-based foods. PLoS One. (2011) Woolf PJ, Fu LL, Basu A.
- Leucine supplementation of a low-protein mixed macronutrient beverage enhances myofibrillar protein synthesis in young men: a double-blind, randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr. (2014) Churchward-Venne TA, et al.
- Leucine content of dietary proteins is a determinant of postprandial skeletal muscle protein synthesis in adult rats. Nutr Metab (Lond). (2012) Norton LE, et al.
- Skeletal muscle hypertrophy adaptations predominate in the early stages of resistance exercise training, matching deuterium oxide-derived measures of muscle protein synthesis and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling. FASEB J. (2015) Brook MS, et al.
- Resistance training-induced changes in integrated myofibrillar protein synthesis are related to hypertrophy only after attenuation of muscle damage. J Physiol. (2016) Damas F, et al.
- Nutritional interventions to augment resistance training-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Front Physiol. (2015) Morton RW, McGlory C, Phillips SM.
- Is there a maximal anabolic response to protein intake with a meal?. Clin Nutr. (2013) Deutz NE, Wolfe RR.
- The anabolic response to a meal containing different amounts of protein is not limited by the maximal stimulation of protein synthesis in healthy young adults. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. (2016) Kim IY, et al.
- Leucine incorporation into mixed skeletal muscle protein in humans. Am J Physiol. (1988) Nair KS, Halliday D, Griggs RC.
- How much protein can the body use in a single meal for muscle-building? Implications for daily protein distribution. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2018) Schoenfeld BJ, Aragon AA.