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Synephrine

A molecule that is similar to ephedrine in mechanism, but less potent. Commonly referred to as 'bitter orange', synephrine appears to be a less potent fat-burner relative to ephedrine. It may exert some minor health effects on digestion and circulation.

Our evidence-based analysis on synephrine features 34 unique references to scientific papers.

Research analysis led by .
Reviewed by
Examine.com Team
Last Updated:

How to Take

Recommended dosage, active amounts, other details

A recommended dosage is 10-20mg, taken thrice a day.

Acute dosages of 50mg are also frequently used, although not thrice a day.

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Human Effect Matrix

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The Human Effect Matrix summarizes human studies to tell you what effects Synephrine has on your body, how much evidence there is, and how strong these effects are.

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Grade Level of Evidence
Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials
Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies
Uncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
? The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results.
Outcome Magnitude of effect
? The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Consistency of research results
? Scientific research does not always agree. HIGH or VERY HIGH means that most of the scientific research agrees.
Notes
grade-c - - See study
grade-c - - See study
grade-c - - See study
grade-c - - See study
grade-c - - See study
grade-c - - See study
grade-c - - See study

Studies Excluded from Consideration

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Things to Note

Is a Form Of

Primary Function:

Also Known As

Bitter Orange, p-synephrine, Citrus Aurantium

Do Not Confuse With

Ephedrine

Goes Well With

  • P-synephrine is stimulatory

  • At this moment in time, p-synephrine does not appear to cause a false positive on a CEDIA amphetamine urine test

  • Synephrine is allowed by WADA, but its metabolite octopamine is not; supplementation of synephrine does not appear to significantly increase urinary octopamine

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Click here to see all 34 references.