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Synephrine

A molecule that is similar to ephedrine in mechanism, but less potent. Commonly referred to as 'bitter orange', synephrine appears to be a less potent fat-burner relative to ephedrine. It may exert some minor health effects on digestion and circulation.

Our evidence-based analysis on synephrine features 34 unique references to scientific papers.

Research analysis led by .
Reviewed by
Examine.com Team
Last Updated:

How to Take

Medical Disclaimer

Recommended dosage, active amounts, other details

A recommended dosage is 10-20mg, taken thrice a day.

Acute dosages of 50mg are also frequently used, although not thrice a day.

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Human Effect Matrix

Unlocked for Examine Plus members

The Human Effect Matrix summarizes human studies to tell you what effects Synephrine has on your body, how much evidence there is, and how strong these effects are.

Full details are available to Examine Plus members.
Grade Level of Evidence
Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials
Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies
Uncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
? The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results.
Outcome Magnitude of effect
? The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Consistency of research results
? Scientific research does not always agree. HIGH or VERY HIGH means that most of the scientific research agrees.
Notes
grade-c - - See study
grade-c - - See study
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grade-c - - See study
grade-c - - See study

Studies Excluded from Consideration

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Things to Note

Is a Form Of

Primary Function:

Also Known As

Bitter Orange, p-synephrine, Citrus Aurantium

Do Not Confuse With

Ephedrine

Goes Well With

  • P-synephrine is stimulatory

  • At this moment in time, p-synephrine does not appear to cause a false positive on a CEDIA amphetamine urine test

  • Synephrine is allowed by WADA, but its metabolite octopamine is not; supplementation of synephrine does not appear to significantly increase urinary octopamine

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Click here to see all 34 references.