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Frequently Asked Questions about Prolactin
Human Effect Matrix
The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (it excludes animal and in vitro studies) to tell you what supplements affect prolactin
|Grade||Level of Evidence [show legend]|
|Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials|
|Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled|
|Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies|
|Uncontrolled or observational studies only|
Level of Evidence
? The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results.
Magnitude of effect
? The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Consistency of research results
? Scientific research does not always agree. HIGH or VERY HIGH means that most of the scientific research agrees.
|Minor||Very High See 2 studies|
|Minor||- See study|
|Minor||- See study|
- Exton MS, et al. Endocrine response to masturbation-induced orgasm in healthy men following a 3-week sexual abstinence. World J Urol. (2001)
- Jiang M, et al. A research on the relationship between ejaculation and serum testosterone level in men. J Zhejiang Univ Sci. (2003)
- Krüger T, et al. Neuroendocrine and cardiovascular response to sexual arousal and orgasm in men. Psychoneuroendocrinology. (1998)
- Krüger TH, et al. Specificity of the neuroendocrine response to orgasm during sexual arousal in men. J Endocrinol. (2003)
- Krüger TH, et al. Effects of acute prolactin manipulation on sexual drive and function in males. J Endocrinol. (2003)
- Krüger TH, et al. Orgasm-induced prolactin secretion: feedback control of sexual drive. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. (2002)
- Stahl SM. The psychopharmacology of sex, Part 1: Neurotransmitters and the 3 phases of the human sexual response. J Clin Psychiatry. (2001)
- Motofei IG, Rowland DL. Neurophysiology of the ejaculatory process: developing perspectives. BJU Int. (2005)
- Pharmacotherapy for Premature Ejaculation.
- Assessment of erectogenic properties of apomorphine and yohimbine in man.
- McMahon CG. Treatment of premature ejaculation with sertraline hydrochloride: a single-blind placebo controlled crossover study. J Urol. (1998)
- McMahon CG, Samali R. Pharmacological treatment of premature ejaculation. Curr Opin Urol. (1999)
- Krüger TH, Hartmann U, Schedlowski M. Prolactinergic and dopaminergic mechanisms underlying sexual arousal and orgasm in humans. World J Urol. (2005)
- Passie T, et al. Ecstasy (MDMA) mimics the post-orgasmic state: impairment of sexual drive and function during acute MDMA-effects may be due to increased prolactin secretion. Med Hypotheses. (2005)