Summary of Immunity
Primary Information, Benefits, Effects, and Important Facts
Immunity refers to the body's innate ability to fight off diseases. The immune system does this by fighting off pathogens, which can range from molecules to parasites. In order to do this, there are two main levels to immunity.
The first level is called the the innate immune system. This provides a quick first line of defense, and acts against a wide range of pathogens. The innate immune system is comprised in part by physical barriers such as the skin, nonspecific chemical defenses such as lysozyme (an enzyme secreted in various secretions such as tears and saliva that breaks down bacterial cell walls), and the normal flora, which are nonpathogenic bacteria that compete for space and resources with pathogenic bacteria. If a pathogen circumvents these defenses, it will then face the inflammatory response which can attract immune cells to the site of infection and dilate blood vessels to help ferry them there. Interferons can also be released which help fight viruses and tumors, and the complement system can attack the cell membranes of pathogens either disrupting them or promoting their elimination by other components of the immune system. Finally, various cells of the innate immune system can be activated. Phagocytic cells can engulf invading pathogens and destroy them upon ingestion, while natural killer cells can kill cells infected with a virus and tumor cells, and eosinophils can produce and release substances that are effective against parasites.
The second main level of immunty is called the adaptive immune system. This level takes time before responding to a pathogenic invasion, but once mobilized, it evokes a response specific to a particular pathogen, as opposed to the innate immune system, whose response is nonspecific. The adaptive immune system is also capable of remembering a specific pathogen, so that it can mount a more rapid, effective response to a pathogen which it has encounterd before. This is the basis of how vaccines work. The adaptive immune system is comprised of two main cell types: T cells (named because they were found in the thymus, the organ which they mature) and B cells (named for the bone marrow, where they are initially produced). Both kinds of cells are antigen-specific and are activated when they recognize an antigen of a pathogen. The two major types of T cells are killer or cytotoxic T cells and helper T cells. The former kill cells that are infected with viruses or cancer cells. They are also called CD8+ cells, since they have a co-receptor on their surface called CD8 that helps them recognize specific antigens. The latter help mount an immune response to a specific antigen in a multitude of ways, including the release of cytokines which help regulate parts of the immune system, and can mature into memory cells (which help remember a specific antigen) and regulatory cells (sometimes called Tregs for short, which help downregulate the immune response). Helper T cells are also called CD4+ due the the CD4 co-receptor on their surface. B cells make antigen-specific antibodies which can attach to pathogens and activate the compliment system more specifically, help phagocytes engulf the pathogen, or neutralize the pathogen by coating it.
Things To Know & Note
Also Known As
Caution NoticeExamine.com Medical Disclaimer
Frequently Asked Questions about Immunity
Get access to the latest nutrition research
By becoming an Examine.com Member, you'll have access to all of the latest nutrition research on over 300 supplements across over 500 different health goals, outcomes, conditions, and more.
Human Effect Matrix
The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (it excludes animal and in vitro studies) to tell you what supplements affect immunity
|Grade||Level of Evidence [show legend]|
|Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials|
|Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled|
|Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies|
|Uncontrolled or observational studies only|
Level of Evidence
? The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results.
Magnitude of effect
? The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Consistency of research results
? Scientific research does not always agree. HIGH or VERY HIGH means that most of the scientific research agrees.
|Minor||Very High See all 6 studies|
|Notable||- See study|
|Minor||- See study|
- Mourtzoukou EG, Falagas ME. Exposure to cold and respiratory tract infections. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. (2007)
- Foxman EF, et al. Temperature-dependent innate defense against the common cold virus limits viral replication at warm temperature in mouse airway cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. (2015)
- Carr AC, Maggini S. Vitamin C and Immune Function. Nutrients. (2017)
- Hemilä H. Vitamin C and Infections. Nutrients. (2017)
- Hemilä H, Chalker E. Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. (2013)
- Ran L, et al. Extra Dose of Vitamin C Based on a Daily Supplementation Shortens the Common Cold: A Meta-Analysis of 9 Randomized Controlled Trials. Biomed Res Int. (2018)
- Brockman-Schneider RA, Pickles RJ, Gern JE. Effects of vitamin D on airway epithelial cell morphology and rhinovirus replication. PLoS One. (2014)
- Telcian AG, et al. Vitamin D increases the antiviral activity of bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. Antiviral Res. (2017)
- Berry DJ, et al. Vitamin D status has a linear association with seasonal infections and lung function in British adults. Br J Nutr. (2011)
- Rafiq R, et al. Associations of Serum 25(OH)D Concentrations with Lung Function, Airway Inflammation and Common Cold in the General Population. Nutrients. (2018)
- Martineau AR, et al.. Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data. BMJ. (2017)
- Aglipay M, et al. Effect of High-Dose vs Standard-Dose Wintertime Vitamin D Supplementation on Viral Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Young Healthy Children. JAMA. (2017)
- Hemilä H, et al. Zinc acetate lozenges for treating the common cold: an individual patient data meta-analysis. Br J Clin Pharmacol. (2016)
- Hemilä H, Chalker E. The effectiveness of high dose zinc acetate lozenges on various common cold symptoms: a meta-analysis. BMC Fam Pract. (2015)
- Hemilä H. Zinc lozenges and the common cold: a meta-analysis comparing zinc acetate and zinc gluconate, and the role of zinc dosage. JRSM Open. (2017)
- Alexander TH, Davidson TM. Intranasal zinc and anosmia: the zinc-induced anosmia syndrome. Laryngoscope. (2006)
- Shah SA, et al. Evaluation of echinacea for the prevention and treatment of the common cold: a meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. (2007)
- Karsch-Völk M, et al. Echinacea for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. (2014)
- Tiralongo E, Wee SS, Lea RA. Elderberry Supplementation Reduces Cold Duration and Symptoms in Air-Travellers: A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Nutrients. (2016)
- Ulbricht C, et al. An evidence-based systematic review of elderberry and elderflower (Sambucus nigra) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration. J Diet Suppl. (2014)
- Holst L, Havnen GC, Nordeng H. Echinacea and elderberry-should they be used against upper respiratory tract infections during pregnancy?. Front Pharmacol. (2014)
- Fashner J, Ericson K, Werner S. Treatment of the common cold in children and adults. Am Fam Physician. (2012)
- Lizogub VG, Riley DS, Heger M. Efficacy of a pelargonium sidoides preparation in patients with the common cold: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Explore (NY). (2007)
- Meng H, et al. Consumption of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 impacts upper respiratory tract infection and the function of NK and T cells in healthy adults. Mol Nutr Food Res. (2016)
- Braga VL, et al. What do Cochrane systematic reviews say about probiotics as preventive interventions?. Sao Paulo Med J. (2017)
- Wang Y, et al. Probiotics for prevention and treatment of respiratory tract infections in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Medicine (Baltimore). (2016)
- Strasser B, et al. Probiotic Supplements Beneficially Affect Tryptophan-Kynurenine Metabolism and Reduce the Incidence of Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Trained Athletes: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Nutrients. (2016)
- Pu F, et al. Yogurt supplemented with probiotics can protect the healthy elderly from respiratory infections: A randomized controlled open-label trial. Clin Interv Aging. (2017)