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Research analysis lead by Kamal Patel
All content reviewed by Examine.com Team. Published:
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Summary of Bilirubin

Primary Information, Benefits, Effects, and Important Facts

Scientific Information on Bilirubin

Human Effect Matrix

The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (it excludes animal and in vitro studies) to tell you what supplements affect bilirubin
Grade Level of Evidence
Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials
Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies
Uncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
? The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results.
Outcome Magnitude of effect
? The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Consistency of research results
? Scientific research does not always agree. HIGH or VERY HIGH means that most of the scientific research agrees.
grade-b Lactobacillus reuteri - - See all 3 studies
grade-c Hoodia gordonii Minor - See study
The increase in bilirubin seen with hoodia is thought to be a biomarker of possible hepatotoxicity, although it was not met with hemolysis (usually accompanies)
grade-c Picrorhiza kurroa Minor - See study
Supplemental picrorhiza kurroa can reduce bilirubin in a model of acute viral hepatitis, although no comparisons to reference drugs have yet been made.
grade-c Astaxanthin  
grade-c Chromium  
grade-c Cordyceps  
grade-c Creatine  
grade-c Nigella sativa  
grade-c S-Adenosyl Methionine  
grade-c Vitamin E  
grade-d Vitamin B3 (Niacin)  
grade-d Tinospora cordifolia  

All comparative evidence is now gathered in our ​A-to-Z Supplement Reference.

The evidence for each separate supplement is still freely available ​here.