Salvia hispanica

Salvia hispanica (Chia) are seeds commonly used to supplement Dietary Fiber and are claimed to have other health promoting properties. Its mechanical properties may provide use during baking and the fiber content good for bowel health with health promoting effects not yet demonstrated.

This page features 22 unique references to scientific papers.

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Summary

All Essential Benefits/Effects/Facts & Information

Chia seeds (grain product, surprisingly) are seeds from the plant Salvia hispanica that are ground and used for supplemental purposes to supply dietary fiber and fatty acids. The fiber component is mostly insoluble and absorbs a large amount of water (similar to psyllium husk, comparisons between the two not conducted) while the fatty acid component tends to be mostly omega-3 fatty acids (60% overall and as alpha-linoleic acid) and some omega-6 fatty acids (20% overall and as linolenic acid). There are some phenolics in chia as well, with Myricetin being the most plentiful one.

For all intents and purposes, currently chia supplementation is only really supported for the fiber aspect and even this is not overly well supported. Dietary inclusion of chia (assuming calories are kept the same) has mixed evidence for some health parameters and null evidence for other parameters and currently no human evidence for weight loss. A reduction in appetite has been noted once (common to Dietary Fiber) but this does not appear to reduce weight over longer trials where diet is not controlled.

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How to Take

Recommended dosage, active amounts, other details

25g of chia tends to be used once daily with a meal for the purposes of general health and intestinal motility. There is no evidence to suggest if this is the optimal dose.

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Editors' Thoughts on Salvia hispanica

This is likely just another, less proven, option to psyllium husk for a source of dietary fiber. There are no unique bioactives characterized in chia, although some unique properties cannot be excluded at this time.

The salvia genera does tend to have some intriguing plants in it.


Kurtis Frank

Human Effect Matrix

The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (it excludes animal and in vitro studies) to tell you what effects salvia hispanica has on your body, and how strong these effects are.

Grade Level of Evidence
Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials
Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies
Uncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
? The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results.
Outcome Magnitude of effect
? The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Consistency of research results
? Scientific research does not always agree. HIGH or VERY HIGH means that most of the scientific research agrees.
Notes
Appetite Minor - See study
The decrease in appetite in one study was notable, but longer term studies do not note weight loss when diet is uncontrolled (which undermines the idea that chia is a potent appetite suppressant)
Blood Glucose Minor Moderate See all 3 studies
Has been implicated in reducing postprandial glucose while having no significant influence on fasting glucose levels.
C-Reactive Protein Minor - See 2 studies
It is possible that a decrease in C-Reactive protein may exist but evidence is contradictory at this moment in time
Blood Pressure - Very High See 2 studies
No significant influence on blood pressure noted with long term chia ingestion
HDL-C - Very High See 2 studies
HDL-C appears to be unaffected with chia ingestion when compared to similar macronutrient sources
Inflammation - - See study
No significant alteration in serum biomarkers noted with chia seeds
LDL-C - Very High See 2 studies
LDL-C appears to be unaffected with chia ingestion when compared to similar macronutrient sources
Total Cholesterol - Very High See 2 studies
No significant influence on total cholesterol levels after inclusion of chia seeds into the diet
Triglycerides - Very High See 2 studies
No significant influence on triglycerides
Fibrinogen Minor - See study
A decrease in fibrinogen has been noted with chia seed ingestion according to one study
Skin moisture Minor - See study
An increase in skin moisture has been noted with topical chia seed application (4% of the solution being chia oil)
Symptoms of Xerotic Pruritus Minor - See study
Topical application of chia seed oil to the skin appears to confer some symptom reduction in xerotic pruritus
HbA1c - - See study
No significant influence on HbA1c levels of diabetics given chia seeds
Insulin - - See study
No significant influence on fasting insulin levels following chronic consumption of chia seeds in the diet

Scientific Research

Table of Contents:

  1. 1 Sources and Summary
    1. 1.1 Composition
  2. 2 Neurology
    1. 2.1 Appetite
  3. 3 Cardiovascular Health
    1. 3.1 Blood Pressure
    2. 3.2 Lipoproteins and Triglycerides
  4. 4 Interactions with Glucose Metabolism
    1. 4.1 Absorption
    2. 4.2 Interventions
  5. 5 Fat Mass and Obesity
    1. 5.1 Interventions
  6. 6 Inflammation and Immunology
    1. 6.1 Interventions
  7. 7 Interactions with Aesthetics
    1. 7.1 Skin
  8. 8 Interactions with Organ Systems
    1. 8.1 Intestines
  9. 9 Interactions with Cancer Metabolism
    1. 9.1 Mechanisms

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1Sources and Summary

Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L of the family Lamiaceae) is an oilseed native to southern Mexico and northern Guatemala,[1] and a dietary supplement that is used for its Dietary Fiber component, and has traditional usage as a food product (roasted seeds being referred to as chiapinolli in Columbia[2] where it was consumed for energy[3][4]). Chia appears to be classified as a grain product,[5] and due to its physical properties it is sometimes used as an egg/oil substitute in bakery products.[6]

1.1. Composition

Chia seeds contain:

  • Dietary protein at 19-23% of seed weight[5] (other sources giving a more variable range of 15-25%[3])

  • Non-fibrous carbohydrates, consisting of 26-41% of the seed by dry weight[3]

  • Fatty acids, between 30-33% of total seed weight[3]

  • Fiber, which is highly insoluble (about 5-fold more insoluble than soluble[2]) and has a high water holding capacity[7] and is at 9.4g of fiber per 25g serving (37.6%),[2] although usually it is estimated to be around 30% dry weight[8]

  • Kaempferol (1.1mM/kg)[9]

  • Quercetin (0.2mM/kg)[9]

  • Myricetin (3.1mM/kg)[9]

  • Cinnamic acid[9]

  • Caffeic acid (6.6mM/kg, which increases to 13.5mM/kg when hydrolyzed) and Chlorogenic Acid (7.1mM/kg)[9]

In general, the seeds of chia (which can be ground into a powder) have a respectable protein content of around 20% and a high fiber content of around 30%, which appears to have high water resorbing properties. The remaining 50% of the seed is split between fatty acids, carbohydrates, and some polyphenolics. No polyphenolics identified to date are unique to chia seeds

Whereas the fatty acid component (25-35% of the seed by dry weight[2]) in particular contains:

  • Alpha-linoleic acid (ALA, an omega-3 fatty acids with the designation of 18:2) at 4.4g per 25g (17.6%) dry weight[2] but elsewhere has been noted to be 6.3% of total fatty acids[9] which can be increased to 69% upon hydrolyzation.[9] Usually chia is claimed to have a high ALA content in the range of 60% total fatty acids[3][10]

  • Linoleic acid (18:2) at 46.3% total fatty acids (declines to 15.3% after hydrolyzation)[9] but commonly said to be approximately 20% of total fatty acids[3]

  • Oleic acid (18:1) at 21.3% total fatty acids[9]

  • Stearic acid (18:0) at 16.2% total fatty acids[9]

  • Palmitic acid (16:0) at 9.9% total fatty acids[9]

Appears to be a very high level of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and is generally thought to contain more omega-3 fatty acids (as ALA) relative to omega-6 fatty acids (as LA)

Total phenolics have been quantified at 47mM per 1,000g chia seeds (caffeic acid equivalents)[9] and otherwise stated to be 0.8800-0.9211mg/g gallic acid equivalents of mostly flavonols.[2] At least ex vivo, these phenolics appear to reduce lipid peroxidation and oxidation.[2] The antioxidant capacity appears to be greater than other herbs in the salvia genera (including Clary Sage[11]) and at 0.5mL showed comparable efficacy to Trolox (concentration not stated).[2]

Appears to have a surprisingly respectable antioxidative potential when tested ex vivo


2Neurology

2.1. Appetite

Adding chia to a carbohydrate containing meal (50g carbohydrates, 7-24g chia) appears to result in less subjetive appetite ratings (41-68%) relative to chia-free control bread when measured up to 180 minutes after; overall food intake for the day not reported, and this decrease in appetite was correlated with blood sugar (the spike of which was attenuated following ingestion of chia).[12]


3Cardiovascular Health

3.1. Blood Pressure

Chia has been found to reduce blood pressure (by 6.3+/-4.2mmHg to the level of 123+/-16mmHg systolic) with no significant influence on diastolic in type II diabetics given 15g chia per 1000kcal dietary intake (placebo of wheat bran)[13] but failed to reduce blood pressure in otherwise healthy overweight adults given 50g chia (18.8g fiber) daily for 12 weeks.[1]

3.2. Lipoproteins and Triglycerides

In both healthy overweight adults[1] and type II diabetics[13] given chia seeds, there is no demonstrated improvement in standard lipid panels (HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides, total cholesterol) associated with chia consumption relative to fiber placebos.


4Interactions with Glucose Metabolism

4.1. Absorption

Chia, when added to a meal standardized to 50g carbohydrate (7-24g chia seeds), appears to reduce postprandial glucose spikes in a dose-dependent manner by 21-48% (AUC values) when measured 60 minutes after ingestion.[12]

4.2. Interventions

Chia seeds, at 15g per 1000kcal dietary intake and compared to wheat bran as control, failed to significantly influence HbA1c or either glucose or insulin in type II diabetics.[13]


5Fat Mass and Obesity

5.1. Interventions

In rats fed chia to account for dietary carbohydrates (2.6%), fatty acids (22.8%), and protein (7.75%) over three months seemed to confer an anti-obese effect by attenuating the rate of weight gain relative to control groups (Maize oil at 23% of the diet; 50% linoleic acid by weight and no omega-3 content).[14] Along this reduction in fat mass came reduction in triglycerides, NEFA, and insulin resistance.[14]

In overweight adults given chia seeds (9.4g dietary fiber and 130kcal twice a day, placebo given similar caloric intake from various food products) for 12 weeks failed to reduce weight to a larger degree than the placebo product (mostly consisting of tapioca and carrot fiber).[1]


6Inflammation and Immunology

6.1. Interventions

Supplementation of 25g chia twice daily (18.8g fiber and 260kcal total) for 12 weeks in overweight persons has failed to influence inflammatory biomarkers of MCP, TNF-α, C-reactive protein (CRP), and IL-6 (control was a mixed food product to match macronutrients)[1] although elsewhere a reduction of CRP has been noted in diabetics given chia seeds (15g per 1000kcal dietary intake) over wheat bran.[13]


7Interactions with Aesthetics

7.1. Skin

In a small (n=5) sample of healthy persons with xerotic pruritus and persons with end stage renal disease (where xerotic pruritus increases in frequency[15]), topical application of the oil of chia seeds (4% of solution) was applied for 8 weeks appeared to improve symptoms of pruritus (lichen simplex chronicus and prurigo nodularis significantly reduced, pruritus and abrasion nonsignificantly) and increase skin hydration.[16] Benefits appeared to occur at 2 weeks and reach maximal effects at 4 weeks.


8Interactions with Organ Systems

8.1. Intestines

The fiber from chia tends to have a very high water holding capacity (and relatively low oil holding capacity) at up to 2.5-fold more than wheat bran, which contributes to water resorbing properties.[7]


9Interactions with Cancer Metabolism

9.1. Mechanisms

Chia (n-hexane extract) has been noted to have poor antiproliferative effects in vitro on cancer cells from breast (MCF7), cervix (HeLa), and skin carcinoma (A431)[17] while the oil has shown a beneficial modulation in eicosanoid production (less 12-HETE and arachidonic acid) in breast cancer cells (due to the alpha-linoleic acid content)[18] and 6% of mouse feed prior to a mammary tumor inoculation was able to reduce tumor weight (relative to control) and reduce metastasis (relative to both control and Safflower Oil).[18]

Weak antiproliferative effects in vitro and some potential anti-cancer effects on tumor proliferation that seem to simply be due to the omega-3 content of chia seeds (and thus not unique to chia containing products)

Scientific Support & Reference Citations

References

  1. Nieman DC, et al Chia seed does not promote weight loss or alter disease risk factors in overweight adults . Nutr Res. (2009)
  2. Dietary fibre content and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds present in Mexican chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds
  3. Mohd Ali N, et al The promising future of chia, Salvia hispanica L . J Biomed Biotechnol. (2012)
  4. Genetic diversity among varieties of Chia (Salvia hispanica L.)
  5. Sandoval-Oliveros MR, Paredes-López O Isolation and characterization of proteins from chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.) . J Agric Food Chem. (2013)
  6. Borneo R, Aguirre A, León AE Chia (Salvia hispanica L) gel can be used as egg or oil replacer in cake formulations . J Am Diet Assoc. (2010)
  7. Physicochemical properties of a fibrous fraction from chia (Salvia hispanica L.)
  8. Olivos-Lugo BL, Valdivia-López MÁ, Tecante A Thermal and physicochemical properties and nutritional value of the protein fraction of Mexican chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) . Food Sci Technol Int. (2010)
  9. Chia Seeds as a Source of Natural Lipid Antioxidants
  10. Oil content and fatty acid composition of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) from five northwestern locations in Argentina
  11. Screening of the antioxidant potentials of six Salvia species from Turkey
  12. Vuksan V, et al Reduction in postprandial glucose excursion and prolongation of satiety: possible explanation of the long-term effects of whole grain Salba (Salvia Hispanica L.) . Eur J Clin Nutr. (2010)
  13. Vuksan V, et al Supplementation of conventional therapy with the novel grain Salba (Salvia hispanica L.) improves major and emerging cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: results of a randomized controlled trial . Diabetes Care. (2007)
  14. Chicco AG, et al Dietary chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) rich in alpha-linolenic acid improves adiposity and normalises hypertriacylglycerolaemia and insulin resistance in dyslipaemic rats . Br J Nutr. (2009)
  15. Young AW Jr, et al Dermatologic evaluation of pruritus in patients on hemodialysis . N Y State J Med. (1973)
  16. Jeong SK, et al Effectiveness of Topical Chia Seed Oil on Pruritus of End-stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Patients and Healthy Volunteers . Ann Dermatol. (2010)
  17. Janicsák G, et al Bioactivity-guided study of antiproliferative activities of Salvia extracts . Nat Prod Commun. (2011)
  18. Espada CE, et al Effect of Chia oil (Salvia Hispanica) rich in omega-3 fatty acids on the eicosanoid release, apoptosis and T-lymphocyte tumor infiltration in a murine mammary gland adenocarcinoma . Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. (2007)
  19. Nieman DC, et al Chia seed does not promote weight loss or alter disease risk factors in overweight adults . Nutr Res. (2009)
  20. Vuksan V, et al Supplementation of conventional therapy with the novel grain Salba (Salvia hispanica L.) improves major and emerging cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: results of a randomized controlled trial . Diabetes Care. (2007)
  21. Vuksan V, et al Reduction in postprandial glucose excursion and prolongation of satiety: possible explanation of the long-term effects of whole grain Salba (Salvia Hispanica L.) . Eur J Clin Nutr. (2010)
  22. Jeong SK, et al Effectiveness of Topical Chia Seed Oil on Pruritus of End-stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Patients and Healthy Volunteers . Ann Dermatol. (2010)