Frequently Asked Questions about Creatinine
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Human Effect Matrix
The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (it excludes animal and in vitro studies) to tell you what supplements affect creatinine
|Grade||Level of Evidence [show legend]|
|Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials|
|Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled|
|Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies|
|Uncontrolled or observational studies only|
Level of Evidence
? The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results.
Magnitude of effect
? The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Consistency of research results
? Scientific research does not always agree. HIGH or VERY HIGH means that most of the scientific research agrees.
|Notable||Moderate See all 12 studies|
|-||Very High See all 3 studies|
|Minor||- See study|
- Brosnan JT, Brosnan ME. Creatine: endogenous metabolite, dietary, and therapeutic supplement. Annu Rev Nutr. (2007)
- Braissant O, et al. Creatine deficiency syndromes and the importance of creatine synthesis in the brain. Amino Acids. (2011)
- Samra M, Abcar AC. False estimates of elevated creatinine. Perm J. (2012)
- Baxmann AC, et al. Influence of muscle mass and physical activity on serum and urinary creatinine and serum cystatin C. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. (2008)
- Morton RW, et al. A systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression of the effect of protein supplementation on resistance training-induced gains in muscle mass and strength in healthy adults. Br J Sports Med. (2018)
- Sahni S, et al. Higher Protein Intake Is Associated with Higher Lean Mass and Quadriceps Muscle Strength in Adult Men and Women. J Nutr. (2015)
- Alexandrov NV, et al. Dietary Protein Sources and Muscle Mass over the Life Course: The Lifelines Cohort Study. Nutrients. (2018)
- Williamson L, New D. How the use of creatine supplements can elevate serum creatinine in the absence of underlying kidney pathology. BMJ Case Rep. (2014)
- McCall W, Persky AM. Pharmacokinetics of creatine. Subcell Biochem. (2007)
- Poortmans JR, Francaux M. Adverse effects of creatine supplementation: fact or fiction?. Sports Med. (2000)
- Farquhar WB, Zambraski EJ. Effects of creatine use on the athlete's kidney. Curr Sports Med Rep. (2002)
- Pline KA, Smith CL. The effect of creatine intake on renal function. Ann Pharmacother. (2005)
- Francaux M, Poortmans JR. Side effects of creatine supplementation in athletes. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. (2006)
- Persky AM, Rawson ES. Safety of creatine supplementation. Subcell Biochem. (2007)
- Kim HJ, et al. Studies on the safety of creatine supplementation. Amino Acids. (2011)
- Gualano B, et al. In sickness and in health: the widespread application of creatine supplementation. Amino Acids. (2012)
- Kreider RB, et al. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: safety and efficacy of creatine supplementation in exercise, sport, and medicine. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2017)
- Ropero-Miller JD, et al. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on random urine creatinine, pH, and specific gravity measurements. Clin Chem. (2000)
- Poortmans JR, Francaux M. Long-term oral creatine supplementation does not impair renal function in healthy athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. (1999)
- Mihic S, et al. Acute creatine loading increases fat-free mass, but does not affect blood pressure, plasma creatinine, or CK activity in men and women. Med Sci Sports Exerc. (2000)
- Gualano B, et al. Effect of short-term high-dose creatine supplementation on measured GFR in a young man with a single kidney. Am J Kidney Dis. (2010)
- Gualano B, et al. Creatine supplementation does not impair kidney function in type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Eur J Appl Physiol. (2011)
- Taes YE, et al. Creatine supplementation does not decrease total plasma homocysteine in chronic hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int. (2004)
- Shelmadine BD, Hudson GM, Buford TW et al.. The effects of supplementation of creatine on total homocysteine. J Ren Nurs.. (2012)