Last Updated: November 18, 2022

Ziziphus Jujuba (Chinese/Korean Date, Jujube) is a plant which bears fruits and seeds that are used for medicinal purposes in Traditional Chinese Medicine. It may possess anxiety-reducing and sedative properties.

Jujube is most often used for.

Don't miss out on the latest research


Source and Composition



Ziziphus Jujuba (Chinese Date) is a fruit-bearing plant belonging to the Rhamnaceae family and the Ziziphus genus, with the species of Zizyphus.[1] The botanical name for this plant is Ziziphus zizyphus, and commonly referred to as either Jujube or Jujuba (with the former being technically correct but as common); other names for the fruit of this plant are Chinese Date, Korean Date, Indian Date, or Red Date.

In Traditional Chinese Medicine (where it is called Da Zao), Jujuba is used for anodyne (pain-killing), antitumor, pectoral, refrigerant, sedative, stomachic, styptic and tonic medication; in Japan, Jujuba is used to treat chronic hepatitis or fullness in the chest and ribs.[2] It also appears to have antifungal and insecticidal properties,[3] and in some areas it is also reported to be antidiarrhoeal.[4]

Traditional Chinese Medicine for effects related to sedation, pain-killing, and relaxation



Jujuba tends to contain as its terpenoid and saponin profile:

  • Jujubosides such as Jujuboside A (0.126-0.476mg/g), Jujuboside B (0.106-0.506mg/g)[5][6] as well as D[7] and E[8] as well as the amine compound Jubanine E[9]
  • Zizyphus saponin I and II (2.59-7.24mg/g and up to 3.05mg/g with some undetectable samples in the leaves; respectively)[10] and zizybeoside II at 130-410mcg/g[11]
  • Ceanothic acid (0.48-5.77mg/g in the leaves; 2.6-4.3mg/100g in berries), epiceanothic acid (0.57-7.63mg/g leaves; 13.8-19.6mg/100g berries), and ceanothenic acid (0.26-0.32mg/g but usually undetectable in leaves)[10][12]
  • Maslinic acid (0.44-1.66mg/g, sometimes undetectable in leaves; 41.5-66.3mg/100g berries), oleanolic acid (0.59-1.47mg/g in leaves; 18.3 -41.7mg/g berries) and Oleanonic acid (37.5-110.5mg/100g in berries)[10]
  • Betulinic acid (1.13-4.35mg/g in the leaves; 7.8-48.7mg/100g usually with one sample reaching 362.2mg/100g[12]) and zizyberanalic acid (1.13-2.37mg/100g, sometimes undetectable)[10] and Zizyberenalic acid[13]
  • Ursolic Acid (6.5-26mg/g berries) and 2α-hydroxyursolic acid (0.69-4.02mg/g in leaves)[13][10]
  • Alphitolic acid (0.89-3.99mg/g in leaves; 20.6-41.3mg/100g in berries),[10] Colubrinic Acid,[14] and Ursonic acid (22.3-95mg/100g)[12]
  • Coumaroyl compounds 3-O-cis-p-Coumaroylalphitolic acid and 3-O-trans-p-Coumaroylalphitolic acid (aka. Coumaroylmaslinic acid)[13]
  • Pomolic acid, Pomonic acid (10.7-175.4mg/100g in berries; highly variable), and Pomolic acid methyl ester[15][13]
  • Palmatic (1.5-2.4mg/g), Palmitoleic (0.3-1.7mg/g) and Oleic acids (8-50mg/g), no Lauric acid appears to exist in Jujuba[13][5]
  • Linoleic Acid (6-28mg/g), Myristic acid (0.1-0.8mg/g), Stearic acid (0.6-2.8mg/g), Arachidic acid (0.1-0.9mg/g), and Docosanoic acid (2.7-7.7mg/g)[5]
  • Oleanolic/Ursonic acid[13]
  • Various aromatic oils[16]

Whereas the flavonoid and polyphenolic profile contains:

  • Apigenin[17] and its diglucoside Isovitexin[17]
  • Swertish and Puerarin as monoglucoside flavonoids[17]
  • Spinosin and Isospinosin as diglucoside flavonoids, 6'''-feruloylspinosin and 6'''-feruloylisospinosin as related molecules[17] and 6'''- sinapoylspinosin[18]
  • (-)-epiafzelechin[19]
  • Rutin (Quercetin-3-O-Rutinoside)[13] at 15.78-32.74mg/g of the leaves[20]
  • Protocatechuic acid, Chlorogenic Acid, Gallic Acid, and Caffeic Acid[21]

With various other compounds including:

  • Nucleosides and Nucleobases, at 420-550mcg/g and mostly cAMP[22] and Uridine[23]
  • Dietary minerals such as selenium (0.242mcg/g), zinc (13.8mcg/g), and Iron (38.2mcg/g)[24]

With some bioactive polysaccharides (totalling 5.1-6.76% total weight in these two studies,[25][26] reporting a third (not available online) citing 4.42 to 7.91%;[26] these are 77.1% of dry weight, since the fruits have a high water content[27]) consisting of:

  • Neutral polysaccharide (arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose at 0.3:0.2:0.2:1:0.7 ratios)[26] which appears to have anti-oxidant properties
  • Acidic polysaccharides containing rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose in a ratio of either 0.3:9.6:0.1:0.4:1:12.1 or 3:16.8:1.2:0.2:1:12.2[26] that are also anti-oxidant in nature
  • Acidic polysaccharide with rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, glucose and galactose at 21:24:2:1:20[26]

General fruit bioactives including flavanoids, polysaccharides (carbohydrates), and some saponins and alkaloids; a fair bit of the ones in Ziziphus are fairly unique to the fruits

Many compounds are structurally similar to Apigenin, as Swertish is an Apigenin molecule with a methoxy (-OCH3) group at the 7-carbon instead of a hydroxy (-OH) group and a single glucose bound to it; Puerarin is an isomer of Swertish with the glucose bound to the 8 carbon rather than the 6 carbon.[17]

Spinospin and Isospinosin have a second glucose molecule bound to the first via an oxygen bridge at 4'', with the only differences being that Spinosin is built off of Swertish and Isospinosin off of Puerarin (with a molecule called Isovitexin built off of Apigenin).[17] Adding 6'''-feruloyl- to these structures is due to adding a ferulic acid molecule to the 6''' carbon on the second glucose.[17]

Tends to have a unique saponin profile, although some are common among a variety of plants (oleanolic acid, betulinic acid) while the flavonoid profile is also somewhat unique

Although bioactives tend to vary in concentration depending on cultivar, growing conditions, and soil conditions; the pulps tend to have more amino acids on a per gram basis when compared to the seeds and vice versa when it comes to flavonoid content, with the seeds posessing more than the pulp.[28]





Cholinergic Neurotransmission

200µg/mL of ziziphus jujuba (fruit) has failed to significantly inhibit acetylcholinesterase in vitro, inhibiting merely 2.4+/-2.6% of activity.[29]



The seeds of Ziziphus jujube have been implicated in reducing anxiety, in accordance with their traditional usage.[30] Oral administration of 0.5, 1, and 2g/kg of the ethanolic seed extract in mice was able to exert anxiolytic effects, and although it was equally effective as Buspirone and Diazepam (2mg/kg and 1mg/kg, respectively) at a black and white test (anxiety model[31]) at 500mg/kg, it appeared to become less potent at anxiolysis at 1 and 2g/kg while becoming more sedative in nature.[30]

Possible anxiolytic effects that rival Buspirone and Diazepam according to one study, lack of evidence otherwise; subsequently higher doses reduce anxiolysis in favor of sedation



According to one systemic review on insomnia, the Traditional Chinese Medicine called Suan Zao Ren (which is Ziziphus Jujuba) appears to be the most commonly used insomniac treatment; conclusions on its efficacy in humans could not be drawn due to a lack of good evidence, however.[32]

The ethanolic extract of the seeds has been found to prolong hexobarbital-induced sleeping time at 1g/kg, but not 500mg/kg; no influence was noted on sleep latency (time required to fall asleep) and an impairment of waking locomotion was found at the dose that induces sedation.[30] This enhancement of sedation may be mediated via the flavonoid spinosin and vicariously through post-synaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors (serotonin receptor), with synergistic augmentation when paired with 5-HT1A antagonists at 15mg/kg spinosin.[33] This enhancement has also been noted with jujubosides, and was synergstic with 5-HTP at 2mg/kg.[34]

In a test on what constituents mediated these effects, the saponins and flavanoids (but not polysaccharides) appeared to have anti-locomotion properties but only the saponin component appeared to augment phenobarbitol-induced sleep.[35] At a dose of phenobarbitol that was seen as suboptimal (able to induce sleep in a minority of animals), the amount of animals who managed to sleep increased from 20% to 90% with the saponins (70% with flavonoids).[35]

Highly regarded as a sedative in Traditional Chinese Medicine with minimal Western trials on its efficacy, it appears to induce sedation in a relatively dose dependent manner and is synergistic with 5-HTP in this regard



At least one study conducted in rats where a seizure was induced noted that Ziziphus Jujube was able to attenuate the adverse effects of the seizure, including oxidative biomarkers and reducing the subsequent impairment in cognition.[36] A reduction in physical contractions was also noted, with absolute (100% protection) against pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures and 66.7% in electricity-induced convulsions at 1g/kg (the dose required for sedation), with lower doses being effective but to a lesser degree. Absolute protection was also noted with 300mg/kg Sodium Valproate.[36]

One study noted anti-convulsant effects, fairly potent according to it



One animal study noted that, using middle-aged mice, 40-100mg/kg of the methanol extract for 30 days resulted in neuronal proliferation.[37] According to Ki67 and doublecortin immunostaining, neurons in the dendate gyrus were significantly enhanced at 40mg/kg and increased further at 100mg/kg (although not significantly different than 40mg/kg) with the percentage increase being 475% and 672%, respectively and relative to control.[37] Most of this enhancement was due to increased amounts of tertiary dendrites at both concentrations (354% and 579%, respectively), suggesting dendritic proliferation or an attenuation of dendritic loss associated with aging.[37] Actual cognition and learning was not assessed in this study despite the results suggesting improvements.[37]

One study noting cognitive enhancement in older rats, potentially related to dendritic proliferation (although causation not established); unknown potency relative to a reference drug



In response to Ischemia, oral ingestion of a methanolic extract of Ziziphus (dose undisclosed) appears to protect neurons from cell death (with Ischemia having 11.3% of control and ingestion of Ziziphus attenuating this to 58.4% as assessed by neuronal nuclei immunoreactivity four days after Ischemia) and was about as effective as the active control of 100mg/kg Ebselen.[38] This was thought to be secondary to anti-oxidant effects in the brain.[38]

Other possible mechanisms associated with neuroprotection could be antagonism of excitotoxicity. Jujuboside A appears to have anti-calmodulin activities in preventing calcium influx into glutaminergic neurons (although the concentration used in this study may not be applicable to oral Jujube ingestion; too high)[39] although similar effects have been noted at lower concentrations.[40] When a concentration of 0.5g/L was compared to the active control of phenobarbitol, is was slightly but significantly less effective at suppressing the number and amplitude of neuronal population spikes.[40] Even lower concentrations (0.05-5mcg/mL) appear to protect neurons from glutaminergic excitotoxicity, secondary to preventing an influx of calcium.[41]

Jujuboside A has been demonstrated to reduce excitatory postsynaptic potential in hippocampal neurons,[42] and has been shown to reduce EEG readings in rats given intracerebral injections of Jujuboside A.[43][40]

Appears to have protective effects in the brain in response to damage, but there is a lack of evidence connecting the in vitro studies (which appear quite promising) to practical interventions with oral Jujube





The traditional method of preparation of Jujubes for the purpose of constipation relief to to boil 50g of Jujube fruits (20 whole fruits of 2–2.5 cm in length) to create a soup or drink, which may be related to extraction of a water soluble polysaccharide noted to have anti-constipative effects, and comprise 77% of the dry weight of jujube fruits.[27] This study extracted said polysaccharide according to the traditional methods, and when feeding to hamsters (40mg; equivalent to 50g fruits in humans) was able to increase fecal moisture content and decrease transit time in a dose-dependent manner.[27] Fecal ammonia was decreased in a similarly dose-dependent manner, and levels of short chain fatty acids in the colon increased.[27] These authors hypothesized that the increase in SCFAs explained the observed effects, as SCFAs have been previously linked to mucosal stimulation[44] although the decrease in mucinase may also partly explain the moisture content.[27]

Currently one clinical trial has been conducted with Ziziphus Jujuba and constipation, where in persons with prolonged transit time (indicative of constipation) symptoms normalized in 84% of the Jujube group and 12% of the placebo group with better improvement in quality of life associated with Jujube.[45]

Jujube appears to be quite beneficial to intestinal motility, increasing fecal moisture and increasing transit time (anti-constipative). These effects are seen with the polysaccharide component, and may not be achieved with concentrated flavonoid capsules


Cardiovascular Health



Triterpenoids from Ziziphus fruits and seeds show efficacy in preventing macrophages (immune cells) from converting into foam cells, and may offer protection from atherosclerosis.[15] This study noted that out of 50 various herbs tested only Ziziphus, Foeniculi Fructus (Fennel Seed), and Hoelen were able to significantly suppress foam cell formation; herbs such as astragalus membranaceus, the fruits of schisandra chinensis, and horny goat weed were ineffective at this role, and the bioactives in Ziziphus appears to be Oleanolic acid, Pomolic acid, and Pomonic acid; Pomolic acid methyl ester was ineffective.[15]


Inflammation and Immunology



The hydroalcoholic (alkaloid free) extract of Jujube at 100, 200, or 400mg/kg bodyweight was tested against two inflammatory models in rats (careegnan induced paw edema and cotton-pellet-induced granuloma) and found to dose-dependently reduce inflammation; when compared to 10mg/kg Indomethacin as active control, Ziziphus Jujube extract underperformed.[46] Serum Nitrate showed similar results, with a dose-dependent reduction with Jujube but more efficacy with Indomethacin.[46]

Appears to have general anti-inflammatory properties, less potent than the reference drug of Indomethacin (NSAID)

In mice, the essential oil of Jujube seeds at 1-10% is as effective (when applied topically) in suppressing skin inflammation as 1% Hydrocortisone as assessed by thickness and more effective in reducing water content of the ear.[47] There was not much dose-dependence observed when comparing 1% and 10% Jujube essential oil.[47]

May be able to exert anti-inflammatory properties topically when the oil is applied


Nonspecific Immunity

Ziziphus contains a collection of polysaccharides which may interact with the immune system.[48] In a mouse model fed the crude water-soluble polysaccharides at 50, 150, and 250mg/kg daily the two larger doses caused an increase in nonspecific immunity (as assessed by spleen and thymus index) and was able to proliferate splenocytes and macrophages in vitro.[48]


Interactions with Fat Mass

Concentrations of 1-50mcg/mL Zizyphus Jujuba was able to suppress adipogenesis, with the chloroform fraction and ethyl acetate fractions showing efficacy while the water and butanol fractions were ineffective; with the ethyl acetate fraction, GPDH activity was reduced to 50% in vitro in response to 25ug/mL while 50ug/mL of the chloroform fraction reduced GPDH to 20%.[2] Subsequently, Zizyphus Jujuba was able to suppress lipid accumulation in these adipocytes and appeared to reduce the protein content of PPARγ, C/EBPα and C/EBPβ; three adipogenic proteins.[2]

Possible anti-obese effects, unexplored in animal models


Interactions with Hormones



In a screening of estrogenicity between medical plants, the fruits of Ziziphus (95% ethanolic extract) failed to show any estrogenic or anti-estrogenic effects at concentrations below 1mg/mL.[49]


Interactions with Aesthetics



The essential oils from the seeds of Ziziphus Jujuba appear to be able to induce hair regrowth in mice when topically applied.[50] This study noted that 1% and 10% (content of Ziziphus Jujuba oil in lotion) applied daily to the skin resulted in 11.4% and 12% longer hairs over 21 days, while 0.1% was not significantly effective.[50] Interestingly, these same doses of essential oils have been linked to fairly potent anti-inflammatory effects,[47] and may be related to hair growth.


Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions


Green Tea Catechins

Green Tea Catechins (Green tea extract, GTE) appears to enhance the cytotoxicity of Jujube. This one study noted that in HepG2 cells (liver carcinoma cells) that cytotoxicity at 100ug/mL Jujube (chloroform extract) reduced viability of cells to 80%, and under the influence of 30ug/mL GTE this was enhanced to about 60%.[51] Green tea at 30ug/mL itself has no affect on viability, and this enhanced cell death was not seen in noncancerous liver cells under any condition.[51]

Mechanistically, an increased level of ROS (oxidation) occurred in the Jujube condition which correlated with cellular death; this was not enhanced or hindered by GTE[51] but instead the combination appeared to further change the cell cycle relative to control HepG2, where Jujube in isolation and the combination to a greater degree increased the amount of cells in the G1 phase while reducing the amount in G2/M and S phases.[51] The authors concluded that the synergism occured via enhancing G1 cellular arrest, which was confirmed by less DNA synthesis and improved Rb protein (mediator of G1) actions.[51]

Synergistic protection has also been noted when measuring the actions of APRIL, a protein that induces differentiation of HepG2 cells.[52]

Jujube and Green Tea Catechins appear to have synergistic anti-cancer properties, but the evidence is currently limited in size and only in one cell line



5-HTP is an animo acid derivative that is made from tryptophan, and proceeds to be metabolized into the neurotransmitter serotonin and subsequently melatonin; secondary to melatonin, it may help sleep. Jujube flavonoids have once been found to act synergistically with 2mg/kg 5-HTP in inducing sleep in rats.[34]

May be synergistic with Jujube in regards to sedation



PHY906 is a term used to refer to a decoction of four herbs that has usage in Traditional Chinese Medicine under the name of Huang-Qin-Tang, one of which is Ziziphus Jujuba. The other three herbs are Paeonia lactiflora, Scutellaria baicalensis, and Glycyrrhiza uralensis; this combination apparently has some limited usage as cancer adjunct therapy.[53][54]

This combination has been used in vitro in a HepG2 cell line, and at the IC50 concentration of 0.85g/mL it affects 466 genes (amount common between fractions samples) with some of the more significant changes being a 405-fold increase in Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1A activity.[54]



CKBM is a polyherbal formula consisting of Jujube, Glycine Max, Panax ginseng, Shizandra Chinensis, and Fructus crataegi.[55] This decoction was shown to suppress LPS-induced IFNγ release without inducing IFNγ itself, and induced the activity of ERK (one of the three major MAPK subsets) in one immune cell line while activating all major three subsets (ERK, JNK, p38) in another; suggesting potential immunomodulatory properties.[55]


Safety and Toxicology



The LD50 of an ethyl acetate fraction of Jujube (concentrated flavanoids) appears to be around 2.5g/kg in female mice.[56]



Jujube has apparently been used to prevent pregnancy, as was mentioned in the introduction of one study.[47] The only current study on the subject matter is one in female mice given an ethyl acetate fraction of Jujube (consisting of polyphenolics and flavanoids) at 60-240mg/kg bodyweight appeared to reduce the weight of the ovaries and inhibit the estrus cycle, with a greater potency than the other herb tested (Croton roxburghii).[56] This co-existed with an inhibition of delta-5-3β-HSD in a dose dependent manner, and all parameters were normalized 32 days after supplementation cessation.[56]

May be acutely anti-fertility, but there is limited evidence to support this notion

2.^Kubota H, Morii R, Kojima-Yuasa A, Huang X, Yano Y, Matsui-Yuasa IEffect of Zizyphus jujuba extract on the inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytesAm J Chin Med.(2009)
3.^Ahmad B, Khan I, Bashir S, Azam S, Ali NThe antifungal, cytotoxic, antitermite and insecticidal activities of Zizyphus jujubePak J Pharm Sci.(2011 Oct)
4.^Tetali P, Waghchaure C, Daswani PG, Antia NH, Birdi TJEthnobotanical survey of antidiarrhoeal plants of Parinche valley, Pune district, Maharashtra, IndiaJ Ethnopharmacol.(2009 Jun 22)
6.^Seo EJ, Lee SY, Kang SS, Jung YSZizyphus jujuba and its Active Component Jujuboside B Inhibit Platelet AggregationPhytother Res.(2012 Aug 15)
7.^Liu QX, Wang B, Liang H, Zhao YY, Liu MJStructure identification of jujuboside DYao Xue Xue Bao.(2004 Aug)
8.^Bai YJ, Cheng G, Tao J, Wang B, Zhao YY, Liu Y, Ma LB, Tu GZStructure identification of jujuboside EYao Xue Xue Bao.(2003 Dec)
9.^Pandey MB, Singh AK, Singh JP, Singh VP, Pandey VBThree new cyclopeptide alkaloids from Zizyphus speciesJ Asian Nat Prod Res.(2008 Jul-Aug)
11.^Niu JW, Zhang QW, Gong MX, Yan LH, Zhu JJ, Wang ZM, Li QFDetermination of zizybeoside II of Ziziphus jujuba by HPLCZhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi.(2008 Dec)
12.^Guo S, Duan JA, Tang YP, Yang NY, Qian DW, Su SL, Shang EXCharacterization of triterpenic acids in fruits of ziziphus species by HPLC-ELSD-MSJ Agric Food Chem.(2010 May 26)
14.^Lee SM, Park JG, Lee YH, Lee CG, Min BS, Kim JH, Lee HKAnti-complementary activity of triterpenoides from fruits of Zizyphus jujubaBiol Pharm Bull.(2004 Nov)
15.^Fujiwara Y, Hayashida A, Tsurushima K, Nagai R, Yoshitomi M, Daiguji N, Sakashita N, Takeya M, Tsukamoto S, Ikeda TTriterpenoids isolated from Zizyphus jujuba inhibit foam cell formation in macrophagesJ Agric Food Chem.(2011 May 11)
19.^Yano T, Ohmori K, Takahashi H, Kusumi T, Suzuki KUnified approach to catechin hetero-oligomers: first total synthesis of trimer EZ-EG-CA isolated from Ziziphus jujubaOrg Biomol Chem.(2012 Sep 12)
20.^Akhmedov UA, Khalmatov KhKhIsolation of rutin from the leaves of Zizyphus jujuba MillFarmatsiia.(1967 May-Jun)
22.^Li M, Yang GL, Mi S, Gao XY, Wang Y, Li MRExtract process of cyclic adenosinemonophosphate (cAMP) in Ziziphus jujubaZhong Yao Cai.(2007 Sep)
23.^Guo S, Duan JA, Tang YP, Zhu ZH, Qian YF, Yang NY, Shang EX, Qian DWCharacterization of nucleosides and nucleobases in fruits of Ziziphus jujuba by UPLC-DAD-MSJ Agric Food Chem.(2010 Oct 13)
30.^Peng WH, Hsieh MT, Lee YS, Lin YC, Liao JAnxiolytic effect of seed of Ziziphus jujuba in mouse models of anxietyJ Ethnopharmacol.(2000 Oct)
31.^Costall B, Jones BJ, Kelly ME, Naylor RJ, Tomkins DMExploration of mice in a black and white test box: validation as a model of anxietyPharmacol Biochem Behav.(1989 Mar)
32.^Yeung WF, Chung KF, Man-Ki Poon M, Yan-Yee Ho F, Zhang SP, Zhang ZJ, Tat-Chi Ziea E, Wong VTChinese herbal medicine for insomnia: A systematic review of randomized controlled trialsSleep Med Rev.(2012 Dec)
34.^Cao JX, Zhang QY, Cui SY, Cui XY, Zhang J, Zhang YH, Bai YJ, Zhao YYHypnotic effect of jujubosides from Semen Ziziphi SpinosaeJ Ethnopharmacol.(2010 Jul 6)
37.^Hwang IK, Yoo KY, Yoo DY, Choi JH, Lee CH, Kang IJ, Kwon DY, Kim YS, Kim DW, Won MHZizyphus enhances cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in middle-aged miceJ Med Food.(2011 Mar)
38.^Yoo KY, Li H, Hwang IK, Choi JH, Lee CH, Kwon DY, Ryu SY, Kim YS, Kang IJ, Shin HC, Won MHZizyphus attenuates ischemic damage in the gerbil hippocampus via its antioxidant effectJ Med Food.(2010 Jun)
39.^Zhang M, Ning G, Shou C, Lu Y, Hong D, Zheng XInhibitory effect of jujuboside A on glutamate-mediated excitatory signal pathway in hippocampusPlanta Med.(2003 Aug)
42.^Shou C, Feng Z, Wang J, Zheng XThe inhibitory effects of jujuboside A on rat hippocampus in vivo and in vitroPlanta Med.(2002 Sep)
45.^Naftali T, Feingelernt H, Lesin Y, Rauchwarger A, Konikoff FMZiziphus jujuba extract for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation: a controlled clinical trialDigestion.(2008)
47.^Al-Reza SM, Yoon JI, Kim HJ, Kim JS, Kang SCAnti-inflammatory activity of seed essential oil from Zizyphus jujubaFood Chem Toxicol.(2010 Feb)
48.^Li J, Shan L, Liu Y, Fan L, Ai LScreening of a functional polysaccharide from Zizyphus Jujuba cv. Jinsixiaozao and its propertyInt J Biol Macromol.(2011 Oct 1)
49.^Kim IG, Kang SC, Kim KC, Choung ES, Zee OPScreening of estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities from medicinal plantsEnviron Toxicol Pharmacol.(2008 Jan)
50.^Yoon JI, Al-Reza SM, Kang SCHair growth promoting effect of Zizyphus jujuba essential oilFood Chem Toxicol.(2010 May)
51.^Huang X, Kojima-Yuasa A, Xu S, Norikura T, Kennedy DO, Hasuma T, Matsui-Yuasa IGreen tea extract enhances the selective cytotoxic activity of Zizyphus jujuba extracts in HepG2 cellsAm J Chin Med.(2008)
53.^Liu SH, Cheng YCOld formula, new Rx: the journey of PHY906 as cancer adjuvant therapyJ Ethnopharmacol.(2012 Apr 10)
55.^Chan AS, Yip EC, Yung LY, Pang H, Luk SC, Pang SF, Wong YHCKBM stimulates MAPKs but inhibits LPS-induced IFN-gamma in lymphocytesPhytother Res.(2006 Sep)
56.^Gupta M, Mazumder UK, Vamsi ML, Sivakumar T, Kandar CCAnti-steroidogenic activity of the two Indian medicinal plants in miceJ Ethnopharmacol.(2004 Jan)