Last Updated: September 28 2022

Uridine is a nucleotide base found in high levels in beer which is used for increasing synthesis of cellular membranes and for other neurological properties. It appears to have potentially cognitive enhancing properties, and is synergistic with fish oil.

Uridine is most often used for

What else is Uridine known as?
Note that Uridine is also known as:
  • UDP
  • UMP
  • Uridine monophosphate
  • Uridine diphosphate
Dosage information

Supplementation of uridine seems to be in the 500-1,000mg range, with the lone human study using the higher end of this range. It is recommended to take uridine with food out of prudency, but this has not been noted to be an absolute requirement.

Join our supplement information course

Examine Database: Uridine
What works and what doesn't?

Unlock the full potential of Examine

Get started

Don't miss out on the latest research

1.^Yamamoto T, Moriwaki Y, Takahashi S, Tsutsumi Z, Ka T, Fukuchi M, Hada TEffect of beer on the plasma concentrations of uridine and purine basesMetabolism.(2002 Oct)
2.^Almeida C, Duarte IF, Barros A, Rodrigues J, Spraul M, Gil AMComposition of beer by 1H NMR spectroscopy: effects of brewing site and date of productionJ Agric Food Chem.(2006 Feb 8)
3.^Sugawara M, Sato N, Nakano T, Idota T, Nakajima IProfile of nucleotides and nucleosides of human milkJ Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo).(1995 Aug)
4.^Thorell L, Sjöberg LB, Hernell ONucleotides in human milk: sources and metabolism by the newborn infantPediatr Res.(1996 Dec)
6.^Jonas DA, Elmadfa I, Engel KH, Heller KJ, Kozianowski G, König A, Müller D, Narbonne JF, Wackernagel W, Kleiner JSafety considerations of DNA in foodAnn Nutr Metab.(2001)
7.^Ka T, Moriwaki Y, Inokuchi T, Yamamoto A, Takahashi S, Tsutsumi Z, Yamamoto TEffects of allopurinol on beer-induced increases in plasma concentrations and urinary excretion of purine bases (uric acid, hypoxanthine, and xanthine)Horm Metab Res.(2006 Mar)
8.^Inokuchi T, Ka T, Yamamoto A, Takahashi S, Tsutsumi Z, Moriwaki Y, Yamamoto TEffects of allopurinol on beer-induced increases in plasma concentrations of purine bases and uridineNucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids.(2008 Jun)
12.^Weinberg ME, Roman MC, Jacob P, Wen M, Cheung P, Walker UA, Mulligan K, Schambelan MEnhanced uridine bioavailability following administration of a triacetyluridine-rich nutritional supplementPLoS One.(2011 Feb 17)
13.^Pizzorno G, Cao D, Leffert JJ, Russell RL, Zhang D, Handschumacher REHomeostatic control of uridine and the role of uridine phosphorylase: a biological and clinical updateBiochim Biophys Acta.(2002 Jul 18)
14.^van Groeningen CJ, Peters GJ, Nadal JC, Laurensse E, Pinedo HMClinical and pharmacologic study of orally administered uridineJ Natl Cancer Inst.(1991 Mar 20)
15.^Venhoff N, Zilly M, Lebrecht D, Schirmer D, Klinker H, Thoden J, Langmann P, Walker UAUridine pharmacokinetics of mitocnol, a sugar cane extractAIDS.(2005 Apr 29)
19.^Connolly GP, Duley JAUridine and its nucleotides: biological actions, therapeutic potentialsTrends Pharmacol Sci.(1999 May)
21.^Cornford EM, Oldendorf WHIndependent blood-brain barrier transport systems for nucleic acid precursorsBiochim Biophys Acta.(1975 Jun 25)
22.^Baldwin SA, Beal PR, Yao SY, King AE, Cass CE, Young JDThe equilibrative nucleoside transporter family, SLC29Pflugers Arch.(2004 Feb)
23.^Pastor-Anglada M, Felipe A, Casado FJTransport and mode of action of nucleoside derivatives used in chemical and antiviral therapiesTrends Pharmacol Sci.(1998 Oct)
24.^Gray JH, Owen RP, Giacomini KMThe concentrative nucleoside transporter family, SLC28Pflugers Arch.(2004 Feb)
25.^Kong W, Engel K, Wang JMammalian nucleoside transportersCurr Drug Metab.(2004 Feb)
28.^Vance JE, Vance DEPhospholipid biosynthesis in mammalian cellsBiochem Cell Biol.(2004 Feb)
29.^Fagone P, Jackowski SPhosphatidylcholine and the CDP-choline cycleBiochim Biophys Acta.(2013 Mar)
30.^Aoyama C, Liao H, Ishidate KStructure and function of choline kinase isoforms in mammalian cellsProg Lipid Res.(2004 May)
31.^Wu G, Vance DECholine kinase and its functionBiochem Cell Biol.(2010 Aug)
32.^Jansen SM, Groener JE, Bax W, Suter A, Saftig P, Somerharju P, Poorthuis BJBiosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine from a phosphocholine precursor pool derived from the late endosomal/lysosomal degradation of sphingomyelinJ Biol Chem.(2001 Jun 1)
33.^Millington WR, Wurtman RJCholine administration elevates brain phosphorylcholine concentrationsJ Neurochem.(1982 Jun)
40.^Baburina I, Jackowski SCellular responses to excess phospholipidJ Biol Chem.(1999 Apr 2)
41.^Cornell RBCholinephosphotransferase from mammalian sourcesMethods Enzymol.(1992)
43.^Henneberry AL, Wistow G, McMaster CRCloning, genomic organization, and characterization of a human cholinephosphotransferaseJ Biol Chem.(2000 Sep 22)
46.^Richardson UI, Watkins CJ, Pierre C, Ulus IH, Wurtman RJStimulation of CDP-choline synthesis by uridine or cytidine in PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cellsBrain Res.(2003 May 9)
49.^G-Coviella IL, Wurtman RJEnhancement by cytidine of membrane phospholipid synthesisJ Neurochem.(1992 Jul)
50.^Wurtman RJ, Regan M, Ulus I, Yu LEffect of oral CDP-choline on plasma choline and uridine levels in humansBiochem Pharmacol.(2000 Oct 1)
51.^Ulus IH, Watkins CJ, Cansev M, Wurtman RJCytidine and uridine increase striatal CDP-choline levels without decreasing acetylcholine synthesis or releaseCell Mol Neurobiol.(2006 Jul-Aug)
52.^Cansev M, Watkins CJ, van der Beek EM, Wurtman RJOral uridine-5'-monophosphate (UMP) increases brain CDP-choline levels in gerbilsBrain Res.(2005 Oct 5)
54.^Silveri MM, Dikan J, Ross AJ, Jensen JE, Kamiya T, Kawada Y, Renshaw PF, Yurgelun-Todd DACiticoline enhances frontal lobe bioenergetics as measured by phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopyNMR Biomed.(2008 Nov)
55.^Babb SM, Wald LL, Cohen BM, Villafuerte RA, Gruber SA, Yurgelun-Todd DA, Renshaw PFChronic citicoline increases phosphodiesters in the brains of healthy older subjects: an in vivo phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy studyPsychopharmacology (Berl).(2002 May)
58.^Van Poecke S, Barrett MO, Santhosh Kumar T, Sinnaeve D, Martins JC, Jacobson KA, Kendall Harden T, Van Calenbergh SSynthesis and P2Y₂ receptor agonist activities of uridine 5'-phosphonate analoguesBioorg Med Chem.(2012 Apr 1)
59.^Weisman GA, Yu N, Liao Z, Gonzaléz F, Erb L, Seye CIP2 receptors in health and diseaseBiotechnol Genet Eng Rev.(2006)
60.^Erb L, Liao Z, Seye CI, Weisman GAP2 receptors: intracellular signalingPflugers Arch.(2006 Aug)
61.^Pooler AM, Guez DH, Benedictus R, Wurtman RJUridine enhances neurite outgrowth in nerve growth factor-differentiated PC12 {corrected}Neuroscience.(2005)
62.^Brunschweiger A, Müller CEP2 receptors activated by uracil nucleotides--an updateCurr Med Chem.(2006)
64.^Dobolyi A, Juhász G, Kovács Z, Kardos JUridine function in the central nervous systemCurr Top Med Chem.(2011)
67.^Harden TK, Sesma JI, Fricks IP, Lazarowski ERSignalling and pharmacological properties of the P2Y receptorActa Physiol (Oxf).(2010 Jun)
68.^Illes P, Alexandre Ribeiro JMolecular physiology of P2 receptors in the central nervous systemEur J Pharmacol.(2004 Jan 1)
69.^Köles L, Leichsenring A, Rubini P, Illes PP2 receptor signaling in neurons and glial cells of the central nervous systemAdv Pharmacol.(2011)
70.^Erb L, Liu J, Ockerhausen J, Kong Q, Garrad RC, Griffin K, Neal C, Krugh B, Santiago-Pérez LI, González FA, Gresham HD, Turner JT, Weisman GAAn RGD sequence in the P2Y(2) receptor interacts with alpha(V)beta(3) integrins and is required for G(o)-mediated signal transductionJ Cell Biol.(2001 Apr 30)
71.^Bagchi S, Liao Z, Gonzalez FA, Chorna NE, Seye CI, Weisman GA, Erb LThe P2Y2 nucleotide receptor interacts with alphav integrins to activate Go and induce cell migrationJ Biol Chem.(2005 Nov 25)
72.^Arthur DB, Akassoglou K, Insel PAP2Y2 receptor activates nerve growth factor/TrkA signaling to enhance neuronal differentiationProc Natl Acad Sci U S A.(2005 Dec 27)
73.^Weisman GA, Ajit D, Garrad R, Peterson TS, Woods LT, Thebeau C, Camden JM, Erb LNeuroprotective roles of the P2Y(2) receptorPurinergic Signal.(2012 Sep)
74.^Selkoe DJAlzheimer's disease is a synaptic failureScience.(2002 Oct 25)
75.^Terry RDAlzheimer's disease and the aging brainJ Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol.(2006 Sep)
76.^Spires-Jones TL, Meyer-Luehmann M, Osetek JD, Jones PB, Stern EA, Bacskai BJ, Hyman BTImpaired spine stability underlies plaque-related spine loss in an Alzheimer's disease mouse modelAm J Pathol.(2007 Oct)
78.^Alvarez VA, Sabatini BLAnatomical and physiological plasticity of dendritic spinesAnnu Rev Neurosci.(2007)
79.^Arellano JI, Espinosa A, Fairén A, Yuste R, DeFelipe JNon-synaptic dendritic spines in neocortexNeuroscience.(2007 Mar 16)
80.^Harms KJ, Dunaevsky ADendritic spine plasticity: looking beyond developmentBrain Res.(2007 Dec 12)
81.^Wurtman RJ, Cansev M, Sakamoto T, Ulus IHUse of phosphatide precursors to promote synaptogenesisAnnu Rev Nutr.(2009)
82.^Wurtman RJ, Ulus IH, Cansev M, Watkins CJ, Wang L, Marzloff GSynaptic proteins and phospholipids are increased in gerbil brain by administering uridine plus docosahexaenoic acid orallyBrain Res.(2006 May 9)
84.^Neary JT, Rathbone MP, Cattabeni F, Abbracchio MP, Burnstock GTrophic actions of extracellular nucleotides and nucleosides on glial and neuronal cellsTrends Neurosci.(1996 Jan)
86.^Chuang HH, Prescott ED, Kong H, Shields S, Jordt SE, Basbaum AI, Chao MV, Julius DBradykinin and nerve growth factor release the capsaicin receptor from PtdIns(4,5)P2-mediated inhibitionNature.(2001 Jun 21)
87.^Rathbone MP, Middlemiss PJ, Gysbers JW, Andrew C, Herman MA, Reed JK, Ciccarelli R, Di Iorio P, Caciagli FTrophic effects of purines in neurons and glial cellsProg Neurobiol.(1999 Dec)
89.^Lee V, Trojanowski JQ, Schlaepfer WWInduction of neurofilament triplet proteins in PC12 cells by nerve growth factorBrain Res.(1982 Apr 22)
91.^Broersen LM, Kuipers AA, Balvers M, van Wijk N, Savelkoul PJ, de Wilde MC, van der Beek EM, Sijben JW, Hageman RJ, Kamphuis PJ, Kiliaan AJA Specific Multi-Nutrient Diet Reduces Alzheimer-Like Pathology in Young Adult AβPPswe/PS1dE9 MiceJ Alzheimers Dis.(2012 Aug 22)
93.^Jensen JE, Daniels M, Haws C, Bolo NR, Lyoo IK, Yoon SJ, Cohen BM, Stoll AL, Rusche JR, Renshaw PFTriacetyluridine (TAU) decreases depressive symptoms and increases brain pH in bipolar patientsExp Clin Psychopharmacol.(2008 Jun)
95.^Nolan D, Hammond E, Martin A, Taylor L, Herrmann S, McKinnon E, Metcalf C, Latham B, Mallal SMitochondrial DNA depletion and morphologic changes in adipocytes associated with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor therapyAIDS.(2003 Jun 13)
96.^McComsey GA, Walker UA, Budhathoki CB, Su Z, Currier JS, Kosmiski L, Naini LG, Charles S, Medvik K, Aberg JA; AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5229 TeamUridine supplementation in the treatment of HIV lipoatrophy: results of ACTG 5229AIDS.(2010 Oct 23)
97.^McComsey GA, O'Riordan M, Choi J, Libutti D, Rowe D, Storer N, Harrill D, Gerschenson MMitochondrial function, inflammation, fat and bone in HIV lipoatrophy: randomized study of uridine supplementation or switch to tenofovirAntivir Ther.(2012)
98.^Sutinen J, Walker UA, Sevastianova K, Klinker H, Häkkinen AM, Ristola M, Yki-Järvinen HUridine supplementation for the treatment of antiretroviral therapy-associated lipoatrophy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialAntivir Ther.(2007)
104.^Dixon CJ, Bowler WB, Littlewood-Evans A, Dillon JP, Bilbe G, Sharpe GR, Gallagher JARegulation of epidermal homeostasis through P2Y2 receptorsBr J Pharmacol.(1999 Aug)
106.^Lee WK, Choi SW, Lee HR, Lee EJ, Lee KH, Kim HOPurinoceptor-mediated calcium mobilization and proliferation in HaCaT keratinocytesJ Dermatol Sci.(2001 Feb)
107.^Babb SM, Ke Y, Lange N, Kaufman MJ, Renshaw PF, Cohen BMOral choline increases choline metabolites in human brainPsychiatry Res.(2004 Jan 15)