Last Updated: June 15, 2023

Apigenin is a bioflavonoid that appears to reduce anxiety, affect immune health, and modulate hormones. It is found in chamomile tea and a variety of vegetables and herbs. Apigenin is stable when consumed as part of the diet, but unstable when isolated from its source.


Apigenin is most often used for

What is apigenin?

Apigenin is a flavone (a subclass of bioflavonoids) primarily found in plants. It is frequently extracted from the plant Matricaria recutita L (chamomile), a member of the Asteraceae (daisy) family. In foods and herbs, apigenin is often found in the more stable derivative form of apigenin-7-O-glucoside.[6]

Some of the more abundant sources of apigenin include chamomile tea (840 mg/100 grams)[7], kumquats (21.87 mg/100 g), artichokes (7.48 mg/100 g), rutabagas (3.85 mg/100 g), sorghum (2.54 mg/100 g), and some herbs and spices such as parsley (215 mg/100 g.[8][9] Apigenin is found in higher concentrations relative to other foods and herbs not listed above in celery (2.85 mg/100 g), green chili peppers (1.40 mg/100 g), red onions (0.24 mg/100 g, marjoram (3.5 mg/100 g), thyme (2.50mg/100 g), yarrow (1.21 mg/g), foxglove, coneflower, flax (35 mg/100 g), passion flower, horehound, peppermint (5.39 mg/100 g), and oregano (2.57 mg/100 g).[10][11][12] It is also found in plant-based beverages, such as red wine (0.13 mg/100 g) [13] and beer.[14].[15]

What are apigenin’s main benefits?

Though there are few human clinical trials specific to the effects of apigenin as a single compound, due at least in part to its instability when isolated, preclinical studies have suggested that apigenin may improve outcomes in multiple health states, including anxiety,[16] brain function,[17][16][18][19] oxidative stress,[20][21][22] inflammation,[23][24][25][26][27][28][29] and hormonal regulation (testosterone,[30] estrogen,[31] and cortisol[32][33]).

What are apigenin’s main drawbacks?

There is little evidence to suggest that apigenin causes adverse effects when consumed as part of a normal diet.[8] No toxicity has been reported as a result of standard dietary apigenin intake.[34][35] It should be noted, however, that when dosages exceed typical intake to an extreme (30–100 mg/kg of bodyweight), sedation has been reported as a side effect.[16]

How does apigenin work?

Animal studies suggest that apigenin may impede genetic mutations occurring in cells that are exposed to toxins and bacteria.[36][37] Apigenin may also play direct roles in the removal of free radicals, inhibition of tumor growth enzymes, and induction of detoxification enzymes such as glutathione.[38][39][40][41] Apigenin’s anti-inflammatory ability may also explain its effects on mental health, brain function, and immunological response,[42][41][18][43] though some large observational studies don’t support this conclusion with respect to metabolic conditions.[44]

What else is Apigenin known as?
Note that Apigenin is also known as:
  • biapigenin (a dimer found in nature)
  • 4' 5 7-Trihydroxyflavone
Apigenin should not be confused with:
  • Genistein
Dosage information

For general health needs, multiple daily servings of fruits and vegetables can provide adequate amounts of apigenin, which is estimated to be less than 5 mg/day.[1][2] Apigenin is sufficiently bioavailable through such dietary sources.[2] In contrast, apigenin that’s been isolated from its source is rarely stable enough to be absorbed by the body.[3][4][5] Without alterations to enhance apigenin’s stability and bioavailability, oral supplementation at the level required to feasibly reach dosages higher than dietary consumption might never be sufficient to reach the intended dose.[5][4]

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Update History
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