Appetite

The desire to eat food, independent of whether food is actually eaten or not. This pools together both physical hunger and subjective appetite, since studies measure this by self-report survey.

Our evidence based analysis features 73 unique references to scientific papers.


Research analysis by and verified by the Examine.com Research Team. Last updated on Apr 29, 2017.

Frequently Asked Questions

Questions and answers regarding Appetite

Q: Does aspartame increase appetite?

Read full answer to "Does aspartame increase appetite?"


Q: 3 Science-based steps to curbing your appetite

A: Fiber, stress relief, and supplement options can help curb your appetite!

Read full answer to "3 Science-based steps to curbing your appetite"


Q: Does Garcinia Cambogia help with weight loss?

A: Garcinia Cambogia does not appear to help with weight loss in humans despite its popularity, and this is due to a profound difference in how it affects rats and humans.

Read full answer to "Does Garcinia Cambogia help with weight loss?"


Q: Propionate – your ally against overeating?

A: We investigate if getting more propionate to your colon can help you eat less.

Read full answer to "Propionate – your ally against overeating?"


Q: Does eating a higher carb diet make you more full?

A: A study compared real-life high-carb diet versus a high-fat diet and found that a high-carb diet kept you more full (satiated).

Read full answer to "Does eating a higher carb diet make you more full?"


Q: The science behind munchies: marijuana and your appetite

A: How cannabinoids can give you the munchies...

Read full answer to "The science behind munchies: marijuana and your appetite"


Q: Do MCTs or CLA help with appetite reduction?

A: A recent study investigated if taking MCT or CLA as supplements helped decrease your appetite.

Read full answer to "Do MCTs or CLA help with appetite reduction?"


Q: Does chewing gum offer any health benefits?

A: Chewing gum can provide health benefits ranging from improved oral health to reduced hunger and stress levels, but for some people these are balanced out by possible downsides such as increased headaches.

Read full answer to "Does chewing gum offer any health benefits?"


Human Effect Matrix

The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (it excludes animal and in vitro studies) to tell you what supplements affect appetite

Grade Level of Evidence
Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials
Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies
Uncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
? The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results.
Outcome Magnitude of effect
? The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Consistency of research results
? Scientific research does not always agree. HIGH or VERY HIGH means that most of the scientific research agrees.
Notes
5-HTP
All comparative evidence is now gathered in our ​A-to-Z Supplement Reference.
The evidence for each separate supplement is still freely available ​here.
Chromium  
Fenugreek  
Caralluma fimbriata  
Modafinil  
Nigella sativa  
Pelargonium sidoides  
Psyllium  
Saffron  
Salvia hispanica  
Blueberry  
Caffeine  
Conjugated Linoleic Acid  
Garcinia cambogia  
Hoodia gordonii  
Stevia  
Synephrine  
CDP-choline  
Ephedrine  
Ginger  
Whey Protein  
Ascophyllum nodosum  
Milk Protein  

Scientific Support & Reference Citations

Via HEM and FAQ:

  1. Storey ML, Forshee RA, Anderson PA. Beverage consumption in the US population. J Am Diet Assoc. (2006)
  2. Stellman SD, Garfinkel L. Artificial sweetener use and one-year weight change among women. Prev Med. (1986)
  3. Fowler SP, et al. Fueling the obesity epidemic? Artificially sweetened beverage use and long-term weight gain. Obesity (Silver Spring). (2008)
  4. Mattes RD, Popkin BM. Nonnutritive sweetener consumption in humans: effects on appetite and food intake and their putative mechanisms. Am J Clin Nutr. (2009)
  5. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and extreme obesity among adults: United States, trends 1960-62 through 2005-2006.
  6. Gain weight by “going diet?” Artificial sweeteners and the neurobiology of sugar cravings.
  7. Colditz GA, et al. Patterns of weight change and their relation to diet in a cohort of healthy women. Am J Clin Nutr. (1990)
  8. Evaluation of the influence of intense sweeteners on the short-term control of appetite and caloric intake: a psychobiological approach.
  9. Rogers PJ, Blundell JE. Intense sweeteners and appetite. Am J Clin Nutr. (1993)
  10. Teff KL, Devine J, Engelman K. Sweet taste: effect on cephalic phase insulin release in men. Physiol Behav. (1995)
  11. Hall WL, et al. Physiological mechanisms mediating aspartame-induced satiety. Physiol Behav. (2003)
  12. Horwitz DL, McLane M, Kobe P. Response to single dose of aspartame or saccharin by NIDDM patients. Diabetes Care. (1988)
  13. Okuno G, et al. Glucose tolerance, blood lipid, insulin and glucagon concentration after single or continuous administration of aspartame in diabetics. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. (1986)
  14. Wolf-Novak LC, et al. Aspartame ingestion with and without carbohydrate in phenylketonuric and normal subjects: effect on plasma concentrations of amino acids, glucose, and insulin. Metabolism. (1990)
  15. Just T, et al. Cephalic phase insulin release in healthy humans after taste stimulation. Appetite. (2008)
  16. Oyama Y, et al. Carrier-mediated transport systems for glucose in mucosal cells of the human oral cavity. J Pharm Sci. (1999)
  17. Carlson HE, Shah JH. Aspartame and its constituent amino acids: effects on prolactin, cortisol, growth hormone, insulin, and glucose in normal humans. Am J Clin Nutr. (1989)
  18. Rogers PJ, Blundell JE. Reanalysis of the effects of phenylalanine, alanine, and aspartame on food intake in human subjects. Physiol Behav. (1994)
  19. Porikos KP, Booth G, Van Itallie TB. Effect of covert nutritive dilution on the spontaneous food intake of obese individuals: a pilot study. Am J Clin Nutr. (1977)
  20. Williams CL, Strobino BA, Brotanek J. Weight control among obese adolescents: a pilot study. Int J Food Sci Nutr. (2007)
  21. Knopp RH, Brandt K, Arky RA. Effects of aspartame in young persons during weight reduction. J Toxicol Environ Health. (1976)
  22. Ebbeling CB, et al. Effects of decreasing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption on body weight in adolescents: a randomized, controlled pilot study. Pediatrics. (2006)
  23. Brown RJ, de Banate MA, Rother KI. Artificial sweeteners: a systematic review of metabolic effects in youth. Int J Pediatr Obes. (2010)
  24. Swithers SE, Davidson TL. A role for sweet taste: calorie predictive relations in energy regulation by rats. Behav Neurosci. (2008)
  25. Ambrus JL, et al. Effect of galactose and sugar substitutes on blood insulin levels in normal and obese individuals. J Med. (1976)
  26. Sullivan AC, et al. Effect of (-)-hydroxycitrate upon the accumulation of lipid in the rat. II. Appetite. Lipids. (1974)
  27. Heymsfield SB, et al. Garcinia cambogia (hydroxycitric acid) as a potential antiobesity agent: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. (1998)
  28. Kim JE, et al. Does Glycine max leaves or Garcinia Cambogia promote weight-loss or lower plasma cholesterol in overweight individuals: a randomized control trial. Nutr J. (2011)
  29. Mattes RD, Bormann L. Effects of (-)-hydroxycitric acid on appetitive variables. Physiol Behav. (2000)
  30. Leonhardt M, Hrupka B, Langhans W. Effect of hydroxycitrate on food intake and body weight regain after a period of restrictive feeding in male rats. Physiol Behav. (2001)
  31. Leonhardt M, Balkan B, Langhans W. Effect of hydroxycitrate on respiratory quotient, energy expenditure, and glucose tolerance in male rats after a period of restrictive feeding. Nutrition. (2004)
  32. Simons D, et al. The effect of medicated chewing gums on oral health in frail older people: a 1-year clinical trial. J Am Geriatr Soc. (2002)
  33. Fu Y, et al. Assessment of chewing sugar-free gums for oral debris reduction: a randomized controlled crossover clinical trial. Am J Dent. (2012)
  34. Itthagarun A, Wei SH. Chewing gum and saliva in oral health. J Clin Dent. (1997)
  35. Wessel SW, et al. Quantification and qualification of bacteria trapped in chewed gum. PLoS One. (2015)
  36. Nayak PA, Nayak UA, Khandelwal V. The effect of xylitol on dental caries and oral flora. Clin Cosmet Investig Dent. (2014)
  37. Smith A. Effects of chewing gum on mood, learning, memory and performance of an intelligence test. Nutr Neurosci. (2009)
  38. Tänzer U, von Fintel A, Eikermann T. Chewing gum and concentration performance. Psychol Rep. (2009)
  39. Tucha L, Simpson W. The role of time on task performance in modifying the effects of gum chewing on attention. Appetite. (2011)
  40. Johnson AJ, et al. Chewing gum moderates multi-task induced shifts in stress, mood, and alertness. A re-examination. Appetite. (2011)
  41. Johnson AJ, et al. The effect of chewing gum on physiological and self-rated measures of alertness and daytime sleepiness. Physiol Behav. (2012)
  42. Allen AP, Smith AP. Effects of chewing gum and time-on-task on alertness and attention. Nutr Neurosci. (2012)
  43. Allen AP, Smith AP. Demand characteristics, pre-test attitudes and time-on-task trends in the effects of chewing gum on attention and reported mood in healthy volunteers. Appetite. (2012)
  44. Johnson AJ, Muneem M, Miles C. Chewing gum benefits sustained attention in the absence of task degradation. Nutr Neurosci. (2013)
  45. Hirano Y, et al. Effects of chewing on cognitive processing speed. Brain Cogn. (2013)
  46. Allen AP, Jacob TJ, Smith AP. Effects and after-effects of chewing gum on vigilance, heart rate, EEG and mood. Physiol Behav. (2014)
  47. Allen AP, Smith AP. Chewing gum: cognitive performance, mood, well-being, and associated physiology. Biomed Res Int. (2015)
  48. Tucha O, et al. Chewing gum differentially affects aspects of attention in healthy subjects. Appetite. (2004)
  49. Hirano Y, Onozuka M. Chewing and attention: a positive effect on sustained attention. Biomed Res Int. (2015)
  50. Tucha L, et al. Detrimental effects of gum chewing on vigilance in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Appetite. (2010)
  51. Scholey A, et al. Chewing gum alleviates negative mood and reduces cortisol during acute laboratory psychological stress. Physiol Behav. (2009)
  52. Zibell S, Madansky E. Impact of gum chewing on stress levels: online self-perception research study. Curr Med Res Opin. (2009)
  53. Sasaki-Otomaru A, et al. Effect of regular gum chewing on levels of anxiety, mood, and fatigue in healthy young adults. Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health. (2011)
  54. Sketchley-Kaye K, et al. Chewing gum modifies state anxiety and alertness under conditions of social stress. Nutr Neurosci. (2011)
  55. Gray G, et al. The contrasting physiological and subjective effects of chewing gum on social stress. Appetite. (2012)
  56. Smith AP, Chaplin K, Wadsworth E. Chewing gum, occupational stress, work performance and wellbeing. An intervention study. Appetite. (2012)
  57. Smith AP, Woods M. Effects of chewing gum on the stress and work of university students. Appetite. (2012)
  58. Smith A. Effects of chewing gum on stress and health: a replication and investigation of dose-response. Stress Health. (2013)
  59. Konno M, et al. Relationships Between Gum-Chewing and Stress. Adv Exp Med Biol. (2016)
  60. Torney LK, Johnson AJ, Miles C. Chewing gum and impasse-induced self-reported stress. Appetite. (2009)
  61. Ekuni D, et al. Gum chewing modulates heart rate variability under noise stress. Acta Odontol Scand. (2012)
  62. Walker J, et al. Chewing unflavored gum does not reduce cortisol levels during a cognitive task but increases the response of the sympathetic nervous system. Physiol Behav. (2016)
  63. Hasegawa Y, et al. Flavor-Enhanced Modulation of Cerebral Blood Flow during Gum Chewing. PLoS One. (2013)
  64. Morinushi T, et al. Effect on electroencephalogram of chewing flavored gum. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. (2000)
  65. Hetherington MM, Boyland E. Short-term effects of chewing gum on snack intake and appetite. Appetite. (2007)
  66. Hetherington MM, Regan MF. Effects of chewing gum on short-term appetite regulation in moderately restrained eaters. Appetite. (2011)
  67. Melanson KJ, Kresge DL. Chewing gum decreases energy intake at lunch following a controlled breakfast. Appetite. (2017)
  68. Park E, et al. Short-term effects of chewing gum on satiety and afternoon snack intake in healthy weight and obese women. Physiol Behav. (2016)
  69. Xu J, et al. The effect of gum chewing on blood GLP-1 concentration in fasted, healthy, non-obese men. Endocrine. (2015)
  70. Lippi G, Cervellin G, Mattiuzzi C. Gum-Chewing and Headache: An Underestimated Trigger of Headache Pain in Migraineurs?. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. (2015)
  71. Watemberg N, et al. The influence of excessive chewing gum use on headache frequency and severity among adolescents. Pediatr Neurol. (2014)
  72. Tabrizi R, et al. Does gum chewing increase the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders in individuals with gum chewing habits?. J Craniofac Surg. (2014)
  73. Graff-Radford SB. Temporomandibular disorders and headache. Dent Clin North Am. (2007)