Research Breakdown on Glycine
Glycine (abbreviated as Gly) is a conditionally essential amino acid discovered in 1820 by French chemist Henri Braconnot through acid hydrolysis of gelatin. Glycine is the simplest amino acid in nature, with a single hydrogen atom as its side chain. Glycine was found to be as sweet as glucose and, hence, its name was derived from the Greek word glykys, meaning sweet.
Glycine is the primary amino acid in collagen, making up one-third of its amino acids in the repeated form of tripeptides (glycine-proline-Y and glycine-X-hydroxyproline, where X and Y can be any amino acid). Accordingly, collagenous proteins are the best dietary source of glycine. However, any dietary source of protein will provide varying amounts of glycine. According to the USDA Food Composition Database, the glycine content of most meats and seafoods is 1-2 grams per 100 grams of cooked food, eggs contain 0.4 grams per 100 grams of whole egg, and milk contains 0.08 grams per 100 grams of milk.
Glycine is also synthesized within the body. The main pathway is synthesis from serine via glycine hydroxymethyltransferase (GHMT), which produces roughly 2.5 grams of glycine per day. Glycine is also synthesized in lesser amounts (~0.5 grams per day) from choline (via sarcosine), threonine degradation, carnitine synthesis, and the transamination of glyoxylate.
Glycine is a colorless, odorless, sweet-tasting crystalline solid with a molecular weight of 75.067 g/mol.  Like all amino acids, glycine has a central carbon with one amino group, one carboxy acid group, and one side chain that makes each amino acid unique. For glycine, this side chain is a single hydrogen atom, which is why glycine is the simplest and smallest amino acid in nature. Glycine is a nonpolar neutral amino acid, meaning it has no net electrical charge and does not interact with water.
Glycine serves many important roles in the body through structural and regulatory actions. As an amino acid, glycine plays an essential role in protein synthesis, especially collagen synthesis. A glycine molecule must represent every third amino acid in collagen for stability, and mutations that result in substitutions of glycine results in a variety of connective tissue disorders collectively known as brittle bone disease.. Glycine also plays a special role in enzyme structure and function by providing flexibility in their active sites, therefore allowing them to change their conformation as necessary to bind with substrates.
Glycine is a precursor for the synthesis of several biologically important compounds, including porphyrins and heme, creatine (glycine + arginine + methionine), and glutathione (glycine + cysteine + glutamate), and purines.<a href="#ref12" data-html="true" data-toggle="popover" data-trigger="hover" data-content="<p class="mb-3">Berg JM, Tymoczko JL, Stryer L. <a href=" https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK22385" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Section 25.2, Purine Bases Can Be Synthesized de Novo or Recycled by Salvage Pathways</a>.</p>Biochemistry. 5th edition (2002)" data-persistent="true"> Additionally, glycine is conjugated with bile acids (along with taurine) before being excreted into the biliary system, thereby playing a central role in lipid digestion and absorption.
Finally, glycine is an important signaling molecule throughout the body. Glycine acts as both an inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and spinal cord, where it is involved in reflex coordination, the processing of sensory signals, and the sensation of pain. Whereas the inhibitory functions are owed to a direct effect of glycine binding glycine-specific receptors, the excitatory effects are mediated by glutamate and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. Outside of the nervous system, glycine plays a role in immunomodulation and inflammation through binding chloride channels in the cell membranes of leukocytes and macrophages, thereby suppressing calcium influx.
Glycine is an amino acid necessary for protein synthesis, especially collagen synthesis, and the biosynthesis of heme, creatine, glutathione, and purines. Glycine also functions as both an inhibitory and an excitatory neurotransmitter, functions as a signaling molecule in the immune system, is necessary for the proper function of some enzymes, and plays a role in lipid digestion and absorption.
Glycine is a conditionally essential amino acid in humans because humans are unable to synthesize enough glycine to satisfy metabolic requirements. The average adult human (70 kg; 30-50 years; sedentary) requires nearly 15 grams of glycine per day to synthesize collagen (12 g/d), non-collagen proteins (1 g/d), and other important compounds such as porphyrins (240 mg/d), purines (206 mg/d), creatine (420 mg/d), glutathione (567 mg/d), and bile salts (60 mg/d). However, glycine synthesis is limited to about 2.5 grams per day, suggesting that humans require about 12 grams of dietary glycine to satisfy daily metabolic requirements.
This problem is due primarily to the stoichiometry of the reaction catalyzed by GHMT, which requires glycine and tetrahydrofolate (THF) to be produced in equimolar amounts regardless of any differences in the metabolic demand for either.
L-serine + THF ↔ 5,10 methylene-THF + glycine + H2O
As far as 5,10 methylene-THF is concerned, synthesis is not constrained because glycine can be diverted to its production via the glycine cleavage system (CVS). However, this reaction is thermodynamically irreversible, and 5,10 methylene-THF cannot, therefore, produce glycine. Rather, 5,10 methylene-THF must first be converted to 5-methyl THF, which must then donate its methyl group to regenerate THF to produce glycine via GHMT. Accordingly, the production of glycine via GHMT relies on the rate of methylation reactions within the body.
Further evidence of glycine’s essentiality comes from nitrogen balance studies. A controlled feeding study in healthy young men reported that reducing total protein intake from 1.5 g/kg (3.8 g glycine) to 0.6 g/kg (1.5 g glycine) did not affect rates of de novo glycine synthesis, but that providing these amounts of protein exclusively from essential amino acids resulted in significant reductions in de novo glycine synthesis (37% for 1.5 g/kg and 66% for 0.6 g/kg). An earlier study by the same lab reported that reducing total protein intake from 1.5 g/kg (3.8 g glycine) to 0.4 g/kg (1.0 g glycine) led to a significant reduction in de novo glycine synthesis of about 40% in young men and 33% in elderly men. These studies suggest that the amino acid composition of the diet influences glycine metabolism, especially at low total protein intakes. If glycine were truly nonessential, then its synthesis in the body should not depend on dietary intake.
The imbalance between glycine synthesis and requirements in humans has been explained from an evolutionary perspective. Collagen is the most abundant protein in the animal kingdom and first appeared in small animals that required low amounts relative to their size. Glycine synthesis was therefore satisfactory for life. However, larger animals show little evidence for evolving new metabolic pathways and therefore inherited a regulatory system poorly suited to their greatly enhanced collagen needs.
This evolutionary explanation requires that the glycine biosynthesis constraint applies to any large animal. Notably, osteoarthritis has been documented in in a variety of present-day mammals, both in the wild and in captivity.<a href="#ref24" data-html="true" data-toggle="popover" data-trigger="hover" data-content="<p class="mb-3">Greer M, Greer JK, Gillingham J. <a href=" http://ojs.library.okstate.edu/osu/index.php/OAS/article/download/5052/4722" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Osteoarthritis in selected wild mammals</a>.</p>Proc Okla Acad Sci (1977)" data-persistent="true"> Skeletal and joint diseases have been found in elephants and rhinoceroses, great apes such as chimpanzees, gorillas, and bonobos, and Neanderthals. Moreover, glycine is supplemented in the diets of livestock to maximize growth, collagen production, skeletal muscle development, nitrogen retention, mucin production, immune function, antioxidant capacity.
Considering glycine’s essential role in collagen production, the appearance of skeletal and joint diseases in animals and humans with aging is a possible example of Bruce Ames Triage Theory, which posits that short-term survival is prioritized over long-term health when nutrient availability is limited. From an evolutionary standpoint, the selective pressure to eliminate the glycine constraint is probably low because it does not affect survival or reproduction. However, a chronic glycine deficit may affect quality of life due to a down-regulation of collagen turnover and nonessential metabolic processes.
Consuming 10 grams per day of dietary glycine could increase the serum concentrations to levels associated with a 200% increase in rates of type-II collagen synthesis compared to current glycine concentrations.
Evidence in humans suggests that a glycine shortage also affects glutathione status. Glutathione is created from the amino acids: glutamate, cysteine, and glycine. Glutamate and cysteine combine to form gamma-glutamylcysteine, which then combines with glycine to form glutathione. People with genetic defects in this latter step show increased levels of urinary 5-oxoproline (pyroglutamic acid). Increased urinary 5-oxoproline concentrations have also been found after depleting the body’s glycine pool with benzoic acid and after feeding healthy adults a glycine-free diet. On the other hand, glycine supplementation has been shown to reduce urinary 5-oxoproline concentrations and increase glutathione status. These studies collectively demonstrate that the production and availability of glutathione is sensitive to glycine status and may be less than optimal under circumstances of limited glycine availability. A chronic glycine shortage could, therefore, have long-term implications for the body’s exposure to oxidative stress.
Importantly, it remains unknown which metabolic processes involving glycine are prioritized in the presence of glycine insufficiency. Therefore, the absence of 5-oxoproline in the urine is not of itself an indication of a satisfactory glycine status, but rather an indication that glycine status is not sufficient to support glutathione production. It is possible that 5-oxoproline levels could be considered normal when a glycine insufficiency is still present, affecting other metabolic pathways such as collagen synthesis.
Nonetheless, urinary 5-oxoproline levels serve as a way to identify populations that do not obtain enough glycine to support glutathione synthesis. For example, vegetarians have significantly higher levels of 5-oxoproline than omnivores, and higher 5-oxoproline levels significantly correlated with lower dietary protein intake. Preterm infants have higher urinary levels of 5-oxoproline than full-term infants, and nitrogen balance studies have suggested that glycine supplementation may be necessary to assure a satisfactory rate of lean tissue growth in preterm infants.
Glycine is a conditionally essential amino acid for humans. Dietary requirements are estimated to be around 12 grams per day. Glycine insufficiency is not life-threatening, but a chronic shortage may have detrimental effects on collagen turnover and glutathione status, which in turn could increase levels of oxidative stress and the risk of suffering from skeletal and joint diseases. of 0.5 g/kg glycine for two weeks induced non-pathological changes in glial cell morphology in the hippocampus and cerebellum. Follow-up research also reported no pathological changes in brain morphology with daily supplementation of 0.8 g/kg (HED) for five months, although it did cause a reduction in the expression of class B, N-type calcium channels in the cortex and hippocampus. The authors speculate this to be a normal physiological adaptation to increased glycine availability. Clinical trials have safely used doses of 0.5 g/kg body weight for eight weeks and 0.8 g/kg for six weeks. A case report documents the safety of supplementing with 0.8 g/kg for five years.
No toxicity with glycine supplementation has been observed with doses up to 0.8 g/kg body weight (64 grams per day for a 176 lb adult). In an earlier study, minor digestive symptoms, including mild abdominal pain and soft stools, were reported in 12 healthy adults who were administered 9 g per day of glycine on an empty stomach before bed. Taking 9 grams of glycine with each of three meals did not cause daytime sleepiness.
Glycine is well tolerated and does not cause daytime sleepiness when supplemented with meals, but 9 grams on an empty stomach has been noted to cause mild abdominal discomfort. As a free amino acid, glycine is absorbed via two transporter systems, one of which is used by all neutral amino acids. The other transport system involves the imino acid carrier (no, that isn’t a typo) that also transports proline, alanine, and sarcosine. Glycine may also be absorbed in the form of a peptide, linked to either one other amino acid (dipeptide) or two other amino acids (tripeptide). Peptide absorption relies on different transport systems than free amino acids and are absorbed more rapidly. While some peptides make it into circulation intact, such as glycyl-L-proline, most are broken down into amino acids by enzymes within enterocytes before being released into circulation. Plasma glycine concentrations peak around 45-60 minutes in healthy adults after consuming free glycine, with a return to fasting levels by 3-4 hours. Consuming glycine in the form of a peptide (diglycine or triglycine) results in a larger (9-12-fold vs 7-fold increase above fasting levels) and more rapid (30-45 vs 45-60 minutes) peak of serum glycine. Glycine absorption is marginally reduced in adults with type II diabetes compared to healthy adults. Glycine absorption is significantly increased in adults with systemic bacterial infections, whereas diglycine absorption is not affected. Consuming glycine alongside glucose modestly reduces peak glycine levels and the total serum glycine concentrations over two hours. Both glucose and galactose have been shown to inhibit the absorption of glycine and, to a lesser extent, diglycine. This interaction is likely owed to an allosteric interaction between sugars and amino acids at the brush-border membrane. Whether this observation has a practical value in human nutrition is unknown, although it has been suggested to be of importance in populations living on high-carbohydrate diets with marginal protein intakes.
Serum glycine concentrations peak 30-60 minutes after ingestion, with a larger and more rapid peak occurring when glycine is consumed as a peptide compared to a free amino acid. Absorption is enhanced in people with systemic infections and reduced in people with type II diabetes. Glucose inhibits glycine absorption, although the practical significance seems low. The predominance of these pathways in glycine metabolism is evidenced by isotopic tracer studies, which report that roughly 54% of ingested glycine ends up as serine, 20% as urea, 15% as glutamine and glutamate amino-nitrogen, 7% as alanine, and 3-8% as the branch-chain amino acids (BCAAs), proline, ornithine, and methionine. Both pathways are intricately linked to one another. The GCS uses tetrahydrofolate (THF) and glycine to produce 5,10-methylene-THF and ammonia. SHMT uses 5,10-methylene-THF and glycine to produce THF and serine. The importance of the GCS in glycine catabolism is clearly demonstrated by its defect in humans, which results in extremely high serum glycine levels and associated neurological disorders referred to as glycine encephalopathy (also known as nonketotic hyperglycinemia). Glucagon and metabolic acidosis increase GCS activity and glycine degradation. The reaction catalyzed by the glycine cleavage system is reversible in vitro, but deficient activity of the human complex leads to hyperglycinemia, suggesting that the reaction in vivo proceeds predominantly in the direction of glycine breakdown. Small amounts of glycine are also used in various other pathways for the synthesis of porphyrins, purines, creatine, glutathione, and bile salts. Glycine also plays a central role in protein synthesis, especially collagen, where it represents every third amino acid in the protein’s primary structure.
Glycine is degraded by via the glycine cleavage enzyme system, converted into serine, or used for biosynthesis of proteins, porphyrins, purines, creatine, glutathione, and bile salts. as its inhibition can potentiate NDMA signalling (by increasing synaptic levels of glycine) and may also be taken up by a second transporter known as GlyT2. The alanine–serine–cysteine transporter-1 (AscT1) may also play a role in regulating synaptic concentrations of glycine and serine by modifying uptake into glial cells.
There are a few transporters that draw glycine into cells, and they appear to have a regulatory role in controlling levels of synaptic glycineGABA or Agmatine). This system is inhibitory and works alongside the GABAergic system, although in the auditory brainstem and hypoglossal nucleus there appears to be a developmental shift towards favoring glycinergic inhibition, and glycinergic neurotransmission has been shown to have relevance in the thalamus, cerebellum, and hippocampus. This system and its receptors are blocked by the research drug Strychnine and when glycine activates its receptors the resulting influx of chloride (Cl-) ions causes an inhibitory effect secondary to making actions potentials more difficult. with the GluN1 subunit having eight splice variants. On the GluN1 receptors both glycine (D-serine may be used as well) and glutamate are required to induce signalling, which causes these glutamate receptors to be known as 'glycine dependent' and glycine as a 'coagonist'. 100μM or higher (30μM ineffective) appears to potentiate NDMA signalling and appears to be concentration-dependently increased up until 1,000μM, which is thought to be due to how glycine binding sites are unsaturated due to efficient buffering systems. and are mostly located extrasynaptically yet colocalized with synapsin. Hippocampal cells can also release glycine upon neuronal activation and glycine appears to be stored in the presynapse of these neurons alongside glutamate, most glycine (according to immunohistology) appears to be stored presynaptically and most clusters of glycine observed (84.3+/-2.8%) were facing NMDA glutaminergic receptors.
Glycine is involved in signalling through the hippocampus, and it seems that both the glycinergic and the glutaminergic systems can be involved here secondary to acting through the NDMA receptors and causing oxidative changes which then negatively influence various enzymes such as citrate synthase and Na+/K+ ATP synthase as well as impairing the electron transport chain at multiple complexes. Similar observations have been found with injections if D-serine and isovaleric acid which are protected against by glutamine receptor antagonists, antioxidants, or creatine. which is the dose used in schizophrenia trials; the authors hypothesized that his symptoms were related to insufficient NDMA receptor signalling, and benefits manifested within 34 days. Later, 3g of glycine was tested in otherwise healthy persons reporting dissatisfaction with their sleep who were then subject to an EEG via polysomnography; it was reported that glycine improved subjective sleep quality associated with shortened sleep latency and time to reach slow wave sleep (REM sleep and overall sleep architecture not affected). This latter study also confirmed improved cognitive day-time performance associated with better self-reported sleep and has been replicated where 3g of glycine taken an hour before sleep (in persons with mildly impaired sleep) was able to reduce fatigue the next day but that after three days this was no longer significant, whereas performance tasks (psychomotor vigilence) were consistently improved.
Low doses of glycine supplementation appear to benefit the subjective sensation of a good night's sleep associated with reduced sleep latency (time taken to fall alseep) and improved performance the next day, and the subjective sensation lasts for only about one day whereas performance benefits persist The inverse associations between glycine and suffering a heart attack were stronger among patients with serum apoB, LDL cholesterol, or apoA‐1 levels above the cohort average. Glycine can be methylated into sarcosine via glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT), which is mainly confined to the liver and kidney, but also present in aortic edothelial cells. Genetic deletion of GNMT in mice has been reported to exacerbate the development of atherosclerosic lesions, dyslipidemia, and inflammation, impair reverse cholesterol transport, and increase the accumulation of oxidized LDL particles and foam cells. the HOMA-index, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and an insulin suppression test. However, changes in serum glycine concentrations are likely a side-effect of developing insulin resistance rather than being a causative factor. Two Mendelian randomization studies of European adults reported no significant association between insulin sensitivity and genetically determined serum glycine concentrations. Both studies investigated SNP rs715 at the CPS1 gene in European cohorts. One study assessed insulin sensitivity with both the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and insulin suppression test, while the other used the HOMA-index. Additionally, three months of insulin sensitizer therapy (45 mg of pioglitazone per day plus 1 g of metformin twice per day) in obese adults with prediabetes or type II diabetes resulted in significant increases in serum glycine concentrations compared to placebo. Finally, a master’s degree thesis project involving 10 obese adults (aged 42-58 years) with one or more criteria of metabolic syndrome reported that consuming 5 grams of glycine with each of three meals (15 g/d) for four weeks did not significantly affect HOMA-IR or the Matsuda-index.
Low serum glycine levels are associated with insulin resistance. However, Mendelian randomization studies and controlled trials suggest that low glycine levels are caused by insulin resistance rather than being causative in its development. Additionally, a clinical trial involving eight elderly adults (60-75 years) reported significant reductions in fasting glucose (12%; from 106 to 94 mg/dL) after two weeks of supplementing with 100 mg/kg glycine (8 g/d) and 100 mg/kg cysteine (as NAC). A small study involving nine healthy adults reported that consuming 75 mg of glycine per kg fat-free mass (3.6-5.4 grams) with 25 grams of glucose significantly reduced peak glucose by 15% (105 vs 124 mg/dL) and the total glucose response over two hours by 50% compared to glucose alone. The total insulin response was not different between conditions, although the insulin peak tended to be lower and slightly delayed. Consuming glycine alone significantly, but modestly, increased insulin levels compared to water, and marginally reduced blood glucose. Similar observations were made in a follow-up study by the same lab when glycine was combined with 130 mg of leucine per kg fat-free mass (5.3-8.7 grams). That is, glycine plus leucine consumed with 25 grams of glucose reduced peak glucose by 11% (111 vs 125 mg/dL) and the total glucose response over two hours by 66% compared to glucose alone. This time, however, the total insulin response was significantly increased by 24% with no changes to peak insulin. Consuming glycine plus leucine alone significantly, but modestly, increased insulin levels compared to water, and marginally reduced blood glucose. The benefits of glycine for reducing postprandial glucose levels may be owed to greater insulin secretion. Glycine has been reported to increase the release of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), which potentiates glucose-mediated insulin secretion. Glycine has also been reported to significantly increase the insulin response to hyperglycemia during a hyperglycemic clamp when 5 grams is consumed 30 minutes beforehand.
Modest doses of glycine (3-5 grams) taken with meals appears to reduce the postprandial glucose response, possibly due to a potentiation of the insulin response via GLP-1. Glycine has been reported in vitro to reduce glycation of human lens proteins.
Glycine reduces HbA1c and glycation of the eye lens in animal models of type II diabetes. and lower levels of serum glycine concentrations than healthy controls. Higher serum glycine concentrations are associated with a reduced risk of developing type II diabetes, even after adjustment for lifestyle factors and metabolic syndrome criteria. A study involving 12 adults with uncontrolled diabetes reported significantly lower levels of red blood cell glycine concentrations than healthy controls (-22%), which was restored with daily supplementation of 100 mg glycine per kg body weight for 14 days. However, there were no significant effects on fasting glucose or HbA1c. It may have been that two weeks was too short of a period to observe glycemic benefits. In contrast, a double-blind, randomized controlled trial involving 74 men and women with type II diabetes reported that supplementation with 5 g glycine per meal (15 g/d) for three months resulted in significant reductions in HbA1c compared to placebo (absolute change of -1.4% vs -0.4%), as well as nearly significant reductions in fasting glucose (-23% vs -10%) and HOMA-IR (-9% vs -2%).
Supplementation with 5 grams of glycine per meal (15 g/d) for three months has been reported to benefit glycemic control in patients with type II diabetes. The maximal increase was reported to be a 3.6-fold increase above basal levels at 90 minutes, with a significant elevation of 60% still present after 180 minutes. The increase in growth hormone had a rapid onset, with a 60% increase observed within five minutes of ingesting glycine. ), and appears to stimulate glucagon release when it acts upon these cells with a threshold of 300-400μM and maximal stimulation at 1.2mM reaching four-fold secretion. Glycine does not interact with insulin secretion in vitro.zinc or magnesium as a 'diglycinate' chelation, which enables the minerals to be absorbed via peptide transporters in an intact form which tends to lead to enhanced absorption relative to the free form of the mineral in the upper intestine. Although absorption via peptide transporters can extend to most amino acids, diglycine tends to be absorbed rather than hydrolyzed which makes it an efficient carrier. Triglycine works as well, although four glycine molecules gets hydrolyzed into two diglycine molecules. Additionally, due to glycine being the smallest amino acid the overall molecular weight of supplements is lower when glycine is used as a chelation relative to heavier amino acids.
Two glycine molecules in a dipeptide form (Diglycinate) are sometimes used as a way to enhance the absorption of mineral supplementation since, only when bound to a dipeptide, can be absorbed through a different set of transporters
- Wang W, et al. Glycine metabolism in animals and humans: implications for nutrition and health. Amino Acids. (2013)
- Lodish H, Berk A, Zipursky SL. Section 22.3, Collagen: The Fibrous Proteins of the Matrix. Molecular Cell Biology. 4th edition. (2000)
- Shoulders MD, Raines RT. Collagen structure and stability. Annu Rev Biochem. (2009)
- Meléndez-Hevia E, et al. A weak link in metabolism: the metabolic capacity for glycine biosynthesis does not satisfy the need for collagen synthesis. J Biosci. (2009)
- National Center for Biotechnology Information. Glycine. PubChem Compound Database.
- Gajko-Galicka A. Mutations in type I collagen genes resulting in osteogenesis imperfecta in humans. Acta Biochim Pol. (2002)
- Yan BX, Sun YQ. Glycine residues provide flexibility for enzyme active sites. J Biol Chem. (1997)
- Myllyharju J, Kivirikko KI. Collagens and collagen-related diseases. Ann Med. (2001)
- Layer G, et al. Structure and function of enzymes in heme biosynthesis. Protein Sci. (2010)
- Brosnan JT, da Silva RP, Brosnan ME. The metabolic burden of creatine synthesis. Amino Acids. (2011)
- Lu SC. Glutathione synthesis. Biochim Biophys Acta. (2013)
- Berg JM, Tymoczko JL, Stryer L. Section 25.2, Purine Bases Can Be Synthesized de Novo or Recycled by Salvage Pathways. Biochemistry. 5th edition. (2002)
- Vessey DA. The biochemical basis for the conjugation of bile acids with either glycine or taurine. Biochem J. (1978)
- Zafra F, Giménez C. Glycine transporters and synaptic function. IUBMB Life. (2008)
- Betz H, Laube B. Glycine receptors: recent insights into their structural organization and functional diversity. J Neurochem. (2006)
- Johnson JW, Ascher P. Glycine potentiates the NMDA response in cultured mouse brain neurons. Nature. (1987)
- Gomeza J, et al. Lessons from the knocked-out glycine transporters. Handb Exp Pharmacol. (2006)
- Zhong Z, et al. L-Glycine: a novel antiinflammatory, immunomodulatory, and cytoprotective agent. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. (2003)
- Melendez-Hevia E, Paz-Lugo PD. Branch-point stoichiometry can generate weak links in metabolism: the case of glycine biosynthesis. J Biosci. (2008)
- Lamers Y, et al. Glycine turnover and decarboxylation rate quantified in healthy men and women using primed, constant infusions of 1,2-(13)C2glycine and (2)H3leucine. J Nutr. (2007)
- Yu YM, et al. Quantitative aspects of glycine and alanine nitrogen metabolism in postabsorptive young men: effects of level of nitrogen and dispensable amino acid intake. J Nutr. (1985)
- Gersovitz M, et al. Dynamic aspects of whole body glycine metabolism: influence of protein intake in young adult and elderly males. Metabolism. (1980)
- Cornish-Bowden A, Pereto J, Cardenas ML. Biochemistry and evolutionary biology: two disciplines that need each other?. J Biosci. (2014)
- Greer M, Greer JK, Gillingham J. Osteoarthritis in selected wild mammals. Proc Okla Acad Sci. (1977)
- Weissengruber GE, et al. The elephant knee joint: morphological and biomechanical considerations. J Anat. (2006)
- Wallach JD. Degenerative arthritis in a black rhinoceros. J Am Vet Med Assoc. (1967)
- Jurmain R. Degenerative joint disease in African great apes: an evolutionary perspective. J Hum Evol. (2000)
- STRAUS WL Jr, CAVE JE. Pathology and the posture of Neanderthal man. Q Rev Biol. (1957)
- Li P, Wu G. Roles of dietary glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline in collagen synthesis and animal growth. Amino Acids. (2018)
- Ames BN. Low micronutrient intake may accelerate the degenerative diseases of aging through allocation of scarce micronutrients by triage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. (2006)
- de Paz-Lugo P, Lupiáñez JA, Meléndez-Hevia E. High glycine concentration increases collagen synthesis by articular chondrocytes in vitro: acute glycine deficiency could be an important cause of osteoarthritis. Amino Acids. (2018)
- Mayatepek E. 5-Oxoprolinuria in patients with and without defects in the gamma-glutamyl cycle. Eur J Pediatr. (1999)
- Jackson AA, et al. Urinary excretion of 5-oxoproline (pyroglutamic aciduria) as an index of glycine insufficiency in normal man. Br J Nutr. (1987)
- Metges CC, et al. Oxoproline kinetics and oxoproline urinary excretion during glycine- or sulfur amino acid-free diets in humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. (2000)
- Persaud C, Forrester T, Jackson AA. Urinary excretion of 5-L-oxoproline (pyroglutamic acid) is increased during recovery from severe childhood malnutrition and responds to supplemental glycine. J Nutr. (1996)
- McCarty MF, O'Keefe JH, DiNicolantonio JJ. Dietary Glycine Is Rate-Limiting for Glutathione Synthesis and May Have Broad Potential for Health Protection. Ochsner J. (2018)
- Lord RS. Long-term patterns of urinary pyroglutamic acid in healthy humans. Physiol Rep. (2016)
- Jackson AA, et al. Urinary excretion of 5-L-oxoproline (pyroglutamic acid) is increased in normal adults consuming vegetarian or low protein diets. J Nutr. (1996)
- Jackson AA, et al. Urinary excretion of 5-L-oxoproline (pyroglutamic acid) during early life in term and preterm infants. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. (1997)
- Jackson AA, et al. Nitrogen metabolism in preterm infants fed human donor breast milk: the possible essentiality of glycine. Pediatr Res. (1981)
- Nair AB, Jacob S. A simple practice guide for dose conversion between animals and human. J Basic Clin Pharm. (2016)
- Shoham S, Javitt DC, Heresco-Levy U. High dose glycine nutrition affects glial cell morphology in rat hippocampus and cerebellum. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. (1999)
- Shoham S, Javitt DC, Heresco-Levy U. Chronic high-dose glycine nutrition: effects on rat brain cell morphology. Biol Psychiatry. (2001)
- Bacci G, et al. Long-term results in 144 localized Ewing's sarcoma patients treated with combined therapy. Cancer. (1989)
- Heresco-Levy U, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of glycine adjuvant therapy for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry. (1996)
- Heresco-Levy U, et al. Efficacy of high-dose glycine in the treatment of enduring negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry. (1999)
- Javitt DC, et al. Adjunctive high-dose glycine in the treatment of schizophrenia. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. (2001)
- Cleveland WL, et al. High-dose glycine treatment of refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder and body dysmorphic disorder in a 5-year period. Neural Plast. (2009)
- Attobla MHBE. Glycine supplementation to improve insulin sensitivity in humans. PhD diss., University of Alabama at Birmingham. (2014)
- Inagawa K, et al. Assessment of acute adverse events of glycine ingestion at a high dose in human volunteers. SEIKATSU EISEI (Journal of Urban Living and Health Association). (2006)
- Silk DB, Grimble GK, Rees RG. Protein digestion and amino acid and peptide absorption. Proc Nutr Soc. (1985)
- NEWEY H, SMYTH DH. THE TRANSFER SYSTEM FOR NEUTRAL AMINO ACIDS IN THE RAT SMALL INTESTINE. J Physiol. (1964)
- Munck BG. Amino acid transport by the small intestine of the rat. The existence and specificity of the transport mechanism of imino acids and its relation to the transport of glycine. Biochim Biophys Acta. (1966)
- Thwaites DT, Anderson CM. Deciphering the mechanisms of intestinal imino (and amino) acid transport: the redemption of SLC36A1. Biochim Biophys Acta. (2007)
- Rubino A, Field M, Shwachman H. Intestinal transport of amino acid residues of dipeptides. I. Influx of the glycine residue of glycyl-L-proline across mucosal border. J Biol Chem. (1971)
- Adibi SA, Soleimanpour MR. Functional characterization of dipeptide transport system in human jejunum. J Clin Invest. (1974)
- Rajendran VM, et al. Transport of glycyl-L-proline by human intestinal brush border membrane vesicles. Gastroenterology. (1985)
- Silk DB, et al. Functional differentiation of human jejunum and ileum: a comparison of the handling of glucose, peptides, and amino acids. Gut. (1974)
- Craft IL, et al. Absorption and malabsorption of glycine and glycine peptides in man. Gut. (1968)
- Gannon MC, Nuttall JA, Nuttall FQ. The metabolic response to ingested glycine. Am J Clin Nutr. (2002)
- Gulliford MC, et al. Intestinal glucose and amino acid absorption in healthy volunteers and noninsulin-dependent diabetic subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. (1989)
- Cook GC. Increased glycine absorption rate associated with acute bacterial infections in man. Br J Nutr. (1973)
- Cook GC. Effect of systemic infections on glycylglycine absorption rate from the human jejunum in vivo. Br J Nutr. (1974)
- Cook GC. Impairment of glycine absorption by glucose and galactose in man. J Physiol. (1971)
- Cook GC. Effect of intraluminal concentrations on the impairment of glycine adsorption by glucose in the human jejunum. Clin Sci. (1972)
- Cook GC. Comparison of intestinal absorption rates of glycine and glycylglycine in man and the effect of glucose in the perfusing fluid. Clin Sci. (1972)
- Alvarado F, Robinson JW. A kinetic study of the interactions between amino acids and monosaccharides at the intestinal brush-border membrane. J Physiol. (1979)
- Cook GC. Some factors influencing absorption rates of the digestion products of protein and carbohydrate from the proximal jejunum of man and their possible nutritional implications. Gut. (1974)
- Matthews DE, et al. Glycine nitrogen metabolism in man. Metabolism. (1981)
- Kikuchi G, et al. Glycine cleavage system: reaction mechanism, physiological significance, and hyperglycinemia. Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci. (2008)
- Conter C, et al. Genetic heterogeneity of the GLDC gene in 28 unrelated patients with glycine encephalopathy. J Inherit Metab Dis. (2006)
- Jois M, et al. Regulation of hepatic glycine catabolism by glucagon. J Biol Chem. (1989)
- Lowry M, Hall DE, Brosnan JT. Increased activity of renal glycine-cleavage-enzyme complex in metabolic acidosis. Biochem J. (1985)
- Aragón C, López-Corcuera B. Glycine transporters: crucial roles of pharmacological interest revealed by gene deletion. Trends Pharmacol Sci. (2005)
- Betz H, et al. Glycine transporters: essential regulators of synaptic transmission. Biochem Soc Trans. (2006)
- D'Souza DC, et al. Glycine transporter inhibitor attenuates the psychotomimetic effects of ketamine in healthy males: preliminary evidence. Neuropsychopharmacology. (2012)
- Ribeiro CS, et al. Glial transport of the neuromodulator D-serine. Brain Res. (2002)
- Hayashi F, Takahashi K, Nishikawa T. Uptake of D- and L-serine in C6 glioma cells. Neurosci Lett. (1997)
- The glycinergic inhibitory synapse.
- Corelease of Two Fast Neurotransmitters at a Central Synapse.
- O'Brien JA, Berger AJ. Cotransmission of GABA and glycine to brain stem motoneurons. J Neurophysiol. (1999)
- Muller E, et al. Developmental dissociation of presynaptic inhibitory neurotransmitter and postsynaptic receptor clustering in the hypoglossal nucleus. Mol Cell Neurosci. (2006)
- Ghavanini AA, et al. Distinctive glycinergic currents with fast and slow kinetics in thalamus. J Neurophysiol. (2006)
- Dumoulin A, Triller A, Dieudonné S. IPSC kinetics at identified GABAergic and mixed GABAergic and glycinergic synapses onto cerebellar Golgi cells. J Neurosci. (2001)
- Muller E, et al. Vesicular storage of glycine in glutamatergic terminals in mouse hippocampus. Neuroscience. (2013)
- Luccini E, Romei C, Raiteri L. Glycinergic nerve endings in hippocampus and spinal cord release glycine by different mechanisms in response to identical depolarizing stimuli. J Neurochem. (2008)
- Young AB, Snyder SH. Strychnine binding associated with glycine receptors of the central nervous system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. (1973)
- Laube B, et al. Modulation of glycine receptor function: a novel approach for therapeutic intervention at inhibitory synapses. Trends Pharmacol Sci. (2002)
- Monyer H, et al. Developmental and regional expression in the rat brain and functional properties of four NMDA receptors. Neuron. (1994)
- Kuner T, Schoepfer R. Multiple structural elements determine subunit specificity of Mg2+ block in NMDA receptor channels. J Neurosci. (1996)
- Functional and Pharmacological Differences Between RecombinantN-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptors.
- Traynelis SF, et al. Glutamate receptor ion channels: structure, regulation, and function. Pharmacol Rev. (2010)
- Hollmann M, et al. Zinc potentiates agonist-induced currents at certain splice variants of the NMDA receptor. Neuron. (1993)
- Thomson AM. Glycine is a coagonist at the NMDA receptor/channel complex. Prog Neurobiol. (1990)
- Dingledine R, Kleckner NW, McBain CJ. The glycine coagonist site of the NMDA receptor. Adv Exp Med Biol. (1990)
- Berger AJ, Dieudonné S, Ascher P. Glycine uptake governs glycine site occupancy at NMDA receptors of excitatory synapses. J Neurophysiol. (1998)
- Javitt DC, Heresco-Levy U. Are glycine sites saturated in vivo. Arch Gen Psychiatry. (2000)
- Glycine and N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptors: Physiological Significance and Possible Therapeutic Applications.
- Chattipakorn SC, McMahon LL. Strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors depress hyperexcitability in rat dentate gyrus. J Neurophysiol. (2003)
- Song W, Chattipakorn SC, McMahon LL. Glycine-gated chloride channels depress synaptic transmission in rat hippocampus. J Neurophysiol. (2006)
- Danglot L, et al. Morphologically identified glycinergic synapses in the hippocampus. Mol Cell Neurosci. (2004)
- Brackmann M, et al. Cellular and subcellular localization of the inhibitory glycine receptor in hippocampal neurons. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. (2004)
- Galli A, et al. Sodium-dependent release of exogenous glycine from preloaded rat hippocampal synaptosomes. J Neural Transm Gen Sect. (1993)
- Fatima-Shad K, Barry PH. Morphological and electrical characteristics of postnatal hippocampal neurons in culture: the presence of bicuculline- and strychnine-sensitive IPSPs. Tissue Cell. (1998)
- Moura AP, et al. Glycine Intracerebroventricular Administration Disrupts Mitochondrial Energy Homeostasis in Cerebral Cortex and Striatum of Young Rats. Neurotox Res. (2013)
- Busanello EN, et al. Neurochemical evidence that glycine induces bioenergetical dysfunction. Neurochem Int. (2010)
- Zanatta A, et al. In vitro evidence that D-serine disturbs the citric acid cycle through inhibition of citrate synthase activity in rat cerebral cortex. Brain Res. (2009)
- Ribeiro CA, et al. Creatine administration prevents Na+,K+-ATPase inhibition induced by intracerebroventricular administration of isovaleric acid in cerebral cortex of young rats. Brain Res. (2009)
- Heresco-Levy U, et al. High-dose glycine added to olanzapine and risperidone for the treatment of schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. (2004)
- High-Dose Glycine Treatment of Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Body Dysmorphic Disorder in a 5-Year Period.
- Subjective effects of glycine ingestion before bedtime on sleep quality.
- Glycine ingestion improves subjective sleep quality in human volunteers, correlating with polysomnographic changes.
- Bannai M, et al. The effects of glycine on subjective daytime performance in partially sleep-restricted healthy volunteers. Front Neurol. (2012)
- Zhong X, et al. Glycine attenuates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury by inhibiting myocardial apoptosis in rats. J Biomed Res. (2012)
- Schemmer P, et al. Glycine reduces platelet aggregation. Amino Acids. (2013)
- Ding Y, et al. Plasma Glycine and Risk of Acute Myocardial Infarction in Patients With Suspected Stable Angina Pectoris. J Am Heart Assoc. (2015)
- Yeo EJ, Wagner C. Tissue distribution of glycine N-methyltransferase, a major folate-binding protein of liver. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. (1994)
- Chen CY, et al. Deficiency of glycine N-methyltransferase aggravates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-null mice. Mol Med. (2012)
- Gall WE, et al. alpha-hydroxybutyrate is an early biomarker of insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in a nondiabetic population. PLoS One. (2010)
- Thalacker-Mercer AE, et al. BMI, RQ, diabetes, and sex affect the relationships between amino acids and clamp measures of insulin action in humans. Diabetes. (2014)
- Cheng S, et al. Metabolite profiling identifies pathways associated with metabolic risk in humans. Circulation. (2012)
- Lustgarten MS, et al. Serum glycine is associated with regional body fat and insulin resistance in functionally-limited older adults. PLoS One. (2013)
- Mohorko N, et al. Elevated serum levels of cysteine and tyrosine: early biomarkers in asymptomatic adults at increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Biomed Res Int. (2015)
- Floegel A, et al. Identification of serum metabolites associated with risk of type 2 diabetes using a targeted metabolomic approach. Diabetes. (2013)
- Seibert R, et al. Relationship between insulin resistance and amino acids in women and men. Physiol Rep. (2015)
- Xie W, et al. Genetic variants associated with glycine metabolism and their role in insulin sensitivity and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. (2013)
- Magnusson M, et al. Dimethylglycine Deficiency and the Development of Diabetes. Diabetes. (2015)
- Irving BA, et al. Effect of insulin sensitizer therapy on amino acids and their metabolites. Metabolism. (2015)
- Attobla MHBE. Glycine supplementation to improve insulin sensitivity in humans. Master’s Thesis, University of Alabama at Birmingham. (2014)
- Cobb J, et al. A novel test for IGT utilizing metabolite markers of glucose tolerance. J Diabetes Sci Technol. (2015)
- Sekhar RV, et al. Deficient synthesis of glutathione underlies oxidative stress in aging and can be corrected by dietary cysteine and glycine supplementation. Am J Clin Nutr. (2011)
- Iverson JF, Gannon MC, Nuttall FQ. Interaction of ingested leucine with glycine on insulin and glucose concentrations. J Amino Acids. (2014)
- Gameiro A, et al. The neurotransmitters glycine and GABA stimulate glucagon-like peptide-1 release from the GLUTag cell line. J Physiol. (2005)
- González-Ortiz M, et al. Effect of glycine on insulin secretion and action in healthy first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Horm Metab Res. (2001)
- Bahmani F, et al. Glycine therapy inhibits the progression of cataract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Mol Vis. (2012)
- Ramakrishnan S, Sulochana KN, Punitham R. Free lysine, glycine, alanine, glutamic acid and aspartic acid reduce the glycation of human lens proteins by galactose. Indian J Biochem Biophys. (1997)
- Ramakrishnan S, Sulochana KN. Decrease in glycation of lens proteins by lysine and glycine by scavenging of glucose and possible mitigation of cataractogenesis. Exp Eye Res. (1993)
- Zhang AH, et al. Metabolomics study of type 2 diabetes using ultra-performance LC-ESI/quadrupole-TOF high-definition MS coupled with pattern recognition methods. J Physiol Biochem. (2014)
- Labonte CC, et al. Plasma Amino Acids vs Conventional Predictors of Insulin Resistance Measured by the Hyperinsulinemic Clamp. J Endocr Soc. (2017)
- Wang-Sattler R, et al. Novel biomarkers for pre-diabetes identified by metabolomics. Mol Syst Biol. (2012)
- Sekhar RV, et al. Glutathione synthesis is diminished in patients with uncontrolled diabetes and restored by dietary supplementation with cysteine and glycine. Diabetes Care. (2011)
- Cruz M, et al. Glycine treatment decreases proinflammatory cytokines and increases interferon-gamma in patients with type 2 diabetes. J Endocrinol Invest. (2008)
- Kasai K, Kobayashi M, Shimoda SI. Stimulatory effect of glycine on human growth hormone secretion. Metabolism. (1978)
- Gromada J, Franklin I, Wollheim CB. Alpha-cells of the endocrine pancreas: 35 years of research but the enigma remains. Endocr Rev. (2007)
- Li C, et al. Regulation of glucagon secretion in normal and diabetic human islets by γ-hydroxybutyrate and glycine. J Biol Chem. (2013)
- Wapnir RA, et al. Absorption of zinc by the rat ileum: effects of histidine and other low-molecular-weight ligands. J Nutr. (1983)
- The role of protein breakdown products in the absorption of essential trace elements.
- Schuette SA, Lashner BA, Janghorbani M. Bioavailability of magnesium diglycinate vs magnesium oxide in patients with ileal resection. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. (1994)
- Intestinal transport of dipeptides in man: relative importance of hydrolysis and intact absorption.
- Adibi SA, Morse EL. The number of glycine residues which limits intact absorption of glycine oligopeptides in human jejunum. J Clin Invest. (1977)
- Versiane O, et al. Synthesis, molecular structure and vibrational spectra of a dimeric complex formed by cobalt and glycine. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. (2006)