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Choline is a molecule mostly used for either its cognitive boosting properties (turning into acetylcholine, the learning neurotransmitter) or as a liver health agent, able to reduce fatty liver buildup. Found in high amounts in eggs, the yolks in particular.

Our evidence-based analysis on choline features 38 unique references to scientific papers.

Research analysis led by .
Reviewed by
Examine.com Team
Last Updated:

How to Take

Recommended dosage, active amounts, other details

Doses for choline vary significantly.

Typically a dose of 250mg to 500mg is used for general health purposes once daily.

For mechanisms through acetylcholine, the choline should be pulsed in high doses acutely as higher doses are partitioned to the brain to a greater extent. 1-2g is typically used.

Doses should be titrated to suit the individual, as too high of a dose at any given time may give the user a headache. It is suggested that doses start out at 50-100mg daily and that users adjust upwards in accordance with their tolerance.

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Human Effect Matrix

Unlocked for Examine members

The Human Effect Matrix summarizes human studies to tell you what effects Choline has on your body, how much evidence there is, and how strong these effects are.

Full details are available to Examine members.
Grade Level of Evidence
Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials
Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies
Uncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
? The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results.
Outcome Magnitude of effect
? The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Consistency of research results
? Scientific research does not always agree. HIGH or VERY HIGH means that most of the scientific research agrees.
grade-c - Very High See 2 studies
No significant influence on anaerobic cardiovascular capacity independent of choline depletion
grade-c - - See study
Acute ingestion of choline does not appear to per se influence cognitive capacity
grade-c - Very High See 2 studies
No significant influence on fatigue in exercise that is not associated with choline depletion (such as loaded carries) or in trained athletes, which do not appear to be depleted in choline
grade-c - - See study
No acute effect on spatial memory formation
grade-c - - See study
No significant alterations in the rate of perceived exertion during loaded carrying exercises
grade-c - - See study
No significant alterations in reaction time noted with choline
grade-c - Very High See 2 studies
No significant improvements in training volume independent of choline depletion
grade-c - - See study
No significant improvement in working memory

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Frequently Asked Questions and Articles on Choline

What beneficial compounds are primarily found in animal products?
What source of choline should I use?
Choline bitartrate is sufficient for any liver benefits of choline, although for nootropic purposes a more expensive form may be required. Both CDP-Choline and Alpha-GPC are effective

Things to Note

Is a Form Of

Also Known As

Trimethylethanolamine, Choline Bitartrate

Do Not Confuse With

DMAE, Lecithin

Goes Well With

  • Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) may reduce the fishy odor that some people experience with choline supplementation

  • Choline has been reported (anecdotally) to possess stimulatory properties

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Click here to see all 38 references.