Eggs is most often used for
Eggs are the vessel for offspring for various species. Chicken eggs in particular are widely used for human nutrition.
The Egg is divided into a yellow-orange nutrient sac known as the 'Yolk' and the proteinaceous albumin known as the 'White'. The Yolk tends to be the source of most dietary fat and is designed to feed the fetus (if it were present), and the whites the source of most dietary protein and are designed to both supply the yolk with nutrition and to protect the yolk either physically or enzymatically.
Some nutrients or non-nutritive components are placed ubiquitously across the egg, while others are isolated to either the yolk or the white.
Smart grocery shopping is increasingly important during the coronavirus pandemic. Here, we'll review the evidence on eight grocery items that are:
- Relatively inexpensive
- Filling and tasty
The coronavirus pandemic has changed everything, including grocery habits.
Salaries are lower, many jobs have been lost, and uncertainty is at a high. As a result, way more people are sensitive to food prices.
Potatoes: around 55 cents per large potato
Potatoes are sometimes villainized due to their being starchy and without color. But compared to white flour, with which they are sometimes lumped, they are way richer in micronutrients, and much more filling.
A study of 38 common foods found boiled potatoes to be the most satiating, calorie for calorie. Another study suggested that potatoes and beans provide a bigger “bang for your buck” (in micronutrients and fiber) than any other vegetable.
But why are white potatoes listed here, and not sweet potatoes?
First, white potatoes tend to be more available when supermarkets are running low on produce, as there are several varieties of white potato available and a multitude of frozen options.
Second, sweet potatoes may cause gut distress in people with digestive issues because they’re high in FODMAPs, specifically polyols.
Lastly, while sweet potatoes are a good source of beta-carotene, and have been used for improving the vitamin A status of children in developing countries, conversion to the active form of vitamin A (called retinol) may be low, depending on your genetics,  and decreases as you ingest more beta-carotene.
White potatoes are among the most widely available foods, and they’re also cheap, versatile, and filling.
Lentils: around 11 cents per quarter cup dry
Bulk lentils are incredibly inexpensive. They’re also a staple protein source for vegans and vegetarians, and are culinarily flexible due to their mild flavor. They should not serve as your sole protein source, however, because they’re low in the essential amino acids methionine and cysteine.
The prebiotics and polyphenols in lentils may also benefit the health of your gut microbiome. Be careful if you have gut issues, though, since high amounts of lentils may cause gut distress, unless they’re soaked and thoroughly cooked.
You can’t get much cheaper than bulk lentils, and they may help improve gut health — but they may also cause gut distress in people with sensitive tummies.
Carrots: around 15 cents per carrot
Carrots are a unique fridge item because of the many ways they can be used. They can be eaten raw as a quick snack, dipped into a variety of dips, or cooked in a few different ways.
One of the main advantages of carrots is that they’re dirt cheap. They provide a good ratio of nutrient density to cost.
Many people buy only baby carrots, which are snack size and already washed. But whole, unwashed carrots are much cheaper, so don’t ignore them. Carrots in general fill a unique niche: they’re widely available, don’t need cooking, and are filling and satisfying because of their high fiber content, crunch, and touch of sweetness.
Carrots are a good snack option: their fiber and water content promotes satiety, and they taste good to boot!
Frozen berries: around 67 cents per cup
Fresh berries are very expensive, with organic varieties being some of the most expensive types of produce you’ll see in supermarkets.
But frozen berries are much cheaper, they don’t run the risk of growing moldy like fresh berries, and they’re similarly rich in micronutrients. Frozen berries are often picked at their peak of freshness, and can be eaten in a variety of ways. They’re a mainstay of delicious smoothies, or they can be combined with oatmeal to make a crisp, or with yogurt to make for a quick and satisfying treat.
The health benefits of berries have been widely studied, with blueberry having the most research, including on neuroprotection and cardiometabolic health. Other berries may be just as healthy, mind you, but they have much less research behind them. Less research doesn’t mean none, however; for example, trials on strawberries have shown benefits for atherosclertic risk.
Berries, especially blueberries, have a good amount of research for their health benefits. Fresh berries can be prohibitively expensive, but frozen berries are much cheaper and won’t go bad if you forget to eat them.
Frozen wild-caught salmon: a dollar seventy-five per quarter pound
Even though dozens of types of fish are commonly eaten, salmon has emerged as the most popular, outside of canned tuna.
Part of salmon’s appeal lies in its omega-3 content, since the public’s interest in omega-3s has greatly increased over the past couple of decades. Salmon is also highly visible at the grocery store and commonly available both fresh and frozen (the latter option being much cheaper).
Wild-caught salmon has several potential advantages over farmed salmon. The latter is often fed a more plant-based diet, compared to decades past, which means their omega-3 content has decreased while their omega-6 content has increased. Farmed salmon is also higher in a few contaminants such as dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).
Note that you don’t have to eat fish high in omega-3s in order to get enough omega-3s in your diet. You can eat fish lower in omega-3s, or even no fish at all. Your omega-3 needs are actually quite low, but overconsumption of cheap vegetable oils contributes to harmfully high ratios of omega-6s to omega-3s in many people’s diets. So rather than relying on large amounts of omega-3 fish or supplements, an easier and cheaper route could be to reduce your consumption of cheap vegetable oils high in omega-6s.
Wild-caught salmon has much wider availability than other wild-caught seafood options. While farmed salmon also provides high levels of omega-3s, wild-caught salmon has a better ratio of omega-3s to omega-6, as well as lower contaminant levels.
Pasture-finished ground beef: a dollar seventy-five per quarter pound
Along with wild-caught salmon, the other main option when looking for products made of naturally fed animals is pasture-raised beef. In the US, sales of pasture-finished beef have gone from $17 million in 2012 to $272 million in 2016.
Other than beef and fish, animals raised for their meat are seldom naturally fed. For example, chickens in the wild are omnivores who will eat bugs and small animals when possible. Chickens sold in grocery stores, on the other hand, have usually been tightly packed in barns, with little if any access to the outdoors, and fed a 100% vegetarian diet that includes corn and soy supplemented with the amino acid methionine.
Pasture-finished cows eat grass in higher amounts than non-pasture-finished cows (who also start their lives eating grass but are later transitioned to eating corn and soy in feedlots) and thus receive more of the fatty acids in grass. This makes the beef taste different (some say more “gamey”) but also substantially boosts its content in omega-3 and conjugated linoleic acid.
Among the main land-animal options — chicken, pork, and beef — only one is widely available as “naturally fed” meat. And that is grass-fed, pasture-finished beef. It has a better fatty acid profile than non-pasture-finished beef.
Canned oysters: a dollar per two ounces
Canned oysters can be considered cheap only when compared to fresh shellfish options; as a source of protein, they’re still very expensive. So why would you consider buying them? There is one major reason: mineral content.
Oysters are extremely high in zinc — two ounces of oyster contain nearly 400% of the recommended zinc intake. They’re also rich in copper, vitamin B12, and omega-3 fatty acids. Oysters are a nutritional powerhouse, especially for people who don’t eat much other animal products and may be low in those nutrients that are rare in plant-based foods.
Fresh shellfish isn’t an option for most people, because of cost or availability. Canned oysters provide a relatively cheap option for getting high levels of certain micronutrients in whole-food form.
Pastured eggs: a dollar per two eggs
Eggs are typically seen as a cheap source of protein. But pastured eggs aren’t actually that cheap compared to other animal protein sources, unless you have backyard chickens. So why are they on this list?
Compared to non-pastured eggs, pastured eggs are higher in omega-3s and fat-soluble vitamins. That said, even non-pastured eggs are nutrient powerhouses. Eggs contain especially high levels of choline, an essential nutrient with a variety of health benefits. They’re also good sources of B vitamins, highly-bioavailable vitamin A, and selenium. Nutrients are concentrated in the yolk, so don't expect to be able to throw away the yolk (maybe because you fear it will raise your cholesterol) and still obtain all those benefits.
Perhaps the most appealing feature of eggs is their versatility. Eggs can be hard boiled then stored as a protein-rich snack. They can also be part of a wide variety of dishes such as quiche, omelets, and scrambles.
Eggs make for a unique mix of palatability, culinary versatility, and micronutrient density. Pastured eggs are much more expensive, but they have an even better nutrient profile.
Eggs can be considered healthy. They can have downsides depending how many you consume and your state of health, but in general they are safe to consume.
What’s in an Egg?
The albumen (the white of the egg) is mostly made of protein. It contains B-vitamins but also avidin, a protein that can bind certain B-vitamins, such as biotin, and thus prevent their absorption. Luckily, a sizeable portion of avidin is destroyed by prolonged heating (including pasteurization), so nutrient loss can be mitigated.
The albumen is mostly water and protein. Alas, it contains the anti-nutrient avidin. Since heat can destroy avidin, egg whites should be cooked to avoid possible nutrient loss.
Egg yolk fat is about 46% oleic acid, an omega-9 monounsaturated fat commonly found in olive oil, 38% saturated fat, and 16% polyunsaturated fats (PUFAs).
The PUFA ratio depends on how the chickens were raised. Since most chickens are fed grains high in omega-6 PUFAs, eggs at your local supermarket will usually be much higher in omega-6 than in omega-3 PUFAs, whereas chickens that are pasture-fed or fed with a special omega-3 diet will have a more balanced PUFA ratio.
Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are omega-3 PUFAs. In humans, ALA converts to the more active EPA and DHA, but this conversion isn’t very efficient and further diminishes as we age, so adding EPA and DHA to our diets is seen as more beneficial than adding ALA.
Most hens fed an omega-3 diet are given ALA. Fewer are given fish oil, which contain EPA and DHA; the “fish-like” taste and smell of their eggs tend to make those less popular.
The omega-3 content of yolks can be increased by altering the hens’ diet through supplemental omega-3 fats in the form of ALA or EPA+DHA. Eggs enriched with EPA+DHA (through fish oil) are considered more beneficial, but their minor fish-like taste and smell tend to make them less popular.
Yolks also have high levels of carotenoids (mostly lutein and zeaxanthin) that are capable of increasing carotenoid concentrations both in plasma and in specific tissues such as the eyes. Perhaps more importantly, yolks are among the richest sources of choline, a nutrient associated with a number of health benefits.
Finally, although the yolk contains less protein than the albumen, it has higher concentrations of the essential amino acid leucine.
The yolk is mostly made of fatty acids, cholesterol, and fat-soluble nutrients. Although lower in protein than the albumen, it contains higher concentrations of leucine, an essential amino acid.
Cholesterol is a fat-like substance present in all our cells. It serves many functions, such as providing the raw material for pregnenolone, from which are derived many other hormones: cortisol, DHEA, testosterone …
Cholesterol is shuttled throughout the body by two kinds of carriers made of fat on the inside and protein on the outside: low-density lipoproteins (LDL, often called the “bad cholesterol”) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL, often called the “good cholesterol”).
Cholesterol levels as measured by typical blood tests reflect both the cholesterol than we produce and the cholesterol that we ingest. (Most people produce more cholesterol than they ingest.)
Cholesterol can form small crystal aggregates, found in atherosclerotic plaques. Immune cells called macrophages can take up those crystals, thus activating the NLRP3 inflammasome. Supporting this idea, other crystals such such as silica and uric acid have been shown to trigger inflammasome activation.
Inflammasome activation triggers in turn the release of a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1beta and IL-18, which appear to be critical to atherosclerotic progression.
It is mechanistically possible for cholesterol to form crystals that can trigger an inflammatory response that may promote atherosclerosis.
Observational studies in middle-aged Japanese people and in people on a Mediterranean diet found no association between egg consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease. Another observational study found no increase in the risk of stroke or coronary artery disease in people consuming 1–6 eggs per week, whereas “greater than 6 eggs per week” appeared to increase the risk of coronary artery disease only in diabetics.
Similar results were found in an observational study in diabetics that compared one egg per week with no egg. Another study noted no connection between egg consumption and cardiovascular disease, but did find stronger associations in diabetics between egg consumption and increased mortality.
Observational studies looking at egg consumption specifically (rather than at dietary cholesterol overall) have not found it to be associated with any form of cardiovascular disease, except maybe in diabetics.
Although observational evidence may suggest a link between egg consumption and heart disease in diabetics, randomized controlled trials have found no such link:
In a 3-month study, 140 people with diabetes or prediabetes were randomized to eat either 2 eggs six times a week or 2 or fewer eggs for the entire week. No difference in HDL, LDL, triglyceride levels, or glycemic control was found.
In a 5-week randomized crossover study, 29 people with type-2 diabetes consumed at breakfast either 1 egg with vegetables and bread or half a cup of oatmeal with milk. No difference in plasma glucose, insulin sensitivity, blood pressure, inflammatory markers, or plasma lipids was found between the egg and oatmeal periods.
In a 12-week study, 37 people with type-2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome were put on a moderately carbohydrate-restricted diet and then randomized between two groups: one eating 3 whole eggs per day; the other 3 albumens per day. Both groups lost weight and saw improvements in insulin sensitivity and their lipid profiles, but the whole-egg group saw a greater improvement in their lipid profiles in some respects: They had more HDL, less VLDL, and a better LDL and HDL diameter profile than the albumen group. A follow-up analysis of the same study also found more improvements in markers of inflammation in the whole-egg group than in the albumen group.
Similarly, a controlled trial of hyperlipidemic patients consuming eggs (relative to other dietary sources of cholesterol and fat) associated no negative effects with egg consumption, although substituting the eggs with egg protein containing added nutrients was seen as beneficial.
Risk factors didn’t worsen in healthy college students when eggs were added to their diet, either. These students were randomized to eat either a breakfast with 2 eggs or without eggs five times a week for 14 weeks. They were allowed to eat whatever they wanted otherwise, although people in the “without eggs” group were encouraged not to eat any eggs at all. By the end of the study, both groups had gained weight and had worse blood lipid profiles, with no significant difference between groups.
In controlled trials, whether in healthy people or in people suffering from diabetes or hyperlipidemia, egg consumption was not associated with an increase in risk markers for cardiovascular health, insulin sensitivity, or blood glucose.
As we’ve seen, observational evidence may suggest a link between egg consumption and heart disease in diabetics. Observational evidence may also suggest a link between egg consumption and the risk of developing diabetes. In one study, eggs in the diet (from “almost never” to “almost daily”) didn’t appear to be associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes, but other studies noted a positive association, with the controls being education, family history of diabetes, and baseline biomarkers for disease states (such as plasma triglycerides). Finally, two studies reported a stronger association in women than in men.
If you look only at observational evidence, there would appear to be some connection between egg consumption and the risk of developing diabetes.
In a 14-week study, healthy college students randomized to eat either 2 eggs five times a week or no eggs gained weight in an equal measure.
In a 12-week study, two groups of diabetics suffering from obesity started a weight-loss diet. One group ate 2 eggs per day; the other, none. Both groups saw an equal decrease in LDL and total cholesterol, but the egg group enjoyed a greater increase in HDL. There was no difference in blood pressure or blood glucose between groups, but the reduction in fasting insulin seen with weight loss was lesser in the egg group.
In a 5-week randomized crossover study, 29 people with type-2 diabetes consumed at breakfast either 1 egg with vegetables and bread or half a cup of oatmeal with milk. As we have previously noted, no difference in plasma glucose, insulin sensitivity, blood pressure, inflammatory markers, or plasma lipids was found between the egg and oatmeal periods. No difference in body weight, body fat, or BMI was found either.
Studies on diabetics have noted no adverse effects of egg consumption on different health markers.
- ^Holt SH, Miller JC, Petocz P, Farmakalidis EA satiety index of common foodsEur J Clin Nutr.(1995 Sep)
- ^Drewnowski A, Rehm CDVegetable cost metrics show that potatoes and beans provide most nutrients per pennyPLoS One.(2013 May 15)
- ^Nanayakkara WS, Skidmore PM, O'Brien L, Wilkinson TJ, Gearry RBEfficacy of the low FODMAP diet for treating irritable bowel syndrome: the evidence to dateClin Exp Gastroenterol.(2016 Jun 17)
- ^van Jaarsveld PJ, Faber M, Tanumihardjo SA, Nestel P, Lombard CJ, Benadé AJBeta-carotene-rich orange-fleshed sweet potato improves the vitamin A status of primary school children assessed with the modified-relative-dose-response testAm J Clin Nutr.(2005 May)
- ^Lobo GP, Amengual J, Baus D, Shivdasani RA, Taylor D, von Lintig JGenetics and diet regulate vitamin A production via the homeobox transcription factor ISXJ Biol Chem.(2013 Mar 29)
- ^Castenmiller JJ, West CEBioavailability and bioconversion of carotenoidsAnnu Rev Nutr.(1998)
- ^Novotny JA, Harrison DJ, Pawlosky R, Flanagan VP, Harrison EH, Kurilich ACBeta-carotene conversion to vitamin A decreases as the dietary dose increases in humansJ Nutr.(2010 May)
- ^Nosworthy MG, Neufeld J, Frohlich P, Young G, Malcolmson L, House JDDetermination of the protein quality of cooked Canadian pulsesFood Sci Nutr.(2017 Jun 20)
- ^Ganesan K, Xu BPolyphenol-Rich Lentils and Their Health Promoting EffectsInt J Mol Sci.(2017 Nov 10)
- ^Njoumi S, Josephe Amiot M, Rochette I, Bellagha S, Mouquet-Rivier CSoaking and cooking modify the alpha-galacto-oligosaccharide and dietary fibre content in five Mediterranean legumesInt J Food Sci Nutr.(2019 Aug)
- ^Drewnowski ANew metrics of affordable nutrition: which vegetables provide most nutrients for least cost?J Acad Nutr Diet.(2013 Sep)
- ^Kalt W, Cassidy A, Howard LR, Krikorian R, Stull AJ, Tremblay F, Zamora-Ros RRecent Research on the Health Benefits of Blueberries and Their AnthocyaninsAdv Nutr.(2020 Mar 1)
- ^Basu A, Fu DX, Wilkinson M, Simmons B, Wu M, Betts NM, Du M, Lyons TJStrawberries decrease atherosclerotic markers in subjects with metabolic syndromeNutr Res.(2010 Jul)
- ^Sissener NHAre we what we eat? Changes to the feed fatty acid composition of farmed salmon and its effects through the food chainJ Exp Biol.(2018 Mar 7)
- ^Foran JA, Good DH, Carpenter DO, Hamilton MC, Knuth BA, Schwager SJQuantitative analysis of the benefits and risks of consuming farmed and wild salmonJ Nutr.(2005 Nov)
- ^Hites RA, Foran JA, Schwager SJ, Knuth BA, Hamilton MC, Carpenter DOGlobal assessment of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in farmed and wild salmonEnviron Sci Technol.(2004 Oct 1)
- ^Foran JA, Carpenter DO, Hamilton MC, Knuth BA, Schwager SJRisk-based consumption advice for farmed Atlantic and wild Pacific salmon contaminated with dioxins and dioxin-like compoundsEnviron Health Perspect.(2005 May)
- ^Simopoulos APThe importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acidsBiomed Pharmacother.(2002 Oct)
- ^Provenza FD, Kronberg SL, Gregorini PIs Grassfed Meat and Dairy Better for Human and Environmental Health?Front Nutr.(2019 Mar 19)
- ^Daley CA, Abbott A, Doyle PS, Nader GA, Larson SA review of fatty acid profiles and antioxidant content in grass-fed and grain-fed beefNutr J.(2010 Mar 10)
- ^Ehr IJ, Persia ME, Bobeck EAComparative omega-3 fatty acid enrichment of egg yolks from first-cycle laying hens fed flaxseed oil or ground flaxseedPoult Sci.(2017 Jun 1)
- ^Anderson KEComparison of fatty acid, cholesterol, and vitamin A and E composition in eggs from hens housed in conventional cage and range production facilitiesPoult Sci.(2011 Jul)
- ^Zeisel SH, da Costa KACholine: an essential nutrient for public healthNutr Rev.(2009 Nov)
- ^Ohman M, Akerfeldt T, Nilsson I, Rosen C, Hansson LO, Carlsson M, Larsson ABiochemical effects of consumption of eggs containing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acidsUps J Med Sci.(2008)
- ^Bovet P, Faeh D, Madeleine G, Viswanathan B, Paccaud FDecrease in blood triglycerides associated with the consumption of eggs of hens fed with food supplemented with fish oilNutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis.(2007 May)
- ^Goodrow EF, Wilson TA, Houde SC, Vishwanathan R, Scollin PA, Handelman G, Nicolosi RJConsumption of one egg per day increases serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations in older adults without altering serum lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrationsJ Nutr.(2006 Oct)
- ^Vishwanathan R, Goodrow-Kotyla EF, Wooten BR, Wilson TA, Nicolosi RJConsumption of 2 and 4 egg yolks/d for 5 wk increases macular pigment concentrations in older adults with low macular pigment taking cholesterol-lowering statinsAm J Clin Nutr.(2009 Nov)
- ^Small DMGeorge Lyman Duff memorial lecture. Progression and regression of atherosclerotic lesions. Insights from lipid physical biochemistryArteriosclerosis.(1988 Mar-Apr)
- ^Rajamäki K, Lappalainen J, Oörni K, Välimäki E, Matikainen S, Kovanen PT, Eklund KKCholesterol crystals activate the NLRP3 inflammasome in human macrophages: a novel link between cholesterol metabolism and inflammationPLoS One.(2010 Jul 23)
- ^Hornung V, Bauernfeind F, Halle A, Samstad EO, Kono H, Rock KL, Fitzgerald KA, Latz ESilica crystals and aluminum salts have been shown to activate the inflammasome through phagosomal destabilizationNat Immunol.(2008 Aug)
- ^Martinon F, Pétrilli V, Mayor A, Tardivel A, Tschopp JGout-associated uric acid crystals activate the NALP3 inflammasomeNature.(2006 Mar 9)
- ^Duewell P, Kono H, Rayner KJ, Sirois CM, Vladimer G, Bauernfeind FG, Abela GS, Franchi L, Nuñez G, Schnurr M, Espevik T, Lien E, Fitzgerald KA, Rock KL, Moore KJ, Wright SD, Hornung V, Latz ENLRP3 inflammasomes are required for atherogenesis and activated by cholesterol crystalsNature.(2010 Apr 29)
- ^Nakamura Y, Iso H, Kita Y, Ueshima H, Okada K, Konishi M, Inoue M, Tsugane SEgg consumption, serum total cholesterol concentrations and coronary heart disease incidence: Japan Public Health Center-based prospective studyBr J Nutr.(2006 Nov)
- ^Zazpe I, Beunza JJ, Bes-Rastrollo M, Warnberg J, de la Fuente-Arrillaga C, Benito S, Vázquez Z, Martínez-González MA; SUN Project InvestigatorsEgg consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease in the SUN ProjectEur J Clin Nutr.(2011 Jun)
- ^Qureshi AI, Suri FK, Ahmed S, Nasar A, Divani AA, Kirmani JFRegular egg consumption does not increase the risk of stroke and cardiovascular diseasesMed Sci Monit.(2007 Jan)
- ^Scrafford CG, Tran NL, Barraj LM, Mink PJEgg consumption and CHD and stroke mortality: a prospective study of US adultsPublic Health Nutr.(2011 Feb)
- ^Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Rimm EB, Manson JE, Ascherio A, Colditz GA, Rosner BA, Spiegelman D, Speizer FE, Sacks FM, Hennekens CH, Willett WCA prospective study of egg consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease in men and womenJAMA.(1999 Apr 21)
- ^Djoussé L, Gaziano JMEgg consumption in relation to cardiovascular disease and mortality: the Physicians’ Health StudyAm J Clin Nutr.(2008 Apr)
- ^Fuller NR, Caterson ID, Sainsbury A, Denyer G, Fong M, Gerofi J, Baqleh K, Williams KH, Lau NS, Markovic TPThe effect of a high-egg diet on cardiovascular risk factors in people with type 2 diabetes: the Diabetes and Egg (DIABEGG) study-a 3-mo randomized controlled trialAm J Clin Nutr.(2015 Apr)
- ^Ballesteros MN, Valenzuela F, Robles AE, Artalejo E, Aguilar D, Andersen CJ, Valdez H, Fernandez MLOne Egg per Day Improves Inflammation when Compared to an Oatmeal-Based Breakfast without Increasing Other Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Diabetic PatientsNutrients.(2015 May 11)
- ^Blesso CN, Andersen CJ, Barona J, Volek JS, Fernandez MLWhole egg consumption improves lipoprotein profiles and insulin sensitivity to a greater extent than yolk-free egg substitute in individuals with metabolic syndromeMetabolism.(2013 Mar)
- ^Blesso CN, Andersen CJ, Barona J, Volk B, Volek JS, Fernandez MLEffects of carbohydrate restriction and dietary cholesterol provided by eggs on clinical risk factors in metabolic syndromeJ Clin Lipidol.(2013 Sep-Oct)
- ^Njike V, Faridi Z, Dutta S, Gonzalez-Simon AL, Katz DLDaily egg consumption in hyperlipidemic adults--effects on endothelial function and cardiovascular riskNutr J.(2010 Jul 2)
- ^Rueda JM, Khosla PImpact of breakfasts (with or without eggs) on body weight regulation and blood lipids in university students over a 14-week semesterNutrients.(2013 Dec 16)
- ^Djoussé L, Kamineni A, Nelson TL, Carnethon M, Mozaffarian D, Siscovick D, Mukamal KJEgg consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in older adultsAm J Clin Nutr.(2010 Aug)
- ^Ra.dzevičienė L, Ostrauskas REgg consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a case-control studyPublic Health Nutr.(2012 Aug)
- ^Djoussé L, Gaziano JM, Buring JE, Lee IMEgg consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in men and womenDiabetes Care.(2009 Feb)
- ^Shi Z, Yuan B, Zhang C, Zhou M, Holmboe-Ottesen GEgg consumption and the risk of diabetes in adults, Jiangsu, ChinaNutrition.(2011 Feb)
- ^Pearce KL, Clifton PM, Noakes MEgg consumption as part of an energy-restricted high-protein diet improves blood lipid and blood glucose profiles in individuals with type 2 diabetesBr J Nutr.(2011 Feb)