Zinc

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    Last Updated: September 27, 2023

    Zinc is an essential mineral that is critical for the function of hundreds of enzymes. Consequently, it plays many roles, including in antioxidant enzymes, brain function, and the immune system. Zinc is most commonly taken to reduce the duration of respiratory infections and the common cold.

    Zinc is most often used for .

    What is zinc?

    Zinc is an essential mineral and has a multitude of biological roles because it is a functional component of over 300 enzymes that rely on zinc to be able to catalyze chemical reactions. Zinc also participates in the structure of important proteins and is involved in the regulation of gene expression.[1][2]

    Zinc is obtained from the diet. Oysters contain substantially more zinc than any other food, although red meat (e.g., beef, pork) and poultry provide the majority of zinc in the American diet. Other good sources of zinc are legumes, nuts, and dairy products.[3] In some countries, the flours used in cereals are fortified with zinc.[4]

    What are zinc’s main benefits?

    The potential benefits of supplementation with zinc are largely dependent on the individual’s zinc status. Therefore, supplementation with zinc is unlikely to provide a benefit if zinc levels are already adequate and the person is not zinc deficient.[5] One exception to this rule may be respiratory tract infections and the common cold, conditions in which supplementation with zinc has been shown to reduce the duration of illness.[6][7][8] In children, zinc may help prevent pneumonia.[9][10] However, further high-quality studies are needed to bolster the evidence in this field.

    Supplementation with zinc has been shown to improve depressive symptoms[11][12] and markers of glycemic control and blood lipids, particularly in people with chronic disease.[13][14][15] Supplementation with zinc may also improve severe acne, but higher-quality trials are needed to bolster the current evidence.[16][17]

    What are zinc’s main drawbacks?

    In the short term, consuming zinc in excess of the recommended upper limit (40 mg/day)[1] can result in gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea).[1][18] In the long term, excessive zinc intake has been associated with copper deficiency and iron deficiency, as well as suppression of the immune system.[19][20][21] Also, the application of intranasal zinc has been reported to cause a loss of smell in some people.[22]

    How does zinc work?

    The potential benefits derived from supplementation with zinc seem to be at least partly attributable to zinc’s anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.[2][23][24][25]

    Adequate dietary intake of zinc is essential for proper growth and development during pregnancy and throughout infancy, childhood, and adulthood.[2][26] Additionally, zinc is required for normal development, activity, and function of both innate and adaptive immune cells;[19][27] proper function of pancreatic beta-cells and glucose uptake;[28] and spermatogenesis and normal sperm physiology (e.g., sperm motility).[29]

    In the brain, zinc ions inhibit N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors,[30] which is relevant to depression because this condition is characterized by elevated glutamatergic neurotransmission (to which NMDA receptors contribute).[31] Zinc may also benefit depression by increasing brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels.[32][33]

    Dosage information

    Zinc supplements vary in their dosages from 5–10 milligrams (mg) up to 25–45 mg, and sometimes higher. Dosages in the lower range are typically used as a daily preventative, whereas dosages in the higher range are typically used to treat chronic conditions and zinc deficiency.

    Zinc supplements contain different forms of zinc. Each of these forms contains different amounts of elemental zinc, which refers to the weight of the zinc molecule by itself, for example:

    • Zinc acetate is approximately 36% zinc by weight; therefore, 140 mg of zinc acetate contains 50 mg of elemental zinc.
    • Zinc picolinate is approximately 21% zinc by weight; therefore, 237 mg of zinc picolinate contains 50 mg of elemental zinc.
    • Zinc citrate is approximately 34% zinc by weight; therefore, 146 mg of zinc citrate contains 50 mg of elemental zinc.
    • The content of zinc sulfate depends on which form is used. The anhydrous, monohydrate, and heptahydrate forms of zinc sulfate are 41%, 36%, and 23% zinc by weight, respectively; therefore, 123 mg of anhydrous zinc sulfate, 137 mg of zinc sulfate monohydrate, and 220 mg of zinc sulfate heptahydrate each contain 50 mg of elemental zinc.
    • Zinc gluconate is approximately 14% zinc by weight; therefore, 348 mg of zinc gluconate contains 50 mg of elemental zinc.
    • Zinc monomethionine is approximately 31% zinc by weight; therefore, 163 mg of zinc monomethionine contains 50 mg of elemental zinc.

    This can be confusing, but most zinc product labels indicate the elemental weight of zinc that each dose provides. For example, if a label says “Zinc (as picolinate) 50 mg”, this means that each dose provides 50 mg of elemental zinc.

    Examine Database: Zinc

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    Frequently asked questions

    What is zinc?

    Zinc is an essential mineral and has a multitude of biological roles because it is a functional component of over 300 enzymes that rely on zinc to be able to catalyze chemical reactions. Zinc also participates in the structure of important proteins and is involved in the regulation of gene expression.[1][2]

    Zinc is obtained from the diet. Oysters contain substantially more zinc than any other food, although red meat (e.g., beef, pork) and poultry provide the majority of zinc in the American diet. Other good sources of zinc are legumes, nuts, and dairy products.[3] In some countries, the flours used in cereals are fortified with zinc.[4]

    What are the signs and symptoms of zinc deficiency?

    Because of the widespread role of zinc in several bodily functions, the symptoms of zinc deficiency can arise in several organs — muscles, skin, and bones — and organ systems — immune, digestive, reproductive, and central nervous systems.[2] Diarrhea is a common symptom of zinc deficiency in infants, whereas poor growth and frequent infections are more common symptoms in children.[36][37][38][39] Zinc deficiency can also cause a loss of appetite and alter the sense of taste and smell.[40][38] However, these symptoms are not specific to zinc deficiency and can be caused by other conditions. Therefore, a person who suspects zinc deficiency should consult a doctor for further tests.

    How common is zinc deficiency?

    In 2012, the estimated global prevalence of inadequate zinc intake across all ages — the proportion of the population who have a high risk of zinc deficiency — was approximately 17%.[39] However, the estimated prevalence varied widely among countries, reaching approximately 8% in high-income countries, and much higher in low-income and middle-income regions (e.g., approximately 26% in Sub-Saharan Africa and 30% in South Asia).[39] Recent work published in 2020 confirmed these high prevalence estimates of zinc deficiency in low-income and middle-income countries.[41]

    Importantly, the estimated prevalence of zinc deficiency in children less than 5 years of age is also high (greater than 20%) in both high-income[42] and low-income/middle-income countries.[41]

    What is ZMA?

    ZMA is a supplement composed of zinc monomethionine aspartate, magnesium aspartate, and vitamin B6.[43] The first study to assess the effect of supplementation with ZMA in humans was conducted by the manufacturer of this supplement and found that ZMA raised testosterone levels and increased muscle strength and power in athletes.[44] However, follow-up studies by independent groups do not support those initial findings.[45][46]

    What are zinc’s main benefits?

    The potential benefits of supplementation with zinc are largely dependent on the individual’s zinc status. Therefore, supplementation with zinc is unlikely to provide a benefit if zinc levels are already adequate and the person is not zinc deficient.[5] One exception to this rule may be respiratory tract infections and the common cold, conditions in which supplementation with zinc has been shown to reduce the duration of illness.[6][7][8] In children, zinc may help prevent pneumonia.[9][10] However, further high-quality studies are needed to bolster the evidence in this field.

    Supplementation with zinc has been shown to improve depressive symptoms[11][12] and markers of glycemic control and blood lipids, particularly in people with chronic disease.[13][14][15] Supplementation with zinc may also improve severe acne, but higher-quality trials are needed to bolster the current evidence.[16][17]

    Does supplementation with zinc improve sperm health or fertility?

    Animal studies show that zinc deficiency is associated with low testosterone, abnormal testicular function, and infertility.[47][48][49][50] Some human studies have reported similar observations,[50][51][52][53] but because of the lack of clinical trials, conclusions about the effect of zinc supplementation on sperm health or fertility aren’t currently possible.[54][55][53][56]

    Does supplementation with zinc help people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)?

    Zinc deficiency is common in people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)[57][58] and is associated with disease progression.[59][58] Accordingly, some studies show that supplementation with zinc may delay immunological failure and reduce the occurrence of opportunistic infections in participants with both zinc deficiency and HIV.[60][61][62]

    What are zinc’s main drawbacks?

    In the short term, consuming zinc in excess of the recommended upper limit (40 mg/day)[1] can result in gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea).[1][18] In the long term, excessive zinc intake has been associated with copper deficiency and iron deficiency, as well as suppression of the immune system.[19][20][21] Also, the application of intranasal zinc has been reported to cause a loss of smell in some people.[22]

    Does ZMA cause weird dreams?
    Quick answer:

    It is possible that ZMA can cause weird dreams, and the anecdotes support this; however, since this has not been directly investigated the best 'proof' that can be given is weak.

    ZMA is a proprietary blend of Zinc bound to monomethionine, Magnesium bound to aspartate, and the vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine). It is sometimes reported to give users 'weird, vivid dreams'.

    This claim has not been investigated much, but a pilot study[34] suggests that a dose of 250mg pyridoxine can alter dream perception in college aged men, through a hypothesized increased conversion of tryptophan to serotonin. This dose of B6, however, is much higher than that occurring in ZMA products; which tends to range in the 10-50mg range and usually at the lower end.

    One other study has reported synergism between B6 and Magnesium in regards to anxiety reduction, when the subjects were women experiencing PMS;[35] it is theoretically possible that the ZMA formulation enhances the actions of pyridoxine allowing the previous research's results to be relevant.

    Does excess zinc intake cause iron deficiency?

    In adults, some studies show that when zinc and iron are co-ingested, zinc can reduce the intestinal absorption of iron or the incorporation of iron into red blood cells, particularly when zinc is ingested in higher amounts.[20][63][64] In women with iron deficiency and in infants, some evidence also shows that supplementation with zinc can lower plasma ferritin (a biomarker for the body’s iron stores that is used to diagnose iron deficiency).[65][66] Consequently, it is sometimes claimed that excess zinc intake can cause iron deficiency.

    However, zinc appears to impair iron absorption only when zinc and iron are co-ingested in an aqueous solution.[20][63][64] In contrast, when zinc and iron are mixed with food, there is no inhibitory effect of zinc on intestinal iron absorption or the incorporation of orally ingested iron into red blood cells.[67][20][68][69][70][71] Additionally, the majority of human studies in adults find no effect of orally ingested zinc on plasma ferritin (body iron stores).[20][71] Therefore, the risk of zinc-induced iron deficiency is probably negligible in most people.

    It’s important to note that reduced absorption of dietary iron is not the same as iron deficiency (low iron stores as indicated by low plasma ferritin) because the body stores iron to help regulate iron absorption in line with the body’s need for iron. Also, note that iron deficiency is not the same as anemia, a condition characterized by low red blood cell count and low hemoglobin concentrations. Indeed, iron deficiency can cause anemia — specifically iron deficiency anemia — but it is not always sufficient to do so.

    How does zinc work?

    The potential benefits derived from supplementation with zinc seem to be at least partly attributable to zinc’s anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.[2][23][24][25]

    Adequate dietary intake of zinc is essential for proper growth and development during pregnancy and throughout infancy, childhood, and adulthood.[2][26] Additionally, zinc is required for normal development, activity, and function of both innate and adaptive immune cells;[19][27] proper function of pancreatic beta-cells and glucose uptake;[28] and spermatogenesis and normal sperm physiology (e.g., sperm motility).[29]

    In the brain, zinc ions inhibit N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors,[30] which is relevant to depression because this condition is characterized by elevated glutamatergic neurotransmission (to which NMDA receptors contribute).[31] Zinc may also benefit depression by increasing brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels.[32][33]

    Other FAQs
    How can you increase testosterone naturally?
    Quick answer:

    When it comes to increasing your testosterone, quality sleep, physical activity, and weight management come first. A few supplements can help sustain healthy testosterone levels, but most supplements marketed as testosterone boosters don't work, though some can make you believe they do by boosting your libido.

    Testosterone is an androgen, a male sex hormone, though women need it too. In men, low testosterone has been associated with low libido[72] and poor health outcomes, such as the development of metabolic syndrome.[73] In men and women, low testosterone has been associated with depression.[74][75]

    Middle-aged[76] and older[77] men see their testosterone levels decrease by 0.4% to 1.6% per year, and many are the men who experience lower-than-average levels even in their 30s.[78] Fortunately, quality sleep, physical activity, weight management, magnesium, zinc, and vitamin D can all help sustain healthy testosterone levels.

    image

    Lifestyle

    To optimize your testosterone levels, you don’t only need the proper amounts of vitamins and minerals; you also need to sleep well, exercise, and keep a healthy weight.

    1. Sleep

    Lack of sleep causes numerous health issues. Notably, it decreases testosterone production[79][80][81][82][83] and facilitates fat gain[84] (and we’ll see that fat gain itself can impair testosterone production). Getting enough quality sleep is so important that we will be publishing an article on that soon.

    2. Physical activity

    Resistance training can raise testosterone levels for 15–30 minutes post-exercise.[85][86] More importantly, it can benefit testosterone production in the long run by improving body composition and reducing insulin resistance.[85]

    Overtraining, however, is counterproductive. Prolonged endurance exercise especially can cause your testosterone to drop.[87][88] Ensuring adequate recovery time will help you receive the full benefits of physical activity.

    3. Weight management

    Weight gain and the associated chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes,[89][90][91] are strongly linked to decreases in testosterone, particularly in middle-aged and older men.

    If you gain weight (as fat), your testosterone production drops. Fortunately, if you lose weight, your testosterone production can climb back up.

    image Adapted from Grossmann and Matsumoto. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017.[92]

    As this figure shows, observational studies have seen consistent results: in people who are overweight or obese, the greater the weight loss, the greater the testosterone increase.[89]

    These results have been echoed in clinical trials. A meta-analysis of 24 RCTs looked at weight loss caused by diet or bariatric surgery:[93] In the diet studies, the average 9.8% weight loss was linked to a testosterone increase of 2.9 nmol/L (84 ng/dL). In the bariatric-surgery studies, the average 32% weight loss was linked to a testosterone increase of 8.7 nmol/L (251 ng/dL).

    You need not lose huge amounts of weight to see a bump in testosterone levels, either: a 5% loss in weight can increase total testosterone by 2 nmol/L (58 ng/dL).[94]

    Quality sleep, physical activity, and weight management support healthy testosterone levels, and they’re synergistic: If you lack sleep, you find it harder to exercise and easier to gain fat. If you exercise, you find it easier to sleep and to keep a healthy weight. If your weight is healthy, you find it easier to exercise and easier to sleep.

    If you want to know more about the lifestyle-testosterone connection, check out our infographic and article here.

    Supplements

    Only a few supplements have been shown to benefit testosterone production. Among those, the evidence mostly supports vitamin D and zinc, followed by magnesium. Two caveats should be kept in mind, however:

    • Supplementing with a vitamin or mineral is likely to help you only if you suffer from a deficiency or an insufficiency in this vitamin or mineral.

    • Correcting a deficiency or an insufficiency is more likely to raise your testosterone levels if they are low.

    1. Vitamin D

    Vitamin D helps regulate testosterone levels.[95][96] Ideally, you would produce all the vitamin D you need through sunlight exposure, but if you live far from the equator, have dark skin, or simply spend most of your time inside, you may need to complement your own production with the help of foods or supplements.

    Serum 25(OH)D concentrations

    image

    In Canada and the United States, the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for vitamin D falls between 400 and 800 IU (International Units).[97] These amounts, which have been criticized as too low by some,[98][99] are attainable from only a few food sources, which is why vitamin D has become a popular supplement.

    Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDAs) for vitamin D (IU*)

    AGEMALEFEMALEPREGNANTLACTATING
    0–12 months400**400**
    1–13 years600600
    14–18 years600600600600
    19–50 years600600600600
    51–70 years600600
    >70 years800800

    * 40 IU = 1 mcg | ** Adequate intake (AI)
    Reference: Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Adequacy: Calcium and Vitamin D (chapter 5 in Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. The National Academies Press. 2011. DOI:10.17226/13050)

    2. Zinc

    Zinc deficiency can hinder testosterone production.[54][100] Like magnesium, zinc is lost through sweat,[101] so athletes and other people who sweat a lot are more likely to be deficient. Although dietary zinc is mostly found in animal products, zinc-rich foods include some grains and nuts.

    Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for zinc (mg)

    AGEMALEFEMALEPREGNANTLACTATING
    0–6 months2*2*
    7–12 months33
    1–3 years33
    4–8 years55
    9–13 years88
    14–18 years1191213
    19+ years1181112

    * Adequate Intake (AI) Reference: Institute of Medicine. Zinc (chapter 12 in Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. The National Academies Press. 2001. DOI:10.17226/10026)

    Consuming much more than your RDA[1] can be harmful. In the short term, high doses can cause nausea[18] and vomiting.[102] In the long term, they can lead to a copper deficiency.[103][104]

    3. Magnesium

    In males with low magnesium levels and low testosterone levels, an increase in magnesium intake can translate into an increase in testosterone production,[105] both directly and (since one of magnesium’s functions in your body is to help convert vitamin D into its active form[106]) indirectly.

    While more common in the older population,[107] magnesium deficiency isn’t unknown in younger people (notably athletes,[108] since, link zinc, magnesium is lost through sweat[101][109][110]). Yet getting your RDA should be easy: magnesium-rich foods are numerous and can fit all kinds of diets.

    Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for magnesium (mg)

    AGEMALEFEMALEPREGNANTLACTATING
    0–6 months30*30*
    7–12 months75*75*
    1–3 years8080
    4–8 years130130
    9–13 years240240
    14–18 years410360400360
    19-30 years400310350310
    31–50 years420320360320
    >51 years420320

    * Adequate intake (AI)
    Reference: Institute of Medicine. Magnesium (chapter 6 in Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. The National Academies Press. 1997. [111])

    If you still feel the need to supplement, keep in mind that supplemental magnesium is more likely than dietary magnesium to cause adverse effects, which is why the FDA fixed at 350 mg the Tolerable Upper Intake Level for magnesium supplementation in adults. Also, you may want to avoid magnesium oxide: it has poor bioavailability (rats absorbed only 15% in one study,[112] and humans only 4% in another[113]) and can cause intestinal discomfort and diarrhea.

    Overhyped supplements

    Numerous products are advertised as testosterone boosters, but the vast majority don’t work, though some can make you believe they do by boosting your libido. Maca, for instance, can enhance libido without affecting testosterone.[114][115][116][117]

    Maybe the most popular “testosterone booster” is D-aspartic acid (DAA, or D-aspartate). DAA did increase testosterone levels in two studies, one that used 2.66 g/day[118] and the other 3.12 g/day,[119] but two later studies found no increase with 3 g/day,[120][121] and the latest even noted a decrease with 6 g/day.[120]

    Eat a healthy, balanced diet, so as to avoid nutritional deficiencies. If your testosterone levels are low, pay attention to your intakes of vitamin D, zinc, and magnesium. Be skeptical of supplements marketed as testosterone boosters; there’s a good chance the only thing these supplements will boost is their manufacturers’ bottom lines.

    Bottom line

    The interventions discussed in this article will work best for men with low testosterone, but they can also help men with normal testosterone to sustain their levels, year after year.

    Supplements can help, but they can’t replace a healthy lifestyle. In order to optimize your testosterone production, make sure you get enough quality sleep on a daily basis, incorporate some resistance training into your workout program, and monitor your weight.

    Try to get enough vitamin D, zinc, and magnesium through your diet. However, if dietary changes prove insufficient, supplementation can help make up the difference.

    Not all testosterone deficiencies can be fixed through lifestyle or supplement interventions. It may be prudent to speak with your doctor if the options discussed above do not yield sufficient results.

    Update History

    Tweak to relationship between zinc and ADHD

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    References

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    Examine Database References

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    3. Apolipoprotein A - Kelishadi R, Hashemipour M, Adeli K, Tavakoli N, Movahedian-Attar A, Shapouri J, Poursafa P, Rouzbahani AEffect of zinc supplementation on markers of insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and inflammation among prepubescent children with metabolic syndromeMetab Syndr Relat Disord.(2010 Dec)
    4. Cell Adhesion Factors - Bao B, Prasad AS, Beck FW, Fitzgerald JT, Snell D, Bao GW, Singh T, Cardozo LJZinc decreases C-reactive protein, lipid peroxidation, and inflammatory cytokines in elderly subjects: a potential implication of zinc as an atheroprotective agentAm J Clin Nutr.(2010 Jun)
    5. Iron Absorption - Olivares M, Pizarro F, Ruz MNew insights about iron bioavailability inhibition by zincNutrition.(2007 Apr)
    6. Testosterone - Kilic MEffect of fatiguing bicycle exercise on thyroid hormone and testosterone levels in sedentary males supplemented with oral zincNeuro Endocrinol Lett.(2007 Oct)
    7. Rosacea Symptoms - Bamford JT, Gessert CE, Haller IV, Kruger K, Johnson BPRandomized, double-blind trial of 220 mg zinc sulfate twice daily in the treatment of rosaceaInt J Dermatol.(2012 Apr)
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    12. Upper Respiratory Tract Infection Symptoms - Farr BM, Conner EM, Betts RF, Oleske J, Minnefor A, Gwaltney JM JrTwo randomized controlled trials of zinc gluconate lozenge therapy of experimentally induced rhinovirus coldsAntimicrob Agents Chemother.(1987 Aug)
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    15. Upper Respiratory Tract Infection Symptoms - Hemilä H, Haukka J, Alho M, Vahtera J, Kivimäki MZinc acetate lozenges for the treatment of the common cold: a randomised controlled trialBMJ Open.(2020 Jan 23)
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    19. Upper Respiratory Tract Infection Symptoms - Weismann K, Jakobsen JP, Weismann JE, Hammer UM, Nyholm SM, Hansen B, Lomholt KE, Schmidt KZinc gluconate lozenges for common cold. A double-blind clinical trialDan Med Bull.(1990 Jun)
    20. Upper Respiratory Tract Infection Symptoms - Prasad AS, Fitzgerald JT, Bao B, Beck FW, Chandrasekar PHDuration of symptoms and plasma cytokine levels in patients with the common cold treated with zinc acetate. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialAnn Intern Med.(2000 Aug 15)
    21. Upper Respiratory Tract Infection Risk - Prasad AS, Beck FW, Bao B, Fitzgerald JT, Snell DC, Steinberg JD, Cardozo LJZinc supplementation decreases incidence of infections in the elderly: effect of zinc on generation of cytokines and oxidative stressAm J Clin Nutr.(2007 Mar)
    22. Mucositis Symptoms - Ertekin MV, Koç M, Karslioglu I, Sezen OZinc sulfate in the prevention of radiation-induced oropharyngeal mucositis: a prospective, placebo-controlled, randomized studyInt J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys.(2004 Jan 1)
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    24. Serum BDNF - Ranjbar E, Shams J, Sabetkasaei M, M-Shirazi M, Rashidkhani B, Mostafavi A, Bornak E, Nasrollahzadeh JEffects of zinc supplementation on efficacy of antidepressant therapy, inflammatory cytokines, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in patients with major depressionNutr Neurosci.(2014 Feb)
    25. Serum BDNF - Solati Z, Jazayeri S, Tehrani-Doost M, Mahmoodianfard S, Gohari MRZinc monotherapy increases serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and decreases depressive symptoms in overweight or obese subjects: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trialNutr Neurosci.(2014 Jan 7)
    26. Depression Symptoms - Sawada T, Yokoi KEffect of zinc supplementation on mood states in young women: a pilot studyEur J Clin Nutr.(2010 Mar)
    27. Depression Symptoms - Siwek M, Dudek D, Paul IA, Sowa-Kućma M, Zieba A, Popik P, Pilc A, Nowak GZinc supplementation augments efficacy of imipramine in treatment resistant patients: a double blind, placebo-controlled studyJ Affect Disord.(2009 Nov)
    28. Reaction Time - Tupe RP, Chiplonkar SAZinc supplementation improved cognitive performance and taste acuity in Indian adolescent girlsJ Am Coll Nutr.(2009 Aug)
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    30. IGF-1 - Blostein-Fujii A, DiSilvestro RA, Frid D, Katz C, Malarkey WShort-term zinc supplementation in women with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: effects on plasma 5'-nucleotidase activities, insulin-like growth factor I concentrations, and lipoprotein oxidation rates in vitroAm J Clin Nutr.(1997 Sep)
    31. Glycemic Control - Ghaedi K, Ghasempour D, Jowshan M, Zheng M, Ghobadi S, Jafari AEffect of zinc supplementation in the management of type 2 diabetes: A grading of recommendations assessment, development, and evaluation-assessed, dose-response meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr.(2023-May-15)
    32. Fasting Glucose - Laura M Pompano, Erick BoyEffects of Dose and Duration of Zinc Interventions on Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-AnalysisAdv Nutr.(2020 Jul 28)
    33. Total cholesterol - Asbaghi O, Sadeghian M, Fouladvand F, Panahande B, Nasiri M, Khodadost M, Shokri A, Pirouzi A, Sadeghi OEffects of zinc supplementation on lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis.(2020-Jul-24)
    34. Insulin - Hashemipour M, Kelishadi R, Shapouri J, Sarrafzadegan N, Amini M, Tavakoli N, Movahedian-Attar A, Mirmoghtadaee P, Poursafa PEffect of zinc supplementation on insulin resistance and components of the metabolic syndrome in prepubertal obese childrenHormones (Athens).(2009 Oct-Dec)
    35. Anti-Oxidant Enzyme Profile - Kara E, Gunay M, Cicioglu I, Ozal M, Kilic M, Mogulkoc R, Baltaci AKEffect of zinc supplementation on antioxidant activity in young wrestlersBiol Trace Elem Res.(2010 Apr)
    36. Oxidative Stress Biomarkers - Seet RC, Lee CY, Lim EC, Quek AM, Huang H, Huang SH, Looi WF, Long LH, Halliwell BOral zinc supplementation does not improve oxidative stress or vascular function in patients with type 2 diabetes with normal zinc levelsAtherosclerosis.(2011 Nov)
    37. Body Fat - C S Mantzoros, A S Prasad, F W Beck, S Grabowski, J Kaplan, C Adair, G J BrewerZinc may regulate serum leptin concentrations in humansJ Am Coll Nutr.(1998 Jun)
    38. Wart Severity - Al-Gurairi FT, Al-Waiz M, Sharquie KEOral zinc sulphate in the treatment of recalcitrant viral warts: randomized placebo-controlled clinical trialBr J Dermatol.(2002 Mar)
    39. Wart Severity - Sharquie KE, Khorsheed AA, Al-Nuaimy AATopical zinc sulphate solution for treatment of viral wartsSaudi Med J.(2007 Sep)
    40. Wart Severity - Mun JH, Kim SH, Jung DS, Ko HC, Kim BS, Kwon KS, Kim MBOral zinc sulfate treatment for viral warts: an open-label studyJ Dermatol.(2011 Jun)
    41. Pneumonia Symptoms - Valavi E, Hakimzadeh M, Shamsizadeh A, Aminzadeh M, Alghasi AThe efficacy of zinc supplementation on outcome of children with severe pneumonia. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trialIndian J Pediatr.(2011 Sep)
    42. Pneumonia Symptoms - Wadhwa N, Chandran A, Aneja S, Lodha R, Kabra SK, Chaturvedi MK, Sodhi J, Fitzwater SP, Chandra J, Rath B, Kainth US, Saini S, Black RE, Santosham M, Bhatnagar SEfficacy of zinc given as an adjunct in the treatment of severe and very severe pneumonia in hospitalized children 2-24 mo of age: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialAm J Clin Nutr.(2013 Jun)
    43. Pneumonia Symptoms - Chandyo RK, Shrestha PS, Valentiner-Branth P, Mathisen M, Basnet S, Ulak M, Adhikari RK, Sommerfelt H, Strand TATwo weeks of zinc administration to Nepalese children with pneumonia does not reduce the incidence of pneumonia or diarrhea during the next six monthsJ Nutr.(2010 Sep)
    44. Pneumonia Symptoms - Shah GS, Dutta AK, Shah D, Mishra OPRole of zinc in severe pneumonia: a randomized double bind placebo controlled studyItal J Pediatr.(2012 Aug 2)
    45. Pneumonia Symptoms - Ganguly A, Chakraborty S, Datta K, Hazra A, Datta S, Chakraborty JA randomized controlled trial of oral zinc in acute pneumonia in children aged between 2 months to 5 yearsIndian J Pediatr.(2011 Sep)
    46. Pneumonia Symptoms - Srinivasan MG, Ndeezi G, Mboijana CK, Kiguli S, Bimenya GS, Nankabirwa V, Tumwine JKZinc adjunct therapy reduces case fatality in severe childhood pneumonia: a randomized double blind placebo-controlled trialBMC Med.(2012 Feb 8)
    47. Pneumonia Symptoms - Valentiner-Branth P, Shrestha PS, Chandyo RK, Mathisen M, Basnet S, Bhandari N, Adhikari RK, Sommerfelt H, Strand TAA randomized controlled trial of the effect of zinc as adjuvant therapy in children 2-35 mo of age with severe or nonsevere pneumonia in Bhaktapur, NepalAm J Clin Nutr.(2010 Jun)
    48. Pneumonia Symptoms - Basnet S, Shrestha PS, Sharma A, Mathisen M, Prasai R, Bhandari N, Adhikari RK, Sommerfelt H, Valentiner-Branth P, Strand TA; Zinc Severe Pneumonia Study GroupA randomized controlled trial of zinc as adjuvant therapy for severe pneumonia in young childrenPediatrics.(2012 Apr)
    49. Cognition - Aquilani R, Baiardi P, Scocchi M, Iadarola P, Verri M, Sessarego P, Boschi F, Pasini E, Pastoris O, Viglio SNormalization of zinc intake enhances neurological retrieval of patients suffering from ischemic strokesNutr Neurosci.(2009 Oct)
    50. Tinnitus Symptoms - Arda HN, Tuncel U, Akdogan O, Ozluoglu LNThe role of zinc in the treatment of tinnitusOtol Neurotol.(2003 Jan)
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