Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease that causes patches of thick, red, scaly skin on various parts of the body. Its cause is unknown and symptoms tend to wax and wane over time.
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease where skin cells regenerate too quickly and form thick, red patches of skin with white or silver scales. A 2017 study found that up to 11% of adults and 1.4% of children worldwide have psoriasis.
Psoriasis typically looks like elevated lesions that are red, dry, and have silvery scales. They can appear anywhere on the body, such as:
The diagnosis is largely clinical, based on the appearance of the rash and associated symptoms. A healthcare professional must first rule out other diseases that may cause similar symptoms. During a visit with a healthcare professional, a clinical history is acquired and a comprehensive skin evaluation is done.
Treatment is determined by the extent and severity of symptoms. Medical treatments include:
- Topical creams (e.g. steroids and moisturizers)
- Oral or injected medications (e.g. immunosuppressants)
- Phototherapy (exposing skin to different wavelengths of light)
Topical treatments are used for milder cases. If there is no response to topical treatments or for more severe cases, immunosuppressants and/or phototherapy (a treatment that uses ultraviolet light) may be used.
Dietary supplements are often sought out to relieve symptoms of psoriasis. Supplements with the most evidence include:
Some studies show that the above supplements are either beneficial or ineffective. More rigorous research is needed before recommendations can be made.
Observational studies have demonstrated that people with psoriasis consume a lower amount of foods typically found in a Mediterranean diet (e.g., olive oil, fruits, fish, nuts, and whole grains). Research using dietary interventions found that a hypocaloric diet in overweight or obese people with psoriasis or a gluten-free diet in people with a gluten sensitivity shows the most promise for helping reduce symptoms of psoriasis. It is recommended that changes in diet should be used alongside standard medical treatments.
Psoriasis is thought to be caused by an excessive immune response, which results in an overabundance of skin cells regenerating. The development of psoriasis includes a combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological components.