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Muscle protein synthesis (MPS)

MPS is the process by which skeletal muscle makes new proteins. The balance between MPS and MPB over time determines whether muscle is gained or lost.

Research analysis led by and reviewed by the Examine team.
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Summary of Muscle protein synthesis (MPS)

For a muscle to grow (i.e., to hypertrophy), the rate of MPS must exceed the rate of MPB over time. Note that “protein synthesis” refers to the creation of any protein in your body; if your interest lies in muscle growth, you need to focus on MPS specifically.

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Human Effect Matrix

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The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies to tell you what supplements affect Muscle protein synthesis (MPS).

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Grade Level of Evidence
Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials
Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies
Uncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
? The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results.
Supplement Magnitude of effect
? The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Consistency of research results
? Scientific research does not always agree. HIGH or VERY HIGH means that most of the scientific research agrees.
Notes
grade-c Notable Very High See all 3 studies
Whey protein appears to increase muscle protein synthesis to a higher degree than other protein sources acutely, although over the prolonged supplementation it seems comparable in potency.
grade-c Minor - See study
There is an increase in protein synthesis with colostrum relative to maltodextrin due to colostrum being a dietary protein, but there is also an increase in protein breakdown seen; efficacy of colostrum relative to other protein sources in MPS is currently not well investigated.
grade-c - - See study
Currently no human evidence to support a practically significant increase in muscle protein synthesis at rest with citrulline supplementation

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grade-d  

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Things to Note

Also Known As

MPS