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Muscle Protein Synthesis

Muscle protein synthesis refers to the rate of protein synthesis of the actual muscle fibers, and is a short-term marker of muscle hypertrophy as daily muscle protein synthesis results in visible muscle growth.

Kamal
Research analysis lead by Kamal Patel
All content reviewed by Examine.com Team. Published:
Last Updated:

Human Effect Matrix

The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (it excludes animal and in vitro studies) to tell you what supplements affect muscle protein synthesis
Grade Level of Evidence
Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials
Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies
Uncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
? The amount of high quality evidence. The mo re evidence, the more we can trust the results.
Outcome Magnitude of effect
? The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Consistency of research results
? Scientific research does not always agree. HIGH or VERY HIGH means that most of the scientific research agrees.
Notes
grade-c Whey Protein Notable Very High See all 3 studies
Whey protein appears to increase muscle protein synthesis to a higher degree than other protein sources acutely, although over the prolonged supplementation it seems comparable in potency.
grade-c Colostrum Minor - See study
There is an increase in protein synthesis with colostrum relative to maltodextrin due to colostrum being a dietary protein, but there is also an increase in protein breakdown seen; efficacy of colostrum relative to other protein sources in MPS is currently not well investigated.
grade-c Citrulline - - See study
Currently no human evidence to support a practically significant increase in muscle protein synthesis at rest with citrulline supplementation

All comparative evidence is now gathered in our ​A-to-Z Supplement Reference.

The evidence for each separate supplement is still freely available ​here.