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Cardiovascular Disease Risk

Research analysis led by Kamal Patel.
All content reviewed by the Examine.com Team. Published: Jun 28, 2017
Last Updated:

Summary of Cardiovascular Disease Risk

Primary Information, Benefits, Effects, and Important Facts

Scientific Information on Cardiovascular Disease Risk

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Human Effect Matrix

The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (it excludes animal and in vitro studies) to tell you what supplements affect cardiovascular disease risk
Grade Level of Evidence
Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials
Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies
Uncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
? The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results.
Outcome Magnitude of effect
? The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Consistency of research results
? Scientific research does not always agree. HIGH or VERY HIGH means that most of the scientific research agrees.
Notes
grade-a Minor Moderate See all 4 studies
There appears to be less risk of cardiovascular disease and related cardiovascular complications with supplementation of 1,000 IU of Vitamin D or higher serum levels of Vitamin D, although studies using less have had null results. The degree of prevention found in positive trials is of borderline clinical significance.
grade-c - - See study
In general, the development of various cardiovascular diseases is not prevented with supplementation of vitamin E.