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Summary of Rosmarinic Acid
Primary Information, Benefits, Effects, and Important Facts
Rosmarinic acid is a plant-based compound found in a wide variety of spices, but most well known for being the active ingredient in Rosemary and Perilla Oil.
It displays general anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, and may protect against various forms of cancers. Additionally, it can be absorbed through the skin when in an ethanol base (typically perillyl alcohol).
Things To Know & Note
Also Known As
Rosmarinus Officinalis Extract, Rosemary Extract, Perilla Frutescens extract. Perilla Extract
Goes Well With
Lycopene (in regards to prevention of LDL oxidation)
Alcohol (for topical absorption)
Caution NoticeExamine.com Medical Disclaimer
How to Take Rosmarinic Acid
Recommended dosage, active amounts, other details
A standard dose is 200-300mg active Rosmarinic acid (check source for extract percentage) for oral ingestion.
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Human Effect Matrix
The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (it excludes animal and in vitro studies) to tell you what effects rosmarinic acid has on your body, and how strong these effects are.
|Grade||Level of Evidence [show legend]|
|Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials|
|Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled|
|Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies|
|Uncontrolled or observational studies only|
Level of Evidence
? The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results.
Magnitude of effect
? The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Consistency of research results
? Scientific research does not always agree. HIGH or VERY HIGH means that most of the scientific research agrees.
|Minor||- See study|
|Minor||- See study|
|Minor||- See study|
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Scientific Research on Rosmarinic Acid
Click on any below to expand the corresponding section. Click on to collapse it.
Rosmarinic acid is found the following food products and spices:
Perilla frutescens, the seeds from which Perilla Oil is derived from at 1.716.9μg/g in the seeds (49% of total phenolics) with a glucoside of rosmarinic acid (rosmarinic acid-3-O-glucoside) at 1752.7μg/g (48% total phenolics); reaching 0.34% perilla seed oil by weight
Rosemary from where it derives its name
The following dietary supplements:
Melissa officinalis (Labiatae) at 2.2-5.5%, although it can be higher if specific extracts are taken
And a variety of uncommon plants including:
Clerodendranthus spicatus (Thunberg)
Verbascum xanthophoeniceum (Scrophulariaceae)
Heliotropium foertherianum (Boraginaceae)
Rosmarinic acid is a fairly widespread component of plants that is not limited to one particular plant family, but is found in higher than normal levels in some dietary supplements where it mediates many benefits associated with the supplement
Ingested rosmarinic acid is found systemically in its intact form, and also as various metabolites such as m-coumaric acid, m-phenylhydroxypropionic acid, and sulfated forms of caffeic, coumaric and ferulic acids. These same metabolites are found in human blood/urine after ingestion.
Rosmarinic acid is methylated into methyl-rosmarininc acid via the catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme.
Ingestion of Perilla Extract (a common source of rosmarinic acid) containing 200mg Rosmarininc Acid while fasted results in approximately a peak concentration of 1.15+/-0.28umol/L in the plasma after 30 minutes, and the methylated metabolite (methyl-rosmarinic acid) may rise to a peak of 0.65+/-0.07umol/L at the 2 hour mark. Up to 75% of Rosmarinic acid and its metabolites are excreted in the first 6 hours after ingestion. There are differences between rats and humans in this regard, with rats excreting more as a glucuronide conjugate and humans as a sulfate conjugation.
In rats, it has been reported that Rosmarinic acid can be absorbed through the skin, and the build-up of rosmarinic acid favors skin, muscle, and bone deposition rather than organ deposition percutaneously. The absolute bioavailability in this study was 60%, enhanced by ethanol solvent, and a dose of 3mg over 20cm2 was used.
Rosmarinic acid contributes to endothelial (blood vessel) and blood cell health. The former is typically indirect via systemic anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation (as discussed previously). In regards to the latter, rosmarinic acid can ease hemolysis, the breaking of red blood cells, via C3-convertase inhibition.
Rosmarinic acid is being investigated for its interactions with inflammation and immunology due to it being an ingredient of Perilla Oil, and the plant the oil is derived from (Perilla frutescens Britton) being a component of the Kampo (Traditional Japanese) medicine known as Saiboku-To which is demonstrated effective against allergies.
Rosmarinic Acid seems to be able to suppress 5-lipoxygenase and 5-HETE synthesis (a pro-inflammatory compound in the omega-6 metabolic chain). Unlike caffeic acid (a related compound), rosmarinic acid does not affect prostaglandin synthesis per se.
When tested in rats via an edema test, Rosmarinic acid is able to suppress the inflammatory response from administered TPA (pro-inflammatory agent), and a reduction in the oxidative increases by TPA were also observed.
Oral supplementation of Perilla oil (in mice) has been demonstrated to suppress the allergic response by 43% at an oral dose of 500mg/kg, as assessed by an ear-passive cutaneous anaphylaxis test. Later, a human study consisting of 30 persons aged 21-53 with mild cedar allergies (who get stuffy noses during allergy season) were given either 50mg Rosmarinic acid, 200mg, or placebo to be taken with breakfast for 21 days. Rosmarinic acid appeared to be effective in suppressing allergies in a dose-dependent manner, with 30% of the placebo group reporting symptom relief compared to 55.6% of the 50mg group and 70% of the 200mg group.
In the human study, there was a significant reduction in immune cells in the nasal mucus by the third day with 200mg (PMNLs down to 84% of baseline, Eosinophils down to 86% of baseline, Neutrophils down to 72% of baseline) but it appeared to normalize, with no significant difference at day 21.
Preliminary evidence suggests that a once-daily dose of Rosmarinic acid may help allergy sufferers
10, 25, or 50mg/kg Rosmarinic acid was given orally once daily for two days, each time 6 hours after injection of the hepatoxin CCl4. Rosmarinic acid itself did not alter liver weight (absolute or relative to the body) nor ALT levels, but 50mg/kg after CCl4 normalized 56% of the increase in absolute liver weight (only 26% relative weight changes) while reducing the spike in ALT by 23%. There was a reported reduction in liver necrosis and fibrosis associated with Rosmarinic acid.
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- Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids of Sage: Influence of Some Agricultural Factors.
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- Takano H, et al. Extract of Perilla frutescens enriched for rosmarinic acid, a polyphenolic phytochemical, inhibits seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in humans. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). (2004)
- Superoxide Scavenging Activity of Rosmarinic Acid from Perilla frutescens Britton Var. acuta f. viridis.
- Fuhrman B, et al. Lycopene synergistically inhibits LDL oxidation in combination with vitamin E, glabridin, rosmarinic acid, carnosic acid, or garlic. Antioxid Redox Signal. (2000)
- Domitrović R, et al. Rosmarinic acid ameliorates acute liver damage and fibrogenesis in carbon tetrachloride-intoxicated mice. Food Chem Toxicol. (2013)
- Ueda H, Yamazaki C, Yamazaki M. Inhibitory effect of Perilla leaf extract and luteolin on mouse skin tumor promotion. Biol Pharm Bull. (2003)
- Osakabe N, et al. Rosmarinic acid inhibits epidermal inflammatory responses: anticarcinogenic effect of Perilla frutescens extract in the murine two-stage skin model. Carcinogenesis. (2004)
- Stratton SP, et al. Phase 1 study of topical perillyl alcohol cream for chemoprevention of skin cancer. Nutr Cancer. (2008)
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