L-Threonate is a deriviative of L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (which in and of itself is a derivative of Ascorbic Acid, otherwise known as Vitamin C).
L-threonate is able to repress the expression of a gene known as dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) which is upregulated by Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in male pattern baldness when co-cultured. It seems to work similarily to L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate via alkaline phosphatase activity and releasing ascorbic acid into the cell.
Independent of its use as a conjugate to Calcium as Calcium-L-Threonate (to be discussed), L-Threonate has been investigated for its usage in bone health. It has been implicated as working synergistically with calcium in the production of collagen and mineralized nodules. and augments the uptake of ascorbic acid into fibroblasts. By itself, L-theonate can also act on osteoclasts in an anti-osteoporotic manner.
Minerals bound to L-theonate tend to have rapid intestinal uptake and report minimal gastrointestinal side effects. Minerals such as Iron, Calcium, and Magnesium have been tested with L-Threonate chelations.
The safety and toxicity of L-threonate has not been investigated.