Last Updated: September 28, 2022

A metabolite of vitamin C that may have unique effects in the body, it is currently being researched for use as a mineral chelating agent able to greatly enhance bioavailability of minerals (such as Magnesium-L-Threonate).

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L-Threonate is most often used for

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Structure and Sources

L-Threonate is a deriviative of L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (which in and of itself is a derivative of Ascorbic Acid, otherwise known as Vitamin C).


Effects on Hair Loss

L-threonate is able to repress the expression of a gene known as dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) which is upregulated by Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in male pattern baldness when co-cultured.[1] It seems to work similarily to L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate via alkaline phosphatase activity and releasing ascorbic acid into the cell.[2][3]


Effects on Bone Metabolism

Independent of its use as a conjugate to Calcium as Calcium-L-Threonate (to be discussed), L-Threonate has been investigated for its usage in bone health. It has been implicated as working synergistically with calcium in the production of collagen and mineralized nodules.[4][5] and augments the uptake of ascorbic acid into fibroblasts.[6] By itself, L-threonate can also act on osteoclasts in an anti-osteoporotic manner.[7]


Use as a mineral chelation

Minerals bound to L-threonate tend to have rapid intestinal uptake and report minimal gastrointestinal side effects. Minerals such as Iron[8][9], Calcium[5], and Magnesium[10][11] have been tested with L-Threonate chelations.[12]


Safety and Toxicity

The safety and toxicity of L-threonate has not been investigated.

7.^He JH, Tong NW, Li HQ, Wu JEffects of L-threonate on bone resorption by osteoclasts in vitroSichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban.(2005 Mar)
8.^Li XX, Chen XL, Zhang MH, Wang YH, Da WM, Li JYA randomized controlled and multicenter clinical study of ferrous L-threonate in treatment of iron deficiency anemiaZhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi.(2005 Nov)
9.^Tian W, Lin XMEffects of iron supplementation on human serum level of transferrin receptorZhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi.(2004 Sep)
10.^Abumaria N, Yin B, Zhang L, Li XY, Chen T, Descalzi G, Zhao L, Ahn M, Luo L, Ran C, Zhuo M, Liu GEffects of elevation of brain magnesium on fear conditioning, fear extinction, and synaptic plasticity in the infralimbic prefrontal cortex and lateral amygdalaJ Neurosci.(2011 Oct 19)
11.^Slutsky I, Abumaria N, Wu LJ, Huang C, Zhang L, Li B, Zhao X, Govindarajan A, Zhao MG, Zhuo M, Tonegawa S, Liu GEnhancement of learning and memory by elevating brain magnesiumNeuron.(2010 Jan 28)
12.^Gao SL, Chen SP, Ju ZF, Li HYFTIR studies of L-threonic acid and its metal compoundsGuang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi.(2003 Apr)