A metabolite of vitamin C that may have unique effects in the body, it is currently being researched for use as a mineral chelating agent able to greatly enhance bioavailability of minerals (such as Magnesium-L-Threonate).

Our evidence-based analysis features 12 unique references to scientific papers.

Research analysis by and verified by the Examine.com Research Team. Last updated on Jun 14, 2018.

Summary of L-Threonate

Primary Information, Benefits, Effects, and Important Facts

L-Threonate is a metabolite of vitamin C that is currently being investigated for some vitamin C-like properties as well as its ability to greatly enhance mineral uptake.

How to Take

Recommended dosage, active amounts, other details

Not enough information is known at this time to suggest an optimal dose of L-Threonate in isolation.

Mineral chelations of L-Threonate should be dosed according to the active mineral content of the chelation.

1Structure and Sources

L-Threonate is a deriviative of L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (which in and of itself is a derivative of Ascorbic Acid, otherwise known as Vitamin C).

2Effects on Hair Loss

L-threonate is able to repress the expression of a gene known as dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) which is upregualted by Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in male pattern baldness when co-cultured.[1] It seems to work similarily to L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate via alkaline phosphatase activity and releasing ascorbic acid into the cell.[2][3]

3Effects on Bone Metabolism

Independent of its use as a conjugate to Calcium as Calcium-L-Threonate (to be discussed), L-Threonate has been investigated for its usage in bone health. It has been implicated as working synergistically with calcium in the production of collagen and mineralized nodules.[4][5] and augments the uptake of ascorbic acid into fibroblasts.[6] By itself, L-theonate can also act on osteoclasts in an anti-osteoporotic manner.[7]

4Use as a mineral chelation

Minerals bound to L-theonate tend to have rapid intestinal uptake and report minimal gastrointestinal side effects. Minerals such as Iron[8][9], Calcium[5], and Magnesium[10][11] have been tested with L-Threonate chelations.[12]

5Safety and Toxicity

The safety and toxicity of L-threonate has not been investigated.

Scientific Support & Reference Citations


  1. Kwack MH, et al. Preventable effect of L-threonate, an ascorbate metabolite, on androgen-driven balding via repression of dihydrotestosterone-induced dickkopf-1 expression in human hair dermal papilla cells. BMB Rep. (2010)
  2. Effects of ascorbic acid and ascorbic acid 2-phosphate, a long-acting vitamin C derivative, on the proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblast-like cells.
  3. Kwack MH, et al. L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate represses the dihydrotestosterone-induced dickkopf-1 expression in human balding dermal papilla cells. Exp Dermatol. (2010)
  4. Enhanced Production of Mineralized Nodules and Collagenous Proteins In Vitro by Calcium Ascorbate Supplemented With Vitamin C Metabolites.
  5. Wang HY, Hu P, Jiang J. Pharmacokinetics and safety of calcium L-threonate in healthy volunteers after single and multiple oral administrations. Acta Pharmacol Sin. (2011)
  6. Fay MJ, Bush MJ, Verlangieri AJ. Effect of aldonic acids on the uptake of ascorbic acid by 3T3 mouse fibroblasts and human T lymphoma cells. Gen Pharmacol. (1994)
  7. He JH, et al. Effects of L-threonate on bone resorption by osteoclasts in vitro. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. (2005)
  8. Li XX, et al. A randomized controlled and multicenter clinical study of ferrous L-threonate in treatment of iron deficiency anemia. Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi. (2005)
  9. Tian W, Lin XM. Effects of iron supplementation on human serum level of transferrin receptor. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. (2004)
  10. Abumaria N, et al. Effects of elevation of brain magnesium on fear conditioning, fear extinction, and synaptic plasticity in the infralimbic prefrontal cortex and lateral amygdala. J Neurosci. (2011)
  11. Slutsky I, et al. Enhancement of learning and memory by elevating brain magnesium. Neuron. (2010)
  12. Gao SL, et al. FTIR studies of L-threonic acid and its metal compounds. Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi. (2003)

Cite this page

"L-Threonate," Examine.com, published on 2 July 2013, last updated on 14 June 2018, https://examine.com/supplements/l-threonate/