Summary of L-Threonate
Primary Information, Benefits, Effects, and Important Facts
L-Threonate is a metabolite of vitamin C that is currently being investigated for some vitamin C-like properties as well as its ability to greatly enhance mineral uptake.
How to Take L-Threonate
Recommended dosage, active amounts, other details
Not enough information is known at this time to suggest an optimal dose of L-Threonate in isolation.
Mineral chelations of L-Threonate should be dosed according to the active mineral content of the chelation.
Scientific Research on L-Threonate
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L-Threonate is a deriviative of L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (which in and of itself is a derivative of Ascorbic Acid, otherwise known as Vitamin C).
L-threonate is able to repress the expression of a gene known as dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) which is upregulated by Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in male pattern baldness when co-cultured. It seems to work similarily to L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate via alkaline phosphatase activity and releasing ascorbic acid into the cell.
Independent of its use as a conjugate to Calcium as Calcium-L-Threonate (to be discussed), L-Threonate has been investigated for its usage in bone health. It has been implicated as working synergistically with calcium in the production of collagen and mineralized nodules. and augments the uptake of ascorbic acid into fibroblasts. By itself, L-theonate can also act on osteoclasts in an anti-osteoporotic manner.
The safety and toxicity of L-threonate has not been investigated.
- Kwack MH, et al. Preventable effect of L-threonate, an ascorbate metabolite, on androgen-driven balding via repression of dihydrotestosterone-induced dickkopf-1 expression in human hair dermal papilla cells. BMB Rep. (2010)
- Effects of ascorbic acid and ascorbic acid 2-phosphate, a long-acting vitamin C derivative, on the proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblast-like cells.
- Kwack MH, et al. L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate represses the dihydrotestosterone-induced dickkopf-1 expression in human balding dermal papilla cells. Exp Dermatol. (2010)
- Enhanced Production of Mineralized Nodules and Collagenous Proteins In Vitro by Calcium Ascorbate Supplemented With Vitamin C Metabolites.
- Wang HY, Hu P, Jiang J. Pharmacokinetics and safety of calcium L-threonate in healthy volunteers after single and multiple oral administrations. Acta Pharmacol Sin. (2011)
- Fay MJ, Bush MJ, Verlangieri AJ. Effect of aldonic acids on the uptake of ascorbic acid by 3T3 mouse fibroblasts and human T lymphoma cells. Gen Pharmacol. (1994)
- He JH, et al. Effects of L-threonate on bone resorption by osteoclasts in vitro. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. (2005)
- Li XX, et al. A randomized controlled and multicenter clinical study of ferrous L-threonate in treatment of iron deficiency anemia. Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi. (2005)
- Tian W, Lin XM. Effects of iron supplementation on human serum level of transferrin receptor. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. (2004)
- Abumaria N, et al. Effects of elevation of brain magnesium on fear conditioning, fear extinction, and synaptic plasticity in the infralimbic prefrontal cortex and lateral amygdala. J Neurosci. (2011)
- Slutsky I, et al. Enhancement of learning and memory by elevating brain magnesium. Neuron. (2010)
- Gao SL, et al. FTIR studies of L-threonic acid and its metal compounds. Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi. (2003)