Betalains

Last Updated: September 28 2022

Betalains are a group of reddish pigments found in some fruits where the red anthocyanin compounds (such as pelargonidin) are replaced with betalains; a major component of beetroot, it can dye the urine a reddish tint.

Betalains is most often used for

What else is Betalains known as?
Note that Betalains is also known as:
  • Beet pigments
  • Betalain
  • betanin
  • betanidin
  • phyllocactin
  • indicaxanthin
  • hylocerenin
  • 2'
  • O-Apiosylphyllocactin
Betalains should not be confused with:
  • Betain (different molecule also in beets)
  • Nitrate (also in beets)
  • Beetroot (a major plant source)

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    References
    1.^Strack D, Vogt T, Schliemann WRecent advances in betalain researchPhytochemistry.(2003 Feb)
    3.^Delgado-Vargas F, Jiménez AR, Paredes-López ONatural pigments: carotenoids, anthocyanins, and betalains--characteristics, biosynthesis, processing, and stabilityCrit Rev Food Sci Nutr.(2000 May)
    10.^Stintzing FC, Herbach KM, Mosshammer MR, Carle R, Yi W, Sellappan S, Akoh CC, Bunch R, Felker PColor, betalain pattern, and antioxidant properties of cactus pear (Opuntia spp.) clonesJ Agric Food Chem.(2005 Jan 26)
    12.^Tesoriere L, Gentile C, Angileri F, Attanzio A, Tutone M, Allegra M, Livrea MATrans-epithelial transport of the betalain pigments indicaxanthin and betanin across Caco-2 cell monolayers and influence of food matrixEur J Nutr.(2013 Apr)
    13.^Frank T, Stintzing FC, Carle R, Bitsch I, Quaas D, Strass G, Bitsch R, Netzel MUrinary pharmacokinetics of betalains following consumption of red beet juice in healthy humansPharmacol Res.(2005 Oct)
    14.^Kanner J, Harel S, Granit RBetalains--a new class of dietary cationized antioxidantsJ Agric Food Chem.(2001 Nov)
    17.^Lee CH, Wettasinghe M, Bolling BW, Ji LL, Parkin KLBetalains, phase II enzyme-inducing components from red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) extractsNutr Cancer.(2005)
    19.^Tesoriere L, Butera D, D'Arpa D, Di Gaudio F, Allegra M, Gentile C, Livrea MAIncreased resistance to oxidation of betalain-enriched human low density lipoproteinsFree Radic Res.(2003 Jun)
    20.^Sakihama Y, Maeda M, Hashimoto M, Tahara S, Hashidoko YBeetroot betalain inhibits peroxynitrite-mediated tyrosine nitration and DNA strand cleavageFree Radic Res.(2012 Jan)
    21.^Szabó C, Ischiropoulos H, Radi RPeroxynitrite: biochemistry, pathophysiology and development of therapeuticsNat Rev Drug Discov.(2007 Aug)
    23.^Baldassano S, Rotondo A, Serio R, Livrea MA, Tesoriere L, Mulè FInhibitory effects of indicaxanthin on mouse ileal contractility: analysis of the mechanism of actionEur J Pharmacol.(2011 May 11)