Summary of Glucagon
Primary Information, Benefits, Effects, and Important Facts
Scientific Information on Glucagon
Learn which supplements work (and which don’t) to achieve your health goals
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Frequently Asked Questions about Glucagon
Human Effect Matrix
The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (it excludes animal and in vitro studies) to tell you what supplements affect glucagon
|Grade||Level of Evidence [show legend]|
|Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials|
|Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled|
|Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies|
|Uncontrolled or observational studies only|
Level of Evidence
? The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results.
Magnitude of effect
? The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Consistency of research results
? Scientific research does not always agree. HIGH or VERY HIGH means that most of the scientific research agrees.
|-||- See study|
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- Bastard JP, et al. Recent advances in the relationship between obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance. Eur Cytokine Netw. (2006)
- Cnop M, et al. Mechanisms of pancreatic beta-cell death in type 1 and type 2 diabetes: many differences, few similarities. Diabetes. (2005)
- Akirav E, Kushner JA, Herold KC. Beta-cell mass and type 1 diabetes: going, going, gone. Diabetes. (2008)
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- van der Heijden GJ, et al. Aerobic exercise increases peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity in sedentary adolescents. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2009)
- Goulet ED, et al. Aerobic training improves insulin sensitivity 72-120 h after the last exercise session in younger but not in older women. Eur J Appl Physiol. (2005)
- Winnick JJ, et al. Short-term aerobic exercise training in obese humans with type 2 diabetes mellitus improves whole-body insulin sensitivity through gains in peripheral, not hepatic insulin sensitivity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2008)
- Krogh-Madsen R, et al. A 2-wk reduction of ambulatory activity attenuates peripheral insulin sensitivity. J Appl Physiol. (2010)
- Fisher G, Hunter GR, Gower BA. Aerobic exercise training conserves insulin sensitivity for 1 yr following weight loss in overweight women. J Appl Physiol. (2012)
- Nassis GP, et al. Aerobic exercise training improves insulin sensitivity without changes in body weight, body fat, adiponectin, and inflammatory markers in overweight and obese girls. Metabolism. (2005)
- Carr DB, et al. A reduced-fat diet and aerobic exercise in Japanese Americans with impaired glucose tolerance decreases intra-abdominal fat and improves insulin sensitivity but not beta-cell function. Diabetes. (2005)
- van der Heijden GJ, et al. A 12-week aerobic exercise program reduces hepatic fat accumulation and insulin resistance in obese, Hispanic adolescents. Obesity (Silver Spring). (2010)
- Van Der Heijden GJ, et al. Strength exercise improves muscle mass and hepatic insulin sensitivity in obese youth. Med Sci Sports Exerc. (2010)
- Black LE, Swan PD, Alvar BA. Effects of intensity and volume on insulin sensitivity during acute bouts of resistance training. J Strength Cond Res. (2010)