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Study under review: Dose-response relation between dietary sodium and blood pressure: a meta-regression analysis of 133 randomized controlled trials.
Hypertension, or elevated blood pressure, is the most important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, which remains the leading cause of death in the U.S. and other western industrialized countries. As such, blood pressure control is one of the leading targets for lowering the risk of cardiovascular disease.
Recently, several trials have shown that lowering blood pressure with anti-hypertensive medications will not only successfully lower blood pressure but also the risk of cardiovascular events. This has been found in people with and without diabetes, suggesting that regardless of other comorbidities, lowering blood pressure is an important aspect of reducing cardiovascular disease.
Sodium is a known regulator of blood pressure. Sodium concentrations are sensed by macula densa cells in the kidneys. When the blood sodium concentration increases, these cells activate the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system to increase blood pressure, as shown in Figure 1. Therefore, it has been hypothesized that lowering sodium intake may help reduce blood pressure in people in people with and without elevated blood pressure.
Many randomized trials have examined the effect of different levels of sodium intake and sodium restriction on blood pressure. These trials have been performed in people with hypertension and people with normal blood pressure, also called normotensive individuals. The results of these trials have yielded mixed results and a clear dose-response analysis has not yet been performed. This study was designed to explore the dose-response relationship between sodium restriction and changes in blood pressure in people with and without hypertension.
Hypertension is the leading modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Higher concentrations of sodium in the blood can increase blood pressure by activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. The present study was a meta-regression that was designed to explore the dose-response relationship between sodium restriction and changes in blood pressure in people with and without hypertension.
Other Articles in Issue #58 (August 2019)
Eating early in the day keeps glucose spikes at bay
In addition to helping with glycemic control, early time-restricted feeding may affect the expression of certain genes related to circadian rhythms and longevity, too.
Causally or corollary? An innovatively random approach to the TMAO question
Some research has supported the idea that trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO, a metabolite of compounds found in animal products) is as scary as it sounds. But that research was mostly observational. This study investigated whether TMAO's link to metabolic disease is causal.
Your brain on ketones: Does a ketogenic diet affect cognition, sleep, and mood?
Ketogenic diets affect nerves; that's why they're an effective treatment for some seizure disorders. But how these diets affect mood and cognition is less clear.
Interview: Lisa Lewis, EdD, CADC-II
In this interview with sports psychologist Lisa Lewis, we chat about some key takeaways from the field of sports psychology, behavioral addiction in sports, and more.
Mini: WHO guidelines for reducing the risk of cognitive decline and dementia
There's no cure for dementia, but there are some clear modifiable risk factors. Here, we summarize the first-ever World Health Organization guidelines for reducing the risk of cognitive decline and dementia.
Low-calorie sweeteners: are they all created equal?
This clinical trial explored how four low-calories sweeteners affect bodyweight, body composition, and more.
Can some blueberries each day keep the doctor away?
How do freeze-dried blueberries affect the cardiometabolic health of people with the metabolic syndrome? This study aimed to find out.