Last Updated: September 28, 2022

    Sunifiram (DM-235) is an AMPAkine drug (acting via AMPA receptors) that exerts anti-amnesiac properties. With similar actions as nefiracetam, it holds promise as a cognitive enhancer but is relatively understudied currently.

    Sunifiram is most often used for


    Sunifiram (DM-235) is a synthetic derivative of piracetam, although due to breaking the pyrrolidone backbone it is no longer in the racetam class of drugs (yet by being derived from them, it is still commonly associated with this class).

    Sunifiram has mechanisms similar to nefiracetam in the hippocampus, and similar to that drug sunifiram shows anti-amnesiac properties and is potentially a cognitive enhancer. Its anti-amnesiac activity is several orders of magnitude greater than piracetam on a per weight basis, and preliminary evidence suggest it has a similarly low toxicity profile.

    This compound is known as an AMPAkine due to exerting most of its actions via the AMPA receptor (one of the three main subsets of glutamate receptors, alongside NDMA and kainate). This enhancement of AMPA function seems to also rely on enhancing signalling via the glycine binding site of NMDA receptors, although one minimal signalling goes through the NMDA receptor then the benefits on AMPA receptors seem dose-dependent.

    What are other names for Sunifiram

    Note that Sunifiram is also known as:
    • DM-235

    Dosage information

    It is very hard to determine an optimal dose for sunifiram due to such limited evidence, but since 1mg/kg has been determined to be good for both mice and rats this gives a preliminary human dose of 0.08-0.16mg/kg (for a 150lb person, 5.4-11mg).

    It is not clear if higher doses are better.