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Oxiracetam

Oxiracetam is one of the three first-tier racetam compounds, being produced after both Piracetam and Aniracetam. Oxiracetam appears to enhance the release of excitatory neurotransmitters and can aid in memory formation, but lacks human studies.

Our evidence-based analysis on oxiracetam features 69 unique references to scientific papers.

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Summary of Oxiracetam

Primary information, health benefits, side effects, usage, and other important details

Oxiracetam is one of the racetams, and is structurally different from piracetam due to a single hydroxyl group. It is also used for nootropic purposes such as enhancing learning in students or preventing against cognitive decline. Like all other racetams, it is a synthetic molecule that is not found in food sources or in nature.

When looking at the evidence for oxiracetam at this point in time it seems to have a fair bit of human evidence for reducing the rate of organic cognitive decline (a natural loss in cognition that occurs during the aging process that is not associated with any disease state) and with dementia, yet the lone study in persons with Alzheimer's showed no apparent benefit with oxiracetam supplementation. When it does aid in cognitive decline, it is somewhat comparable in potency to Alpha-GPC and seems to be slightly more potent than piracetam.

There is currently no evidence to support cognitive enhancement of oxiracetam in young humans with no cognitive impairment looking to increase memory formation.

When looking at animal evidence, oxiracetam appears to very reliably and potently prevent amnesia induced by a variety of anti-cholinergic or anti-glutaminergic compounds (injections of 3-30mg/kg in rats pretty much normalizing memory formation). It has been implicated in increasing memory formation in otherwise healthy and young rats/mice with no apparent cognitive impairment (suggesting that it can be used as a nootropic) but it appears to require at least a five day loading period.

Oxiracetam is a positive AMPA modulator similar in mechanism and potency (but not binding site) to both piracetam and aniracetam but may have an additional benefit of increasing glutamate, acetylcholine, and D-aspartic acid release from activated but not resting neurons. This two-fold sequence (enhancing glutamate release and then positively modulating one of the receptors it signals through) ultimately increases metabolic activity in neuronal cells and memory formation.

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How to Take

Medical Disclaimer

Recommended dosage, active amounts, other details

Supplementation of Oxiracetam tends to be in the dosage range of 1,200-2,400mg taken over the course of a day, either in two to three evenly spread dosing periods (such as three doses of 400mg or 800mg).

No studies have assessed whether or not oxiracetam would benefit from being taken with a meal, but it should be taken approximately one hour prior to a learning activity.

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Human Effect Matrix

Unlocked for Examine members

The Human Effect Matrix summarizes human studies to tell you what effects Oxiracetam has on your body, how much evidence there is, and how strong these effects are.

Full details are available to Examine members.
Grade Level of Evidence
Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials
Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies
Uncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
? The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results.
Outcome Magnitude of effect
? The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Consistency of research results
? Scientific research does not always agree. HIGH or VERY HIGH means that most of the scientific research agrees.
Notes
grade-b Minor Very High See all 5 studies
Appears to reliably reduce the cognitive decline and related symptoms seen in dementia and other organic brain deterioration states, with particular efficacy towards verbal skill in doses above 1,200mg
grade-c Minor Very High See 2 studies
Although it has mechanisms and animal evidence to support improvements in memory in healthy youth, all human studies are currently in those with cognitive decline
grade-c Minor - See study
The one study to measure subjective quality of life in persons with dementia found a significant improvement with supplementation
grade-c Minor Very High See 2 studies
Appears to favor improvements in verbal fluency in persons with cognitive dementia, despite benefiting most parameters measured
grade-c - - See study
The one study to note functional capabilities in persons with dementia given oxiracetam failed to find a significant treatment effect
grade-c - - See study
The lone study in persons with Alzheimer's rather than organic cognitive decline has failed to find any benefit associated with supplementation

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Things to Note

Is a Form Of

Also Known As

4-hydroxy-2-oxo-pyrrolidinoacetamide, ISF-2522

Do Not Confuse With

Aniracetam or Piracetam

  • Oxiracetam has psychostimulatory effects

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Click here to see all 69 references.