King of Bitters

Last Updated: September 28 2022

Andrographis paniculata is an herb frequently used in traditional medicines to treat the common cold.

King of Bitters is most often used for

Summary

Andrographis paniculata, commonly known as ‘king of bitters,’ is an herb traditionally used in Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine.

Andrographis paniculata is used to treat the common cold. It is fairly effective when taken for three to five days after the symptoms first appear. However, there is limited human evidence for the effects of this herb, since research tends to focus on the combination therapy of Andrographis paniculata and Eleutherococcus senticosus, also known as Siberian ginseng, and not on Andrographis paniculata by itself.

Andrographis paniculata has also been studied for its anti-cancer effects. In vitro (outside the body) testing and animal research suggest that Andrographis paniculata has an anti-proliferative effect, meaning it is able to slow the spread of cancer cells. The herb does not appear to be able to induce cancer cell death, however.

The bioactive ingredients of Andrographis paniculata can be traced back to a single diterpene molecule called andrographolide.

Some studies have found that prolonged high-dosage Andrographis paniculata can cause toxicity in the testicles and liver. Further research is needed to confirm these effects, since some follow-up studies, using the same methods, failed to replicate the results. Andrographis paniculata is a promising supplement, though currently it is used most often to alleviate the symptoms of the common cold.

What else is King of Bitters known as?
Note that King of Bitters is also known as:
  • Chiretta
  • King Of Bitters
  • Kalmegh
  • Creat
  • Chuanxinlian
  • Yijianxi
  • Lanhelian
  • Indian Echinacea
  • Andrographis Paniculata
Dosage information

The standard dose of Andrographis paniculata basic root extract is 2,000 – 6,000 mg.

Andrographis paniculata root extract tends to have 1-2% andrographolide content, by weight, though up to 4% has been reported.

Concentrated root extracts can have an andrographolide content of up to 30%. The standard dose for a concentrated extract is 200mg.

Join our supplement information course

Enter your email for a FREE five-day course on supplements. Get only the information that’s 100% backed by science. We take an independent and unbiased approach to figure out what works (and what’s a waste of time and money).

Examine is the only 100% independent company in the nutrition and supplement industry. While everyone else sells supplements and works with sponsors, we exclusively analyze research.

    The only 100% independent company. While everyone sells supplements, we only analyze research.

    Examine Database: King of Bitters
    What works and what doesn't?

    Unlock the full potential of Examine

    Get started

    Don't miss out on the latest research

    Become an Examine Insider for FREE to stay on top of the latest nutrition research, supplement myths, and more

      References
      1.^Varma A, Padh H, Shrivastava NAndrographolide: a new plant-derived antineoplastic entity on horizonEvid Based Complement Alternat Med.(2011)
      3.^Saxena RC, Singh R, Kumar P, Yadav SC, Negi MP, Saxena VS, Joshua AJ, Vijayabalaji V, Goudar KS, Venkateshwarlu K, Amit AA randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical evaluation of extract of Andrographis paniculata (KalmCold) in patients with uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infectionPhytomedicine.(2010 Mar)
      5.^Balachandran P, Govindarajan RCancer--an ayurvedic perspectivePharmacol Res.(2005 Jan)
      6.^He CL, Yi PF, Fan QJ, Shen HQ, Jiang XL, Qin QQ, Song Z, Zhang C, Wu SC, Wei XB, Li YL, Fu BDXiang-Qi-Tang and its active components exhibit anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant properties by inhibiting MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways in LPS-treated rat cardiac microvascular endothelial cellsImmunopharmacol Immunotoxicol.(2012 Nov 21)
      10.^Smith PL, Maloney KN, Pothen RG, Clardy J, Clapham DEBisandrographolide from Andrographis paniculata activates TRPV4 channelsJ Biol Chem.(2006 Oct 6)
      11.^Bhaskar Reddy MV, Kishore PH, Rao CV, Gunasekar D, Caux C, Bodo BNew 2'-oxygenated flavonoids from Andrographis affinisJ Nat Prod.(2003 Feb)
      12.^Radhika P, Prasad YR, Lakshmi KRFlavones from the stem of Andrographis paniculata NeesNat Prod Commun.(2010 Jan)
      15.^Pholphana N, Rangkadilok N, Thongnest S, Ruchirawat S, Ruchirawat M, Satayavivad JDetermination and variation of three active diterpenoids in Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) NeesPhytochem Anal.(2004 Nov-Dec)
      17.^Burgos RA, Caballero EE, Sánchez NS, Schroeder RA, Wikman GK, Hancke JLTesticular toxicity assessment of Andrographis paniculata dried extract in ratsJ Ethnopharmacol.(1997 Nov)
      18.^Vincent F, Duncton MATRPV4 agonists and antagonistsCurr Top Med Chem.(2011)
      19.^Ye L, Kleiner S, Wu J, Sah R, Gupta RK, Banks AS, Cohen P, Khandekar MJ, Boström P, Mepani RJ, Laznik D, Kamenecka TM, Song X, Liedtke W, Mootha VK, Puigserver P, Griffin PR, Clapham DE, Spiegelman BMTRPV4 is a regulator of adipose oxidative metabolism, inflammation, and energy homeostasisCell.(2012 Sep 28)
      20.^Panossian A, Hovhannisyan A, Mamikonyan G, Abrahamian H, Hambardzumyan E, Gabrielian E, Goukasova G, Wikman G, Wagner HPharmacokinetic and oral bioavailability of andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata fixed combination Kan Jang in rats and humanPhytomedicine.(2000 Oct)
      21.^Ye L, Wang T, Tang L, Liu W, Yang Z, Zhou J, Zheng Z, Cai Z, Hu M, Liu ZPoor oral bioavailability of a promising anticancer agent andrographolide is due to extensive metabolism and efflux by P-glycoproteinJ Pharm Sci.(2011 Nov)
      22.^Xu L, Xiao DW, Lou S, Zou JJ, Zhu YB, Fan HW, Wang GJA simple and sensitive HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for the determination of andrographolide in human plasmaJ Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci.(2009 Feb 15)
      23.^Cui L, Qiu F, Wang N, Yao XFour new andrographolide metabolites in human urineChem Pharm Bull (Tokyo).(2004 Jun)
      24.^He X, Li J, Gao H, Qiu F, Hu K, Cui X, Yao XIdentification of a rare sulfonic acid metabolite of andrographolide in ratsDrug Metab Dispos.(2003 Aug)
      26.^Pan Y, Abd-Rashid BA, Ismail Z, Ismail R, Mak JW, Pook PC, Er HM, Ong CEIn vitro modulatory effects of Andrographis paniculata, Centella asiatica and Orthosiphon stamineus on cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19)J Ethnopharmacol.(2011 Jan 27)
      29.^Taub DDChemokine-leukocyte interactions. The voodoo that they do so wellCytokine Growth Factor Rev.(1996 Dec)
      30.^Zwijnenburg PJ, Polfliet MM, Florquin S, van den Berg TK, Dijkstra CD, van Deventer SJ, Roord JJ, van der Poll T, van Furth AMCXC-chemokines KC and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) synergistically induce leukocyte recruitment to the central nervous system in ratsImmunol Lett.(2003 Jan 2)
      32.^Yoopan N, Thisoda P, Rangkadilok N, Sahasitiwat S, Pholphana N, Ruchirawat S, Satayavivad JCardiovascular effects of 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide and Andrographis paniculata extractsPlanta Med.(2007 Jun)
      33.^Lien LM, Su CC, Hsu WH, Lu WJ, Chung CL, Yen TL, Chiu HC, Sheu JR, Lin KHMechanisms of Andrographolide-Induced Platelet Apoptosis in Human Platelets: Regulatory Roles of the Extrinsic Apoptotic PathwayPhytother Res.(2013 Jan 4)
      34.^Kumar RA, Sridevi K, Kumar NV, Nanduri S, Rajagopal SAnticancer and immunostimulatory compounds from Andrographis paniculataJ Ethnopharmacol.(2004 Jun)
      35.^Calabrese C, Berman SH, Babish JG, Ma X, Shinto L, Dorr M, Wells K, Wenner CA, Standish LJA phase I trial of andrographolide in HIV positive patients and normal volunteersPhytother Res.(2000 Aug)
      36.^Leelarasamee A, Trakulsomboon S, Sittisomwong NUndetectable anti-bacterial activity of Andrographis paniculata (Burma) wall. ex nessJ Med Assoc Thai.(1990 Jun)
      37.^Thamlikitkul V, Dechatiwongse T, Theerapong S, Chantrakul C, Boonroj P, Punkrut W, Ekpalakorn W, Boontaeng N, Taechaiya S, Petcharoen S, et alEfficacy of Andrographis paniculata, Nees for pharyngotonsillitis in adultsJ Med Assoc Thai.(1991 Oct)
      43.^Burgos RA, Hancke JL, Bertoglio JC, Aguirre V, Arriagada S, Calvo M, Cáceres DDEfficacy of an Andrographis paniculata composition for the relief of rheumatoid arthritis symptoms: a prospective randomized placebo-controlled trialClin Rheumatol.(2009 Aug)
      44.^Allan JJ, Pore MP, Deepak M, Murali B, Mayachari AS, Agarwal AReproductive and fertility effects of an extract of Andrographis paniculata in male Wistar ratsInt J Toxicol.(2009 Jul-Aug)
      46.^Ye JF, Zhu H, Zhou ZF, Xiong RB, Wang XW, Su LX, Luo BDProtective mechanism of andrographolide against carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in miceBiol Pharm Bull.(2011)
      48.^Guan S, Tee W, Ng D, Chan T, Peh H, Ho W, Cheng C, Mak J, Wong WAndrographolide protects against cigarette smoke-induced oxidative lung injury via augmentation of Nrf2 activityBr J Pharmacol.(2012 Nov 12)
      49.^Aboumarzouk OM, Kata SG, Keeley FX, McClinton S, Nabi GExtracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) versus ureteroscopic management for ureteric calculiCochrane Database Syst Rev.(2012 May 16)
      50.^Muangman V, Viseshsindh V, Ratana-Olarn K, Buadilok SThe usage of Andrographis paniculata following Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL)J Med Assoc Thai.(1995 Jun)
      54.^Sandborn WJ, Targan SR, Byers VS, Rutty DA, Mu H, Zhang X, Tang TAndrographis paniculata Extract (HMPL-004) for Active Ulcerative ColitisAm J Gastroenterol.(2013 Jan)
      55.^Chan KL, Low BS, Teh CH, Das PKThe effect of Eurycoma longifolia on sperm quality of male ratsNat Prod Commun.(2009 Oct)
      56.^Akbarsha MA, Manivannan B, Hamid KS, Vijayan BAntifertility effect of Andrographis paniculata (Nees) in male albino ratIndian J Exp Biol.(1990 May)
      59.^Rajagopal S, Kumar RA, Deevi DS, Satyanarayana C, Rajagopalan RAndrographolide, a potential cancer therapeutic agent isolated from Andrographis paniculataJ Exp Ther Oncol.(2003 May-Jun)
      65.^Shi MD, Lin HH, Lee YC, Chao JK, Lin RA, Chen JHInhibition of cell-cycle progression in human colorectal carcinoma Lovo cells by andrographolideChem Biol Interact.(2008 Aug 11)
      66.^Geethangili M, Rao YK, Fang SH, Tzeng YMCytotoxic constituents from Andrographis paniculata induce cell cycle arrest in jurkat cellsPhytother Res.(2008 Oct)
      68.^Nevins JR, Leone G, DeGregori J, Jakoi LRole of the Rb/E2F pathway in cell growth controlJ Cell Physiol.(1997 Nov)
      71.^Sukardiman H, Widyawaruyanti A, Sismindari, Zaini NCApoptosis inducing effect of andrographolide on TD-47 human breast cancer cell lineAfr J Tradit Complement Altern Med.(2007 Feb 16)
      72.^Kumar S, Patil HS, Sharma P, Kumar D, Dasari S, Puranik VG, Thulasiram HV, Kundu GCAndrographolide inhibits osteopontin expression and breast tumor growth through down regulation of PI3 kinase/Akt signaling pathwayCurr Mol Med.(2012 Sep)
      76.^Matsuda T, Kuroyanagi M, Sugiyama S, Umehara K, Ueno A, Nishi KCell differentiation-inducing diterpenes from Andrographis paniculata NeesChem Pharm Bull (Tokyo).(1994 Jun)