Summary of Coconut Oil
Primary Information, Benefits, Effects, and Important Facts
Coconut oil is an oil product derived from Cocos nucifera, commonly known as the coconut.
Coconut oil is used frequently in cosmetics as a topically-applied moisturizer. The effects of coconut oil on skin and hair after ingestion have not been studied.
The majority of coconut oil (65%) is made up of medium-chain triglycerides(MCTs), which are triglycerides and fatty acids with a carbon length chain of 6 – 12. Studies suggest replacing calories with MCTs without exceeding daily caloric requirements can result in a small, but significant, increase in the rate of fat loss over time. This effect appears to be slightly more powerful in overweight people.
Coconut oil may also temporarily increase metabolic rate and the speed at which fats are broken down to release fatty acids, a process known as lipolysis. This effect occurs when coconut oil is first added to the diet and disappears after two weeks. Coconut oil also creates more ketone bodies than longer chain fatty acids when it is broken down. One study has provided evidence that this mechanism is what causes coconut oil to provide obese people with a muscle preserving effect during caloric restriction. This effect has not been replicated in lean people.
Adding coconut oil to a diet is unlikely to cause noticeable fat loss effects, but it can replace other dietary fatty acids in order to fine-tune a diet plan.
Learn which supplements work (and which don’t) to achieve your health goals
Enter your email to get our free mini-course on supplements.
100% backed by science, we take an independent and unbiased approach to figure out what works (and what's a waste of time and money). Arm yourself with the knowledge needed to make the right choices to improve your health.
Things To Know & Note
Also Known As
Cocos nucifera, Coconut, Medium Chain Triglycerides (partially synonymous but commonly touted as such)
Goes Well With
Vitamin E (enhanced topical absorption when using medium chain triglycerides as base)
Caution NoticeExamine.com Medical Disclaimer
Although single-use heating of coconut oil appears to be free of harm (use as a home cooking oil) multiple heating (deep frying) may be associated with production of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, a carcinogenic compound, which is common to all tested fatty acids
How to Take Coconut Oil
Recommended dosage, active amounts, other details
Coconut oil is most effective when about 5- 10g of medium chain triglycerides are included in the diet. This is approximately 7.7 – 15g of coconut oil.
Coconut oil can be used in cooking, as long as cooking is done below the smoke point of the oil (350°F/175°C).
Replacing other dietary fatty acids with coconut oil may negate any potential fat loss effects if the caloric content of coconut oil is greater than the previously consumed fatty acids.
Human Effect Matrix
The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (it excludes animal and in vitro studies) to tell you what effects coconut oil has on your body, and how strong these effects are.
|Grade||Level of Evidence [show legend]|
|Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials|
|Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled|
|Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies|
|Uncontrolled or observational studies only|
Level of Evidence
? The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results.
Magnitude of effect
? The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Consistency of research results
? Scientific research does not always agree. HIGH or VERY HIGH means that most of the scientific research agrees.
|Notable||- See study|
|Notable||Very High See 2 studies|
|Minor||- See study|
|-||- See study|
|-||- See study|
Scientific Research on Coconut Oil
Click on any below to expand the corresponding section. Click on to collapse it.
Coconut oil is a term used to refer to the oil derived from coconuts (Cocos nucifera of the family Arecaceae) that is commonly used as cooking oil, for its fatty acid content and related health properties, or in cosmetics for the functional properties and/or aroma of coconut; usage in noncosmetic products for the functional properties of coconut oil extends to soaps, edible fats, chocolate, candies, candles, and night lights.
Coconut oil is derived from the copra of the coconut (the dried meat of the coconut) which is 60-70% fatty acids, 4-10% water, and has a protein and carbohydrate content (protein of less than 10% and non-sugar carbohydrate less than 20%); with the fatty acids being extracted via refinement followed by bleaching and deodorizing to produce RBD coconut oil with no aroma nor taste; skipping these processes and merely using bulk fatty acids results in virgin coconut oil (this form being commonly used in food preparation). For cosmetic purposes, RBD coconut oil may subsequently be hydrogenated for the physicochemical properties such as an increased melting point.
Coconut oil has a history of usage in Indian medicine and may qualify as Ayurveda, with the tree bearing coconuts (coconut palm) refered to as Kalpavriksha (giving-all tree) and medicinal usage of coconut oil being for the purposes of treating hair loss, burns and heart problems while other traditional usage extends to treating intestinal worms and having antiblenorrhagic, antibronchitis, febrifugal, and antigingivitic properties.
Coconut oil is the fatty acid component from coconuts, which has historically been used for cosmetic and anti-microbial properties in addition to merely being a food product
Coconut oil fatty acids are:
Note: Fatty acid designations follow a schematic of the number of carbons in the side chain followed by the number of double bonds; a 14:2 designation is a 14 carbon chain with two double bonds. Any fatty acid with an x:0 designation without double bonds is a saturated fatty acid, and anything with a carbon chain between 6 and 12 is designation a medium chain triglyceride (MCT)
Caprylic acid at 8%
Capric acid at 7%
Lauric acid (49%) a 12 carbon saturated fatty acid (SFA) with the designation 12:0
With components in coconut oils but not fatty acids being:
Of the above fatty acids, 90% appear to be designated as saturated fats with monounsaturated comprising 7% (mostly oleic) and the rest coming from linoleic acid and and trace alpha-linolenic acid. Of these fatty acids, approximately 65% are designated as medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs). However, lauric acid has a higher propensity to be absorbed via the lymphatic system than other MCTs and be treated as a long-chain saturated fatty acid. Coconut oil does not result in the same blood ketone response observed with other medium-chain triglycerides.
The triglycerides (three fatty acids bound to a glycerol backbone; standard storage form for fatty acids) tend to mostly be trimyristin, trilaurin, tripalmitin, and tristearin Triglycerides from coconut oil can be altered with mixing of the oil with other oils, a process known as interesterification.
The fatty acid component of coconut oil appears to be up to 90% saturated fats mostly from medium chain fatty acids (65% of total fatty acids or so being those with medium length chains)
A study assessing fatty acid length in relationship to hunger in otherwise healthy lean men has failed to note any differences between short chain fatty acid (dairy fat), medium chain fatty acids (coconut oil), and long chain fatty acids (beef tallow) when calories are held constant at a test meal.
Currently not enough evidence to support an appetite suppressing effect relative to other fat sources (fatty acids do have some satiating properties inherently, coconut oil may not be more suppressive than others)
In an acetic-acid, formalin, and hot plate pain tests coconut oil (either fermented or regular) exert dose-dependent pain-reducing effects.
A study using coconut as a placebo to test the effects of fish oil noted that 1,200mg of coconut oil daily for 4 weeks was involved with improvements in the Trail Making Test relative to fish oil in otherwise healthy adults.
In a position statement from ALSUntangled (expert panel) noted that it is possible coconut oil could impair mitochondrial complex I, as this is observed in vitro following incubation with ketone bodies produced from medium chain triglycerides and impairment of complex I is common to some neurodegenerative diseases such as ALS; the authors noted that simply being a provision of calories could also be a possible mechanism as lipid metabolism is linked to ALS pathology. ALSUntangled failed to find any direct evidence between coconut oil and ALS pathology in existence (2012 study), and found some weak rodent evidence that suggests a protective effect of high fat or ketogenic diets on ALS pathology.
There is currently insufficient evidence to support the role of Coconut Oil in treatment or prevention of ALS
A recent meta-analysis (of prospective epidemiological studies) investigating the role of saturated fatty acids per se failed to find evidence to support any link between saturated fatty acids and serum cholsterol. This may be due to heterogeneity between SFAs, as lauric acid (up to half of coconut oil by caloric weight) as well as myristic acid are said to increase HDL and lower LDL (short reviews and position statements) and coconut oil has been associated with increased HDL-C in survey research, with with no association to lower LDL-C. When coconut oil is associated with increased LDL-C, it may be due to the myristic and caprylic acid content.
In assessing studies measuring LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) and HDL-C, adding 30mL (270kcal) of coconut oil in addition to a standardized hypocaloric diet (and compared to a control of soy bean oil) noted an 8.2% increase in HDL relative to control and improvements in the LDL:HDL ratio, but the soybean oil control experienced increases in total cholsterol and LDL relative to baseline in these overweight women. In high fat (38%) diets differing only by their fatty acid composition, coconut oil was associated with an increase in HDL-C by 17.3%, increased LDL (2.5%) and decreased vLDL (14%) relative to the control group of a monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid mixture. Lauric acid rich foods have also noted reduced total cholesterol relative to transfats, and increases cholesterol more in general relative to both oleic and palmitic (due to both LDL-C and HDL-C) as well as beef tallow or safflower oils.
In contrast, one study (20% of total calories from the test oil, additional 10% from the diet) noted that soy oil reduced cholesterol to a greater degree than coconut oil (the latter increasing LDL-C) with no influence on HDL-C in either group; the addition of psyllium reduced cholesterol independent of fatty acid composition.
Coconut oil is said to improve the LDL:HDL ratio and beneficially influence cardiovascular health, and the limited evidence in existence right now supports this idea somewhat. HDL-C appears to be increased following coconut oil inclusion in the diet as does LDL-C, with the increase in HDL-C being more than LDL-C for some studies. As is the nature of dietary studies and not being able to be compared against placebo (instead being compared against another fatty acid) the evidence is not as reliable as some other interventions for cholesterol
One study in humans comparing coconut oil (40% of calories being fat, from which 80% of that is coconut oil) against long chain fatty acid control (beef tallow at the same amount) noted that after fourteen days there was an increase in metabolic rate assocaited with coconut oil by 4.3% which was detected 7 days after ingestion, but not 14; this has been noted elsewhere in otherwise healthy young women where the increase in metabolic rate detected on day 7 failed to be present subsequently on day 14.
Is associated with an increased metabolic rate, but these effects are short lived (not being present at 2 weeks) and are unlikely to contribute to long term fat loss
This section notes studies on coconut oil per se (65% medium chain triglycerides, or MCTs) and supplemental MCTs themselves. In areas where long chain triglycerides are used as an active control, the acronym LCT is used
The increase in long chain fatty acid oxidation in obese persons has also been seen alongside an increase in fat oxidation in overweight persons (BMI 25-33) that may be independent of weight loss over 6 weeks (40% of diet as fat, 75% thereof being test oil) when medium chain triglycerides are compared to the control of olive oil.
In women with abdominal obesity given either 30mL of coconut oil or 30mL of the control oil (soybean, both at 270kcal) for 12 weeks paired with a hypocaloric carbohydrate-rich diet and a walking regimen noted that while both groups experienced a similar reduction in weight and BMI only the coconut oil group reduced waist circumference (1.4cm). A reduction in waist circumference has been noted elsewhere with 1.7g daily in persons with an average BMI of 24.6-24.7 for 12 weeks to exceed control oil, although this study noted weight loss in both groups (MCT usage being associated with more weight loss and waist circumference loss).
10g of MCTs, relative to 10g long chain fatty acids (both paired with a 2,200kcal intake and 60g fatty acids), MCTs were associated with more fat loss after 12 weeks (3.86+/-0.3kg) than LCTs (2.75+/-0.2kg) only in persons with a BMI greater than 23, whereas there was no significant difference with persons with a lower BMI. This may be related to the aforementioned impairment in long chain fatty acid oxidation noted in obese persons that may be alleviated with medium chain triglycerides.
One study using a test bread (14g fatty acids of which 1.7g were MCTs) daily for 12 weeks noted that the body weight reduction in the MCT group was greater (6.1+/-0.5%) than the LCT group (4.5+/-0.5%) and a study in type II diabetics which noted improvements in HbA1c with consumption of 18g MCTs also noted a 2.6% weight loss over 90 days (132 to 128.6lbs average) where the control of LCTs was inactive.
There appears to be a fat reducing effect of coconut oil and MCTs that exceeds other oils used, which is more readily apparent in obese persons than lean persons. The magnitude of this effect is not astounding (with some studies not noting a weight reducing effect)
One study using in vivo inflammation tests in rats noted that while coconut oil ingestion exerted anti-inflammatory effects in an acute inflammation model (carrageenan-induced paw edema) it failed to have any significant effect chronically (cotton-pellet-induced granuloma test).
A rat study assessing IL-6 release from adipocytes (basal or epinephrine stimulated) comparing coconut oil against both sunflower oil and olive oil noted that ingestion of coconut oil and olive oil were not associated with an epinephrine-induced increase in IL-6 (although coconut oil was consistenly higher than olive oil) while sunflower oil was low initially and increased IL-6 secretion in response to epinephrine. These localized anti-inflammatory effects may be related to the one human study noting a reduction in waist circumference independent of overall weight changes with coconut oil, as weight circumference is related to low-grade chronic inflammation.
A human study assessing serum IL-8 after a test meal noted that while fish oil and linseed had differential effects, that cakes enriched with coconut oil had no significant effect.
Ingestion of coconut oil, relative to other dietary fatty acids, may be associated with anti-inflammatory effects although they do not appear to be of remarkable magnitude
Decoction obtained from coconut tree roots appear to have traditional usage as mouthwash or gargle, which may be related to the low toxicity in general and potential anti-infective properties secondary to lauric acid. Coconut (husk fiber) has demonstrated anti-bacterial properties against various strains of oral bacteria which may be related to the glycolipid sucrose monolaurate, which has been noted to reduce oxidative of Streptococcus mutans at 0.05% and reduced dental plaque in vitro and has shown these properties in a human study (although to a lesser degree of efficacy) using coconut soap on dentures, where there were protective effects against denture stomatitis.
The husk fiber of coconut appears to have anti-bacterial effects in the oral cavity; the oil component may (demonstrated elsewhere) although usage in the oral cavity is not common which may be related to the fiber being chewed and oil ingested
In response to paracetamol-induced liver injury, 10mL/kg of coconut oil was able to outright reverse the increase in liver weight induced by paracetemol (the reference drug, Silymarin from milk thistle at 100mg/kg, was also effective) while 1-5mL/kg were wholly ineffective; similar changes were noted in serum liver enzymes and histopathological analysis of the liver. This may be independent of anti-oxidant induction, as dietary ingestion of 15% coconut oil in rats for 8 weeks has failed to show such an antioxidative effect.
Relative to other oils (copra, olive, and sunflower), coconut oil appears to downregulate hepatic lipogenesis in rats after 45 days of 8% dietary inclusion which coincided with reduced activity of HMG-CoA and more activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL). This decrease in LPL has been noted with coconut water (although the reduction in HMG-CoA was absent) whereas the water portion appears to be associated with increased HMG-CoA reductase activity but increased bile acid efflux, resulting in a net hypocholesterolemic effect and in fat-fed rats 40mL/kg bodyweight is comparable to 0.1mg/kg lovastatin for cholesterol reduction.
The oil may have protective effects at higher doses (preliminary evidence) while in rats some benefitical effects on lipid synthesis and degradation (less synthesis, more degradation) are noted with chronic ingestion of both coconut oil and water
Coconut oil appears to be a traditionally applied hair remedy in India alongside amla oil and mustard oil.
It is known to penetrate hair follicles when directly applied and appears to be more protective of physical damage (from combing techniques in vitro) relative to both mineral oil and sunflower oil as assessed by protein losses and when applied directly to hairs; these protective effects were noted on normal and bleached by not boiled hair follicles and was more protective when applied prior to the stressor rather than after and have been confirmed in humans as assessed by the hair breakage index (HBI) where coconut oil for 16 weeks was associated with less physical hair damage.
Studies that are conducted on isolated hair follicles or strands note increased moisture resorption with coconut oil relative to mineral oil secondary to reducing moisture loss which may be related to an oil coating of the hair.
In usage of coconut oil as a shampoo, it does not appear to have any ocular irritant properties (in case shampoo reaches the eye).
Coconut oil appears to have direct protective and moisture preserving effects on hair when applied, and may have a role in shampoos (if the physical properties, stickiness and solidifying at room temperature, are considered)
A topical irritation assessment noted that, of 480 persons with active skin diseases, only 5 persons (0.9%) appeared to have a response to coconut oil (15µL of a 5% potassium cocoate solution applied via patch) and in 12 persons known to have an allergic response to cocamidopropyl betaine a 100% solution of coconut oil failed to exert an allergic reaction. This lack of effect has been noted in animal studies, and elsewhere in humans where both isolated lauric acid and coconut oil were not associated with significant allerginity in persons confirmed to be allergic to coamidopropyl betaine.
There appears to be low allergenicity and immune reactivity of coconut oil and its components when topically applied to the skin, suggesting it can be useful for those with sensitive or reactive skin
In persons with xerosis (dry and itchy skin) which is normally treated with moisturizers, coconut oil applied topically was as effective as the active control of mineral oil in reducing symptoms of skin dryness. This moisturizing effects has been noted in adults with atopic dermatitis to a potency greater than that of olive oil (control group for blinding purposes) with reductions in the objective-SCORAD severity index (46.8% reduction from baseline) after 5mL oil application to infected areas twice daily; for those adults that were positive for Staphylococcus aureus infection (readily colonizes atopic dermatitis) only 1 out of 20 remained positive after coconut oil application for 4 weeks.
Coconut oil appears to have moisturizing properties on skin and may also have these effects in atopic dermatitis, where it may also have additive anti-bacterial effects
One study in rats using coconut oil topical application of a wound (first dose 24 hours after the wound, applied to 10 days once a day) noted that coconut oil was assocaited with improved healing rates relative to control.
Glycerol monolaurate (one lauric acid fatty acid bound to glycerol), sometimes referred to as Lauricidin, is as effetive as a 70% isopropyl alcohol mixture (when lauricidin itself is at 1.5%) in eradicating the bacteria Serratia marcescens when applied to the hands. Staphylococcus aureus in atopic dermatitis has also been reduced with coconut oil applied topically,
Coconut oil, as a component of hand wash, can exert anti-microbial properties which is thought to be related to the monolaurate content
In neonates given an oil massage with either coconut oil or mineral oil (with another control group) four times daily starting on the second day of life (massage given by trained professional) and continued until a month of life (continued up until this point by mother), the coconut oil group appeared to be associated with increased infant weight and length gain relative to the controls. Neurobehavioural outcomes were unaffected by either coconut oil or mineral oil.
Massages of coconut oil to the newborn appear to have preliminary evidence to suggest improved weight gain
Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) is a fatty acid touted to reduce fat mass, but seems highly unreliable at doing so.
CLA-induced fat loss in mice is augmented when paired with coconut oil relative to being paired with soybean oil and also in mice fed fat-free diets, one other study has noted that pairing CLA with coconut oil trended to outperform coconut oil alone but this was insignificant; in isolated fat cells measuring biomarkers of lipolysis, they appear to be synergistic.
Appears to be synergistic in regards to anti-obesity effects with CLA, but due to the lack of human evidence for the combination and the known species differences with CLA these results should be taken with caution
A study using topical vitamin E (succinate) noted that, with using a coconut oil product (Myritol 318; the medium chain triglycerides of coconut oil) as a base, that absorption was enhanced by approximately 50% relative to other oils tested; 61.2% of vitamin E reached solubility with Myritol 318, which was higher than walnut (43.4%), olive (42.6%), sesame (40.1%), soy (39.6%), sunflower (39.4%), safflower (36%), and canola (24%) and these trends followed for circulating levels of free tocopherol following topical administration in mice. This has been noted with another branded formulation of coconut oil MCTs (Henkel) suggesting that the MCTs per se influence absorption rather than branded products.
Medium chain triglycerides in coconut oil may enhance vitamin E topical absorption relative to other fatty acids, coconut oil has a naturally occurring Vitamin E content
Coconut oil appears to be a heavily used cosmetic ingredient, and as of 2007 the FDA reports it is contained within 626 products for a total of 142 total uses
A 1986 safety assessment noted that coconut oil was free from any reported skin irritation, sensitization, toxicity, and very minimal associations with products containing coconut oil and allergic breakouts; safety of coconut oil up to 50% concentration in cosmetics was seen as very safe. This report was expanded upon by expert panel reviewing coconut oil fatty acids and other conjugates thereof that may be found in cosmetics (Glycerol cocoate, Lanolin acid and alcohol, Butylene glycol, etc.) and in reviewing other safety data reaffirmed the safety of cosmetic usage of coconut oil.
Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a known carcinogen associated with highly smoked meats, appears to be present in concernable quantities following repeated but not single heating of coconut oil; ingestion of this repeatedly heated coconut oil to rats is associated with decreases in hepatic weight. This is not necessarily unique to coconut oil, as it has been noted with repeatedly heated sunflower oil and adverse effects (artherosclerotic) have been noted with repeatedly heated soy oil and palm oil.
Repeatedly heating oils (deep frying without changing the oil source, seen in commercial institutes) appears to be associated with adverse health effects, possible due to increased lipid peroxidation. Coconut oil may be more resistant to these effects (some antioxidant components, but mostly due to being saturated fatty acids) but does not appear to be free of the concern associated with repeated heating
- DebMandal M, Mandal S. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.: Arecaceae): in health promotion and disease prevention. Asian Pac J Trop Med. (2011)
- Burnett CL, et al. Final report on the safety assessment of Cocos nucifera (coconut) oil and related ingredients. Int J Toxicol. (2011)
- Assunção ML, et al. Effects of dietary coconut oil on the biochemical and anthropometric profiles of women presenting abdominal obesity. Lipids. (2009)
- Loki AL, Rajamohan T. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect of tender coconut water on carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury in rats. Indian J Biochem Biophys. (2003)
- Misra A, Singhal N, Khurana L. Obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes in developing countries: role of dietary fats and oils. J Am Coll Nutr. (2010)
- Sigalet DL, Martin G. Lymphatic absorption of glucose and fatty acids as determined by direct measurement. J Pediatr Surg. (1999)
- Vandenberghe C, et al. Tricaprylin alone increases plasma ketone response more than coconut oil or other medium chain triglycerides: an acute crossover study in healthy adults. Curr Dev Nutr. (2017)
- Soares FA, et al. Chemical interesterification of blends of palm stearin, coconut oil, and canola oil: physicochemical properties. J Agric Food Chem. (2012)
- Reena MB, Lokesh BR. Hypolipidemic effect of oils with balanced amounts of fatty acids obtained by blending and interesterification of coconut oil with rice bran oil or sesame oil. J Agric Food Chem. (2007)
- Poppitt SD, et al. Fatty acid chain length, postprandial satiety and food intake in lean men. Physiol Behav. (2010)
- Zakaria ZA, et al. In vivo antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of dried and fermented processed virgin coconut oil. Med Princ Pract. (2011)
- Trail Making Test (TMT).
- Karr JE, Grindstaff TR, Alexander JE. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cognition in a college-aged population. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. (2012)
- ALSUntangled Group. ALSUntangled 15: coconut Oil. Amyotroph Lateral Scler. (2012)
- Tieu K, et al. D-beta-hydroxybutyrate rescues mitochondrial respiration and mitigates features of Parkinson disease. J Clin Invest. (2003)
- Swerdlow RH, et al. Mitochondria in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Exp Neurol. (1998)
- Martin LJ. Mitochondrial pathobiology in ALS. J Bioenerg Biomembr. (2011)
- Dorst J, et al. Patients with elevated triglyceride and cholesterol serum levels have a prolonged survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J Neurol. (2011)
- Dupuis L, et al. Evidence for defective energy homeostasis in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: benefit of a high-energy diet in a transgenic mouse model. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. (2004)
- Zhao Z, et al. A ketogenic diet as a potential novel therapeutic intervention in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. BMC Neurosci. (2006)
- Siri-Tarino PW, et al. Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr. (2010)
- Kris-Etherton PM, et al. Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: dietary fatty acids. J Am Diet Assoc. (2007)
- Cunningham E. Is there science to support claims for coconut oil. J Am Diet Assoc. (2011)
- Feranil AB, et al. Coconut oil is associated with a beneficial lipid profile in pre-menopausal women in the Philippines. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. (2011)
- Tsai YH, et al. Mechanisms mediating lipoprotein responses to diets with medium-chain triglyceride and lauric acid. Lipids. (1999)
- Müller H, et al. The serum LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio is influenced more favorably by exchanging saturated with unsaturated fat than by reducing saturated fat in the diet of women. J Nutr. (2003)
- de Roos N, Schouten E, Katan M. Consumption of a solid fat rich in lauric acid results in a more favorable serum lipid profile in healthy men and women than consumption of a solid fat rich in trans-fatty acids. J Nutr. (2001)
- Temme EH, Mensink RP, Hornstra G. Comparison of the effects of diets enriched in lauric, palmitic, or oleic acids on serum lipids and lipoproteins in healthy women and men. Am J Clin Nutr. (1996)
- Reiser R, et al. Plasma lipid and lipoprotein response of humans to beef fat, coconut oil and safflower oil. Am J Clin Nutr. (1985)
- Ganji V, Kies CV. Psyllium husk fiber supplementation to the diets rich in soybean or coconut oil: hypocholesterolemic effect in healthy humans. Int J Food Sci Nutr. (1996)
- White MD, Papamandjaris AA, Jones PJ. Enhanced postprandial energy expenditure with medium-chain fatty acid feeding is attenuated after 14 d in premenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. (1999)
- Papamandjaris AA, White MD, Jones PJ. Components of total energy expenditure in healthy young women are not affected after 14 days of feeding with medium-versus long-chain triglycerides. Obes Res. (1999)
- Papamandjaris AA, et al. Endogenous fat oxidation during medium chain versus long chain triglyceride feeding in healthy women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. (2000)
- Roynette CE, et al. Structured medium and long chain triglycerides show short-term increases in fat oxidation, but no changes in adiposity in men. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. (2008)
- Kasai M, et al. Effect of dietary medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols (MLCT) on accumulation of body fat in healthy humans. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. (2003)
- Tsuji H, et al. Dietary medium-chain triacylglycerols suppress accumulation of body fat in a double-blind, controlled trial in healthy men and women. J Nutr. (2001)
- Binnert C, et al. Influence of human obesity on the metabolic fate of dietary long- and medium-chain triacylglycerols. Am J Clin Nutr. (1998)
- Han JR, et al. Effects of dietary medium-chain triglyceride on weight loss and insulin sensitivity in a group of moderately overweight free-living type 2 diabetic Chinese subjects. Metabolism. (2007)
- García-Escobar E, et al. Nutritional regulation of interleukin-6 release from adipocytes. Int J Obes (Lond). (2010)
- Steene-Johannessen J, et al. Waist circumference is related to low-grade inflammation in youth. Int J Pediatr Obes. (2010)
- Ackermann D, et al. Waist circumference is positively correlated with markers of inflammation and negatively with adiponectin in women with metabolic syndrome. Nutr Res. (2011)
- Myhrstad MC, et al. Effect of the fat composition of a single high-fat meal on inflammatory markers in healthy young women. Br J Nutr. (2011)
- Antimicrobial Effect of Coconut Flour on Oral Microflora: An in vitro Study.
- Alviano WS, et al. In vitro antioxidant potential of medicinal plant extracts and their activities against oral bacteria based on Brazilian folk medicine. Arch Oral Biol. (2008)
- Barnabé W, et al. Efficacy of sodium hypochlorite and coconut soap used as disinfecting agents in the reduction of denture stomatitis, Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans. J Oral Rehabil. (2004)
- Zakaria ZA, et al. Hepatoprotective activity of dried- and fermented-processed virgin coconut oil. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. (2011)
- Dauqan E, et al. Effect of four different vegetable oils (red palm olein, palm olein, corn oil, coconut oil) on antioxidant enzymes activity of rat liver. Pak J Biol Sci. (2011)
- Arunima S, Rajamohan T. Virgin coconut oil improves hepatic lipid metabolism in rats--compared with copra oil, olive oil and sunflower oil. Indian J Exp Biol. (2012)
- Sandhya VG, Rajamohan T. Beneficial effects of coconut water feeding on lipid metabolism in cholesterol-fed rats. J Med Food. (2006)
- Sandhya VG, Rajamohan T. Comparative evaluation of the hypolipidemic effects of coconut water and lovastatin in rats fed fat-cholesterol enriched diet. Food Chem Toxicol. (2008)
- Garg AP, Müller J. Inhibition of growth of dermatophytes by Indian hair oils. Mycoses. (1992)
- Gode V, et al. Quantitative measurement of the penetration of coconut oil into human hair using radiolabeled coconut oil. J Cosmet Sci. (2012)
- Ruetsch SB, et al. Secondary ion mass spectrometric investigation of penetration of coconut and mineral oils into human hair fibers: relevance to hair damage. J Cosmet Sci. (2001)
- Keis K, et al. Investigation of penetration abilities of various oils into human hair fibers. J Cosmet Sci. (2005)
- Rele AS, Mohile RB. Effect of mineral oil, sunflower oil, and coconut oil on prevention of hair damage. J Cosmet Sci. (2003)
- Mhaskar S, et al. Hair breakage index: an alternative tool for damage assessment of human hair. J Cosmet Sci. (2011)
- Keis K, Huemmer CL, Kamath YK. Effect of oil films on moisture vapor absorption on human hair. J Cosmet Sci. (2007)
- Alviano DS, et al. Antinociceptive and free radical scavenging activities of Cocos nucifera L. (Palmae) husk fiber aqueous extract. J Ethnopharmacol. (2004)
- Santucci B, et al. Cutaneous response to irritants. Contact Dermatitis. (2003)
- Shaffer KK, et al. Allergenicity and cross-reactivity of coconut oil derivatives: A double-blind randomized controlled pilot study. Dermatitis. (2006)
- Agero AL, Verallo-Rowell VM. A randomized double-blind controlled trial comparing extra virgin coconut oil with mineral oil as a moisturizer for mild to moderate xerosis. Dermatitis. (2004)
- Verallo-Rowell VM, Dillague KM, Syah-Tjundawan BS. Novel antibacterial and emollient effects of coconut and virgin olive oils in adult atopic dermatitis. Dermatitis. (2008)
- Nevin KG, Rajamohan T. Effect of topical application of virgin coconut oil on skin components and antioxidant status during dermal wound healing in young rats. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. (2010)
- Testing of Lauricidin Versus Isopropyl Alcohol for Antisepsis of Cutaneous Hand Microbes to Prevent Infection.
- Darmstadt GL, et al. Impact of topical oils on the skin barrier: possible implications for neonatal health in developing countries. Acta Paediatr. (2002)
- Sankaranarayanan K, et al. Oil massage in neonates: an open randomized controlled study of coconut versus mineral oil. Indian Pediatr. (2005)
- Hargrave KM, et al. Influence of dietary conjugated linoleic Acid and fat source on body fat and apoptosis in mice. Obes Res. (2004)
- Hargrave KM, Azain MJ, Miner JL. Dietary coconut oil increases conjugated linoleic acid-induced body fat loss in mice independent of essential fatty acid deficiency. Biochim Biophys Acta. (2005)
- Ippagunta S, et al. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid induces lipolysis in adipose tissue of coconut oil-fed mice but not soy oil-fed mice. Lipids. (2011)
- Trevithick JR, Mitton KP. Uptake of vitamin E succinate by the skin, conversion to free vitamin E, and transport to internal organs. Biochem Mol Biol Int. (1999)
- Trevithick JR, Mitton KP. Topical application and uptake of vitamin E acetate by the skin and conversion to free vitamin E. Biochem Mol Biol Int. (1993)
- Final Report on the Safety Assessment of Coconut Oil, Coconut Acid, Hydrogenated Coconut Acid, and Hydrogenated Coconut Oil.
- FINAL REPORT OF THE SAFETY ASSESSEMENT FOR ACETYLATED LANOLIN ALCOHOL AND RELATED COMPOUNDS.
- [No authors listed. Annual review of cosmetic ingredient safety assessments-2004/2005. Int J Toxicol. (2006)
- Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel. Annual Review of Cosmetic Ingredient Safety Assessments--2002/2003. Int J Toxicol. (2005)
- Johnson W Jr; Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel. Final report on the safety assessment of PEG-25 propylene glycol stearate, PEG-75 propylene glycol stearate, PEG-120 propylene glycol stearate, PEG-10 propylene glycol, PEG-8 propylene glycol cocoate, and PEG-55 propylene glycol oleate. Int J Toxicol. (2001)
- Srivastava S, et al. Genotoxic and carcinogenic risks associated with the dietary consumption of repeatedly heated coconut oil. Br J Nutr. (2010)
- Srivastava S, et al. Genotoxic and Carcinogenic Risks Associated with the Consumption of Repeatedly Boiled Sunflower Oil. J Agric Food Chem. (2010)
- Adam SK, et al. Consumption of repeatedly heated soy oil increases the serum parameters related to atherosclerosis in ovariectomized rats. Tohoku J Exp Med. (2008)
- Adam SK, et al. Effects of repeatedly heated palm oil on serum lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and homocysteine levels in a post-menopausal rat model. Mcgill J Med. (2008)
- Leong XF, et al. Intake of repeatedly heated palm oil causes elevation in blood pressure with impaired vasorelaxation in rats. Tohoku J Exp Med. (2009)